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All the definitions and rules contained in these grammars are clearly and simply explained. The text matter is progressively arranged in a way calculated to interest and encourage the student. Many obsolete and complicated rules so often found in other works of this class, and which tend only to bewilder and weary the beginner, have been removed altogether. Others, which it has been found necessary to retain, have been thoroughly revised and fully elucidated, so as to present them in a more attractive manner. Many of these manuals have already gone through several editions, the new issues being carefully revised from time to time and brought up to date.
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There are six vowels: a, e, i, o, u and y, the rest are
2. The Accent.
The Portuguese language has several accents:
circumflex accent, to pronounce the syllable long,
CABANO'S Portuguese Grammar.
8. The Vowels.
A 1. is pronounced like the a in the English word path, when it has the acute accent':
chá, tea dá, he gives lá, there.
2. it is pronounced short and clear like the a in father: capitão, the captain (first a),
or if found before the double consonants: cc, ll, mm,
acclamar, to call out annullar, to annul
3. it has a soft and aspirated sound at the end of words if not accentuated: vergonha, the shame. If the hyphen til stands over the a it takes a nasal sound:
irmãa (pr. irmāng), the sister — lã (pr.lāng), the world. irmão (pr. irmãon), the brother: ang and on, must be pronounced like the french, as: l'ange, patron.
E has three sounds:
1. open but short like ai in the English word bail, or the german ä, when with the acute accent as:
pé, foot fé, belief-
quero (pr. kayro), I will,
sé, cathedral, the see, or in:
and in the verbs ending in er:
receber (pr. ressaybayr), conceder (pr. conssaydayr),
crescer (pr. cress-sayr).
2. long, when with the circumflex
over it, like the ger
réde, the net
3. It is almost mute at the end of words without the accent, as:
liberdadě, liberty - amizade, friendship.
or if the following word begins with a vowel:
está, is ('shtah); este, this one (aysht'); de uma, one (d'oom h) I is pronounced like e in the English word me, and i is only the accent that determines the pronunciation, as: timido, timoré, difficil, javali,
long in the first, short in the second word.
if the tone is on it, it sounds more like ee-ay, as: mania (mahnee-ay-ah-) mania - dizia (dis-see-ay-ah) said. has three sounds:
1. clear and strong in: mólho, do (as in pond, bōnd).