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and country, chiefly through the medium of the Church, which SYNOPSIS OF THE LIFE AND REIGN OF RICHARD II. gradually emancipated a large number of those whom it claimed

Richard II. was the son of the famous Black Prince, and the its villeins,

grandson of Edward III. He was the twelfth King of England In the reign of Edward III., however, another cause operated after the Norman Conquest, and the eighth and last of the to enlarge their ranks. A dreadful disease, known as the Black Plantagenet dynasty. Death, which appears to have originated in China, in which conntry thirteen millions of men, women, and children are said Death of the Black Prince

Born at Bordeaux , Jan, 6, 1367 The King takes the govern

ment into his own hands. to have died, swept across Europe from the East, and coming to Began to reign . . June 22, 1377 Statute of "Præmunire" enEngland, destroyed half the population. Villeins were left with. Wat Tyler resists the poll-tax 1378 out masters, masters without villeins, and death in many cases Insurgents under Wat Tyler Quarrel and subsequent banmade equal the high and low. After the Black Death went march to London June 12, 1381 ishment of Norfolk and away, the number of workmen was found to be much reduced; Wat Tyler slain in Smithfield Bolingbroke, afterwards the price of their labour, therefore, ought to have been much

by the Lord Mayor of Lon. Henry IV.

1398 higher, in accordance with the law of supply and demand, since

don, Sir William Walworth, Boling broke lands at Raventhe demand had increased while the supply had diminished. Death of Wickliffe . Dec. 31, 1384 The King is deposed Sept. 29 1399

June 15, 1381 spur, in Yorkshire In the country, where the ravages of the plague had been Battle of Otterburn (Chevy Murdered in Pontefract or desolating, there was a cry for more wages, and the number of


· · · · Aug. 10, 1388 Pomfret Castle, Feb, 14, 1400 men who were freed by their owners' death from bondage made the number of wages-takers formidable. The men would not

SOVEREIGNS CONTEMPORARY WITH RICHARD II. work without “outrageous and excessive hire," as the employers Denmark, Sovereigns of. Germany, Emperors of. Clement VII. said; so a Parliament, consisting wholly of employers, passed Olaus V. 1376 Charles IV,

(anti-pope), & law, called The Statute of Labourers, by which the wages of Margaret

1387 Wenceslas.

1378 Boniface IX. 1389

“Union of Calmar" agriculturists were fixed at the price they had been before the

Norway, Kings of. Benedict XIII. by which Sweden, Haco VII.

1343 plague. An ox-herd had six shillings and eightpence a year;

(anti-pope). 1394 Norway, and Den- Olaf IV.

1980 a farro bailiff, thirteen shillings and fourpence; and a shepherd,

Scotland, Kings of mark) are united Eric III,

1387 ten shillings a year, and clothing; and no man was to quit

Robert II.

1371 undor Margaret Norway united to

Robert III. 1390 his work without leave, under pain of being put in the stocks. and Eric of Nor- Denmark 1397 An ordinance, made about the year 1370, ordered that saddlers,


1397 Poland, Kings of. Spain, Kings of. ekinners, and tanners should be "chastised for charging ex


1370 Henry II. cessively.”

Eastern Empire. Ladislas V.

1379 1384 John I.

Portugal, Kings of. Thus we find that among the principal causes of the rising of John Palælogus . 1354

Henry III. 1390 the labouring classes in 1382, were the practice of villeinage,

Manuel Palælogus 1391 Ferdinand I. . 1367 Sweden, Kings of.

John I.

1383 Albert of Meckwhich was not yet extinct, the unfair and oppressive regulations

France, Kings of. Rome, Popes of. lenburg . 1363 about wages, the dearness of living, and the demands, barba- Charles v.

1364 Gregory XI. 1370 Sweden united to rously made, and frequently brutally enforced, for taxes out of Charles VI. 1380 Urban VI.

1378 Denmark

1389 the people, notwithstanding. As has been said, the people got little at the moment by

It will be noticed that the word “anti-pope" is added to their rebellion, the disastrous conduct and termination of which the names of two of the Popes of Rome above. The anti-pope left them with the fetters of bondage more firmly riveted on

was a pope chosen by the will of some king, or the intrigues of their necks. A fresh and more stringent Statute of Labourers a party hostile to the reigning pope, who had been elected by was passed, and the poor people in country places suffered on

the College of Cardinals. Urban VI., for instance, had been for many years.

chosen by the cardinals to please the people of Rome, who In towns the workmen were better off—better able to defend wished for an Italian pope, who would reside in the Eternal therselves and the interests of the employers could not there City, and not at Avignon or elsewhere, as some of the popes be advanced without a corresponding advantage to the men.

who preceded him had done. On his election the French and Some Acts of Henry VII. (1485—1509) and Henry VIII. Spanish cardinals retired to Provence, and chose Robert of Geneva (1509–1547), which aimed at fixing the price of skilled labour, to occupy the papal chair. This ecclesiastic assumed the title proved to be abortive, and things remained on the old basis of Clement VII., and as soon as his election was made known till 1563, when a law was passed, which remained unrepealed Christendom was riven asunder, and presented the appearance till 1813, though it must have become inoperative in many of a house divided against itself, France, Spain, Scotland, and places before that date. This was, perhaps, one of the most Savoy declaring for Clement VII., while Italy, Germany, England, exceptionable laws ever put on the statute roll. Justices of

and other parts of Europe acknowledged Urban VI. as the the peace in the country, and the mayor, sheriffs, or other visible head of the Church. As a matter of course, these rivals afthorities in towns, were to meet every year after Easter, and for the enjoyment and management of the temporalities of the taking into consideration the price of living, and of house rent,

“ Vicar of Christ," as the bishops of Rome delight to style the demand and supply for labour, were to fix the wages of all themselves, utterly ignored the "new commandment” of the Forkmen and labourers for the ensuing year. Any one giving meek and gentle Master whom they professed to follow. They more than these wages was to be fined five pounds, and put in solemnly cursed each other by bell, book, and candle, and each prison for ten days; any one taking more was to be imprisoned declared his opponent, and those who supported him, excom. for three weeks. No workman or labourer was to leave his municated. Those who gave the matter thoughtful considerawork without a passport sealed with the town seal, and approved tion soon began to see that the dogma of the infallibility of the by two householders. If he did so he was liable to sconrging, popes must be a mistake, and the quarrels of the angry claimants exposure in the stocks, and imprisonment. The hours of labour for the chair of St. Peter, in the persons of the popes and antiwere fixed, for weekly or daily labourers, at from five a.m. till popes, kindled the spark that smouldered till the sixteenth between seven and eight p.m., between the middle of March century, and then suddenly broke forth into the glorious blaze and the middle of September, two hours and

a half being allowed of the Reformation. for meals and refreshment.

Such was the state of things till 1813, except that there were besides some very objectionable laws, punishing with great

LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-X. beverity all workmen who combined to raise the price of their

FRACTIONS. labour, and to make an open market. These laws were, how. 1. WHEN a number or thing is divided into two equal parts, ever repealed in 1825, since which date the workman has been each of these parts is called one halj; if the number or thing be 2free as the merchant to buy and sell his labour in the best divided into three equal parts, each is called one third ; if it is market, and even to a great extent to make the market. He is divided into four equal parts, each of the parts is called one Dow, politically speaking, the equal of any of his fellow country- fourth, or one quarter; and so universally when a number or Den, and as far removed in every respect from his prototype as thing is divided into any number of equal parts, the parts take he existed in the days of King Richard II. as the freeman is their name from the number of parts into which the thing or from the slave.

number is divided.

4 x 9

=m=* *

3 x 77

81=7 x 13

1. is. 2. y 3. 18.

5. V.

21. 1851


7. 1


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One of these parts, or a collection containing any number of rator takes exactly so many times more of them. Similarly it them, is called a fraction of the original number or thing. follows, that if we divide both the numerator and the denomi

Thus, if a straight line be divided into seven parts, each part nator by the same quantity, the value of the fraction remains is one-seventh of the line, and any number of the parts-as, unaltered. for instance, five of them, i.e., five-sevenths of the whole—is a 7. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. fraction of the whole line.

The numerator and denominator of a fraction are sometimes The number of parts into which the unit or whole is divided called the terms of the fraction. If both the numerator and is called the denominator, because it indicates or denominates denominator of a fraction can be divided by the same number the number of parts into which the whole is divided.

(an operation which we have just seen does not alter its value), The particular number of these parts taken to form any frac- it is said not to be in its lowest terms. A fraction, then, may tion of the whole is called the numerator, because it expresses be defined to be in its lowest terms when the numerator and the number of parts taken.

denominator have no common factors. Hence to reduce a fracThus in the case given above, 7 is the denominator, because tion to its lowest terms, we must first find the greatest common the line is divided into seven parts, and 5 is the numerator of measure of the numerator and denominator, and then divide the fraction.

them both by it. Fractions are expressed by writing the numerator above the

EXAMPLE.—Reduce to its lowest terms. denominator, and drawing a line between them. Thus the above fraction would be written f, one half would be written,

The greatest common measure of 27 and 36 is 9, and thereeight-ninths, y, and so on.

fore dividing numerator and denominator by 9 we get the fracThe word fraction, which means a part or portion broken from 3x9

tion expressed in its lowest terms. It is not any integer or whole, is derived from fractus, broken, a part of

necessary always to find the G. C. M. of the the Latin verb frangere, to break. The word integer is simply

numerator and denominator, but it is often a Latin adjective meaning fresh, entire, or unbroken, which has more convenient in practice to divide the numerator and denobeen adopted into the English language.

minator by numbers which are seen to be factors common to 2. A proper fraction is one whose numerator is less than its both until we arrive at the lowest terms. Thus, denominator, as g, *, .

10 ~ 231

7 x 11

11 An improper fraction is one whose numerator is not less than

10 x 273

3 x 91 its denominator, as , 1, etc.

the fraction in its lowest terms. A mixed number consists of a whole number and a fraction

EXERCISE 22. expressed together; for example, 3 and . This is generally written thus, 3 ; similarly, 43, 74, etc.

1. Reduce the following fractions to their lowest terms :Fractions in which the denominators are 10, or any power

9. i

17. 1818 of 10 (Lesson VI., Art. 5), are called Decimal Fractions, or

10. 1941

18. 31888 Decimals. All other fractions are called Vulgar Fractions.

11. 1111

19. 11. 12. ut

20. *il A compound fraction is a fraction of a fraction, as of }, j of

13. 11. of %; for any fractional part of a unit may be regarded as a new unit. This fractional part may itself be divided into any

6. 11.

22. 1841

15. 3031. number of equal parts, and a certain number of them may be

8. 399.

16. 2018 taken.

24. HUHE A complex, or mixed fraction, is one which has a fraction in 2. In a joint-stock company which was divided into 10,800 its numerator or denominator, or in both ; as, for instance- shares, what part of the whole concern belongs to the individual

3 2

who holds 4,050 shares ?
37' 57

3. A ship is worth £21,600; what fraction of the ship belongs Every whole number may be looked upon as a fraction, of which to him who contributed to this sum no less than £12,960 ? the denominator is unity; thus 5 is 4.

8. To reduce an improper fraction to a whole or mixed number. 3. Fractions, it will readily be seen, are expressions of un

Divide the numerator by the denominator. If there is no executed division, the numerator being the dividend, and the remainder, the quotient will be the equivalent whole number. denominator the divisor. Take, for example, &. We are sup. If there is a remainder, the improper fraction is equivalent to a posed to have one unit or thing to be divided, and dividing it mixed number, of which the quotient is the whole number (or, into 9 equal parts, to take 4 of them. But it will be the same as it is called, the integral part), and the remainder the numething if we take 4 such units, and dividing this collection into rator of the fractional part, which will evidently have the same 9 equal parts, take one of these parts. This gives the same denominator as the original improper fraction. Thus, y) = 3, a fraction of the original unit as before; but, looked at in this whole number ; and = 33. Since 7 sevenths make one whole light, it expresses the quotient which results from dividing the unit, 23 sevenths will make as many whole units as 7 is connumerator by the denominator.

tained in 23, i.e., 3 whole units, and 2 sevenths over. Hence 4. To multiply a fraction by a whole number.

23 = 33. Multiply the numerator by the whole number. For instance, 9. To convert a mixed number into an improper fraction. to multiply by 4. Here the unit is divided into 9 parts, two

Multiply the integral part by the denominator of the fracof which are taken ; four times as many of these parts will give tional part

, to which product add the numerator of the fractional eight parts, or $; therefore 4 x ) = %.

part. This sum will be the numerator, and the denominator of 5. To divide a fraction by a whole number.

the fractional part will be the required denominator. Thus, 7 x 4 + 6

7x4 Either divide the numerator or multiply the denominator by 49 = =*; for 49 = 4 + = the whole number. Thus, : 2 = ; for, the unit being divided into 7 parts, 6 are taken, halving which gives 3 parts, sevenths and 6 sevenths make 34 sevenths, or .

EXERCISE 23. or . Again, 1 = 2 = = In the unit is divided into 7 x 2

1. Reduce the following improper fractions to whole or mis ed 7 parts, 5 of which are taken. In the unit is divided into

numbers :14 parts, 5 of which are taken. But each of these latter 14th

1. 18.
5. 33.

-7. DU. parts is equal to each one of the former 7th parts divided by


| 1
2. 11.
6. *. 8. 1318.

10.4981. 2, and therefore five of the latter will be equal to five of the former divided by 2, or 1 = = 2.

2. Reduce the following mixed numbers to improper fractions 6. From the above reasoning we see that it produces exactly in their lowest terms : the same result whether we divide the numerator or multiply

1. 17
3. 115,5 5. 253. 7. 47251.

9. 6211 1 1

1 the denominator by any number. Hence, if we multiply both

4. 13044. 6. 85635. 8. 525, s.

10. 81;.. numerator and denominator by the same quantity, the value of 3. Reduce 445 to tenths, fourteenths, seventeenths and thirds. the fraction is unaltered. Multiplying the denominator divides 4. Reduce 672 to eighths, twelfths, eighteenths and fourths. the unit into so many more parts, and multiplying the nume- 5. Reduce 3830 to hundredths, fifteenths and thirty-fifths.

of 9


7+ = 7+ , and 28


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2. 484.

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It has been remarked, that while the ears of carnivorous

animals are directed forwards, those of herbivorous animals THE EAR (continued).

are turned backwards ; so that, in the pursuit of the latter Tas external ear of brutes is often so marked a feature in the by the former, the ears of both are so placed as to catch outline of their bodies, it adds so much grace and finish to the the sound from the object whose movements it is of the highest head, its movements give such animation to the gestures, and it importance they should be acquainted with. Perhaps this idea is itself an organ so ornamental, that it is almost superfluous to has been dwelt on too much, yet every one must have noticed remind the reader that its form and foldings are very various how the cat, the fox, and the ferret, carry their ears pricked throughout the class Mammalia. Every one who is alive to forward, while the ears of the deer and hare are, at least, as the beauties of animated nature—and there are few who are readily turned backward as forward. In the case of the hare, dead to their attractions must have looked with delight on the however, the shape and direction of the ear seems to be given ear of the squirrel, with its tassel of soft brown hair. That in relation to the habit it has of crouching in its form. While universal favourite, the rabbit, the dainty little fennec fox, in its form, the long ears stretch along the flanks, with their and even the fallow deer, despite the excelling majesty of its orifices turned outward, and must be very efficient in apprehorns, would all cut but sorry figures without the external ear. hending the sounds which proceed from the feet of man or dog

Among the strangest forms of ears, we may mention that of as they beat the stubble. the African elephant, which makes him look like a warrior The concha, or external ear, is very generally found through. armed with a double shield. So flat and ample are these ears out the whole of the class Mammalia, but in a few it is “conthat Sir Samuel Baker cut a tolerably good mattress out of one spicuous from its absence." Thus, two of our native in. of them. The membraneous and delicate ear of our larger sectivorous mammals, the mole and the shrew, are without it.

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English bat is proportionately as monstrous, but instead of | In the whale and his tribe, it is not only absent, but the very being fiat, its foldings are so decided, that it looks like an ear foramon which leads to the internal ear in this enormous animal within an ear. The long trumpet-shaped ear of ruminants and will scarcely admit a pin. Indeed, this entrance to the car horses, capable of being turned in any direction, is admirably seems to be retained only to establish or strengthen the affinity suited by its shape, and by the fringe of hair which encircles it, between the whale and the land mammalia, for the impressions and partially extends across its orifice, to accomplish the double of sound are probably conveyed to the internal car through the purpose of receiving aerial waves, and excluding any small par. substance of the animal's body, as in the case of fish. The ticles of dust, rain, or hail, which would otherwise get down to the tympanic cavity, however, is kept supplied with air by an sensitive tympanum. This office of protection is, indeed, by no eustachian tube that communicates with the passage which Deane unimportant, as any foreign body on the drum membrane runs to the blow-hole near that orifice; so that when the monster carses exquisite annoyance, and the steadiest horse will become discharges the air from the reservoir of its lungs with so forcible mestive when thus troubled. In the setter and spaniel dogs, the a jet that it carries the sea-water before it like a fountain, the function of protection seems paramount to that of collection of air of the tympanie cavity is, at the same time, partially renewed; sounds, so that the thick matted ear hangs down, when at rest, and when he plunges once more unseen into the depths, this right over the orifice of the ear. In the above cases the ear is cavity is in communication with the air he carries with him. not only an organ of definite utility, but of conspicuous beauty, This arrangement, whereby sound, which has been conveyed and, indeed, it is a fine exemplification of how use and beauty from the exterior through the solid structures of the body, is go hand in hand throughout all God's works. Why stupidity made afterwards to traverse, or to be regenerated in, an internal should, in popular estimation, be especially associated with the air cavity, is not uncommon among the denizens of the water, caps of the ass, is even more inexplicable than why it should be and sometimes it is effected by such singular contrivances, as we considered as the special attribute of that much-abused animal. skall find when we describe the ear of some fish, that we are The fairy Titania, when "enamoured of an ass,” showed a almost justified in supposing that there is some quality in the discriminating appreciation of good points when she kissed the vibrations of an elastic fluid, like the air, which makes it a "fair large ears" of her “gentle joy.”

better medium for transmitting sound to the nerve fit VOL. I



receive such impressions, than those inelastic or solid media in abstract his thoughts from intrusive noises, and directing his which its vibrations are more energetic. This is the more attention, even when most attentive, to the thoughts that singular, because in no case is air or gas the last substance sounds embody rather than to the sounds themselves, is at a through which sound passes to the sentient nerve, only it seems disadvantage when brought into contact with the unthinking desirable that it should be one link in the chain for conveying brute, and he will sometimes pass through scenes teeming with sound. It is difficult to conceive how the message should be life, and think them inanimate solitudes, because he, the object made more distinct by the fact, that air carries it for one postal of dread, has no corresponding acuteness of observation to stage in the central part of its course, yet such seems to be the detect the animals which hide themselves at his approach. Yet,

as we have seen, his organ is as delicate and complicated as any In the case of the whale, the bony sheath of the tympanum is of theirs, and the disadvantage arises rather from neglect than not embedded in the substance of the ear-bone, as in other deficiency, and when the kind of impression comes which strikes animals, but hangs below it, and is shaped like a scroll, or like the mind, the sense is found to be wonderfully wakeful. Many the shell of a volute, or bulla, with a very thick column or inner will remember the thrilling anecdote of the Sootch woman, central part, and a very thin outer lip. By this thin outer who, when besieged at Delhi, expecting with all the Europeans margin of the scroll it is attached to the remainder of the ear- nothing but cruel massacre, for no earthly help seemed availbone, but the attachment is so slight that in the dry skull it is able, started up, and said, “I hear them; they are playing "The easily broken off. In some geological strata this part of the Campbells are coming.'” And those who then thought her mad ear-bone is found commonly, while the other bones of the whale rejoiced with her on the same day, for a regiment of Scottish are rare ; and some attribute this anomaly to the easy severance soldiers had marched to their relief. of the bone, by fracture, from the rest of the skull, just men. tioned. It is supposed that from the huge rotting carcase, distended with gas, and beaten about by the waves, the dense

LESSONS IN GERMAN.—X. tympanic bones may have dropped and been quickly covered by preserving sediment, while the remainder of the animal, drifted SECTION XVIII.-—DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VERBS OF THE

OLD AND NEW CONJUGATIONS. to shore, and being left to the influence of the atmosphere, left no other vestige behind to attest the presence of these VERBS of the Old Conjugation (commonly called irregular verbs) whales in the ancient seas.

differ from those of the New, not only in respect to terminaWe have dwelt thus long on the outer courts of the ear, in tional variations, but also in regard to changes of the radical the animals that give suck to their young, because the variety vowels, as :-Ich komme, I come ; ich fam, I came; ich schreibe, I displayed in these non-essential parts of the ear is not shown in write ; ich strieb, I wrote; ich sehe, I see; ich fah, I saw. (See the parts of the internal or essential ear. All the parts of the $ 77 ; also list of irregular verbs, $ 78. 1.) internal ear, the semi-circular canals, the vestibule, with its oval The form of the past participle, in verbs of the Old Conjugahole, and the cochlea, are always present in all mammals. There tion, frequently differs from that of the infinitive only by the are, however, some slight differences in the proportion of the augment ge, as :-Infinitive, kommen. Past participle, ge fommen. parts; thus the so-called circular staircases which mount the cochlea have three and a half turns, or whirls, in the guinea


Present. pig and porcupine, and only one and a half in the whale, and in Fallen, to fall;

ich falle, I fall. this last it can scarcely be called a staircase at all, as it does Geben, to give ;

id gebe, I give. not mount upward, but only carls inwards on the same plane, Gehen, to go;

ich gehe, I go. like the hollow of the shell of the nautilus, instead of that of the Rommen, to come;

ich fomme, I come. trochus, or top-shell. There is some variation also in the little Sprechen, to speak ;

ich spreche, I speak. chain of bones which spans the drum from the drum membrane Springen, to spring ;

ich springe, I spring. to the oval hole ; thus the hammer and anvil bones are fused Schreiben, to write ;

ich schreibe, I write. together in the pouched animals. These slight differences, Singen, to sing ;

ich finge, I sing. however, do not invalidate the statement that the ears of all Seben, to see ;

ich sehe, I see. mammals are made on the same pattern; and if the reader have the patience to accomplish the by no means easy task of dis


Past Participle. secting out from its bony case the ear of any such animal, while Ich fiel, I fell;

gefallen, fallen. referring to the description of the human ear, given in the first Ich gab, I gave;

gegeben, given. article on the ear, he will be able to identify the several parts, Ich ging, I went;

gegangen, gone. or if he fail to do so, he may search again, for they are all Ich fam, I came ;

gekommen, come. there, though minute and difficult to trace.

Idy sprach, I spoke ;

gesprechen, spoken. The efficiency of the sense of hearing in brutes is a matter of Ich sprang, I sprang ;

gesprungen, sprung. notoriety. Whoever has had the opportunity of watching a Ich schrieb, I wrote;

geschrieben, writtea. herd of wild animals, while unobserved by them, will have been Ich sang, I sang;

gesungen, sung. struck with the vigilance with which each unaccustomed sound Ich fah, I saw ;

geschen, seen. is remarked. The electric start, by which every individual of the community is thrown at once into an attitude of attention and irregular in the second and third persons singular, as :

1. The present tense of somo verbs of the Old Conjugation is preparation for a hasty flight, is a beautiful sight. When we remember how many animals are nocturnal in their habits, how

fallen, to fall.

Oeben, to give. many find their home in dense tangled forests, and also how

Ich falle, I fall.

I gebe, I give. necessary it is that dispersed members of a gregarious tribe, the

Du fällit, thou fallest.

Du gibit, thou givest. sexes of wandering species, the helpless young, and protecting

Er fällt, he falls.

Er gibt, he gives. dams, should be able to find each other, it is not surprising that this sense is made so wonderfully acute. So much is this

Sehen, to see.

Spreden, to speak. sense relied upon for the above-named purposes, that the crafty

Id sche, I see.

Id spreche, I speak. backwoodsman finds no better expedient for alluring shy game

Du siehst, thou seest.

Du sprichst, thou speakest. to within reach of his rifle than by imitating the call of the Er sieht, he sees.

Er spricht. he speaks. species ; yet so discriminating are the wild animals, that the slightest error in the intonation, or even the frequency, of the 2. In the imperfect tense of verbs of the Old Conjugation, as cry, will send them scampering away from the ambush. well as of the New, the second and third persons are regularly

It would seem as though man, who employs this organ so formed from the first person singular in the following manner, generally in the higher uses of the mind and soul, necessarily as :sacrifices to these uses some of the acuteness to mere sound of

Gehen. which the car is capable. The savage starts like the brute when 3d ging, I went;

wir gingen, we went. a sound, such as the European would searcely be aware of, Du gingit, thou wentest; ihr ginget, you went. reaches him from the distant hill; but civilised man, who passes Gr, fie, or es ging, he, she, or it his life amidst the hum of crowded cities, striving rather to






EXERCISE 25. Ich gab, I gave; wir gaben, we gave.

1. Was hat Ihr Herr Bruder ? 2. Er hat neue Kleider und neue Bü. Du gabft, thou gavest;

ihr gabet, you gave.

cher. 3. Warum haben Sie heute meine weißen Santschuhe gehabt? 4. Er gab, he gave ;

sie gaben, they gave. Ich hatte sie gestern ; aber heute habe ich sie nicht gehabt. 5. Wir werden

morgen einen angenehmen Tag haben. 6. Mein Vater wird meinen Brief CONJUGATION OF THE IRREGULAR VERB , haben“ IN THE

vor seiner Abreise gehabt haben. 7. Dieser arme Mann ging vorgestern zu INDICATIVE. Infinitive.


meinem Onkel. 8. Er gab ihm zwei Taschentücher und einen neuen Hut.

9. Sichst tu meinen Bruder oft und sprichst du zuweilen mit ihm ? 10. PRES. haben, to have.

PRES. Habend, having.

Ich sah ihn gestern ; aber ich habe nicht mit ihm gesprochen. 11. Sangen PERF. Gehabt zu haben, to have had.

PERF. Gehabt, had.

Sie heute Morgen, oder sang Ihre Fräulein Tochter ? 12. Ich habe in PRESENT TENSE.

meiner Jugend gesungen; aber jegt singe ich nicht mehr. 13. Haben Sie Singular.


meine neue deutsche Grammatit ? 14. Nein, eben nicht, aber ich habe sie So habe, I have;

wir haben, we have.

gestern gehabt. 15. Niemand ist glüdlich als der Zufriedene (Sect. XVI.),

| und Niemand ist weise als nur der Fromme. 16. Hat Ihre Frau Gemah. Du hast, thou hast;

ihr habet, you have.

lin einen Brief an Ihren Herrn Vetter geschrieben ? 17. Nein, nuci, nicht, Er hat, he has ;

sie haben, they have.

aber sie wird morgen an ihn schreiben. Cafar schrieb nach Rom: „ich tam, IMPERFECT TENSE.

sah, und siegte.“ Ich gab diesem armen Manne meine alten Schuhe. Io hatte, I had; wir hatten, we had.

EXERCISE 26. Du hattest, thou hadst;

ihr hattet, you had. Gr hatte, he had ; sie hatten, they had.

1. Have you seen my [meinen] brother? 2. No, I have not seen him, but my wife saw him the day before yesterday. 3. He

wrote a long slangen] letter and spoke not a [ein] word [Wort]. 3d habe gehabt, I have had ; wir haben gehabt, we have had. 4. She has given to me [mir] a new dress and a beautiful handDu haft gehabt, thou hast had ; ihr habt gehabt, you have had. kerchief. 5. Do you think (glauben Sie] that we shall have fine Er hat gebabt, he has had; sie haben gehabt, they have had. weather (Wetter] to-morrow ? 6. No, but I think (glaube] that

it will rain [regnen]. PLUPERFECT TENSE. 36 hatte gehabt, I had had; wir hatten gehabt, we had had. SECTION XIX.-DEMONSTRATIVE AND SUBSTANTIVE Du hattest gehabt, thou hadst had; ihr hattet gehabt, you had had.

PRONOUNS. Er hatte gehabt, he had had; fie hatten gehabt, they had had.

Welcher ? welche? welches? (which?) as interrogative, is declined

precisely like tiefer, biese, dieses. The genitive is seldom used. FIRST FUTURE TENSE. Zo werte haben, I shall have; wir werden haben, we shall have. DECLENSION OF THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN, dieser, Da wirft haben, thon wilt have; ihr werdet haben, you will have.

Diese, dieses (this) Er wird haben, he will have; sie werden haben, they will have.


Masc. Fem. Neut.

All genders.

N Dieser, diese, dicscs, this.

Diese, these. Ich werde gehabt haben, I shall wir werden gehabt haben, we shall 5. Dieses, ticser, dieses, of this.

Dieser, of these. hare had; have had.

D. Dicsom, dieser,
diesem, to this,

Diesen, to these. Du wizi gehabt haben, thou wilt ihr werdet gehabt haben, you will A. Diesen, tiese, diesce, this.

Diese, these. have had;

have had. Er wird gehabt haben, he will have fte werden gehabt haben, they will Der, die, das frequently stand independently; i.e., not

have had.

belonging to a noun. When so used, it is called a substantive

pronoun, and answers to our demonstrative pronoun that. Its IMPERATIVE.

inflection, as seen in the Declension following, differs from that Singular.


of the article, and it is likewise commonly pronounced with a Sak tu, have thou; haben wir, let us have.

stronger emphasis. Sake er, jie, or c, let him, her, or habt or habet ihr, or have ye, or

haben Sie,


DECLENSION OF THE SUBSTANTIVE PRONOUN der, die, das. haben sie, let them have.



Masc. Fem. Neut.

All genders. L'reise, f. departure. Heute, to-day. Tag, m. day.

N. Der, dic, bas, that.

Die, those. An'genehm, adj. agree Kleid, n. dress, gar- Taschentuch, n. hand- 6. Dessen, teren, tessen, of that.

Deren, of those. able. ment.

D. Dem, ber, bem, to that.

Denen, to, for those. Eben, just, even, now. Niemand, nobody, no Vor'gestern, day before A. Den, tie,

bas, that.

Die, those.
Gramma'tif, f. gram.

Schuh, m. shoe.
Warum'? why?

Examples of the use of the Substantive Pronouns.
Gantsibuh, m. glove.

Sein Mantel ist schwarz, und der His cloak is black, and that of RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

seines Bruters* ist blau.

his brother is blue. 34 habe ihn heute gesehen. I have seen him to-day.

Die Uhr meines Vaters ist groß, und The watch of my father is Ich habe ihn gestern gesehen. I saw (have seen) him yesterday,

tie feines Freundes ist klein.

large, and that of his friend z Sic hoffen, ist sehr un'gewiki.

is small,
What you hope is very uncer-

Das Peter des Schuhmacher ist The leather of the shoemaker Stag Ihr Herr Bruter gestern nach Did your brother go to Leipsic

schwarz, und das tes Sattlers is black, and that of the sad. Scipzig ?

ist gelb.

dler is yellow. yesterday? Rein

, et ging nam Dresten ; aber No, he went to Dresden; but I Seine Gänse sind grau, und die His geese are grey, and those of ismerte wahrscheinlich, morgen shall probably go to Leipsic

seines Nachbars sind weiß.

his neighbour are white. nach Scirzig gehen.

Ich habe meinen Hut und Den I have my hat and that of my

friend. Du fingst schon ; aber deine Schwe. You sing beautifully, but your sie hat ihre Feder und die ihrer She has her pen and that of her

meines Freundes. fier jang in ihrer Jugend göttlicy. sister sang in her youth


friend. divinely. Ben nahmsi tu dieses Swert? From whom did you take this sword ?

* Such elliptical form as “ His cloak is black and his brother's 34 habe es meinem Feinde genom. I took it from my enemy, and is blue” (Sein Mantel ist schwarz, und seines Bruders ist blau) is very me, und gab ei meinem Freunde. gave it to my friend.

seldon employed in German,


it have;


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