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an army as a parliament; or of com- this very vulgar error gave birth to. manding at sea as of reigning at land? When they mean to stigmatise a man What should hinder her from holding with want of courage they call him the helm of a fleet with the same effeminate; and when they would safety and steadiness as that of a na- praise a woman for her courage they tion? And why may she not exercise call her manly. But as these, and her soldiers, draw up her troops in such like expressions, are merely arbattle array, and divide her forces into bitrary, and but a fulsome compli-, battalions at land, squadrons at sea, ment which the men pass on them&c. with the same pleasure she would selves, they establish no truth. The have in seeing or ordering it to be real truth is, that humanity and indone ? The military art has no mys- tegrity, the characteristics of our sex, tery in it beyond others, wbich wo- make us abhor unjust slaughter, and men cannot attain 10. A woman is prefer honourable peace to unjust as capable as a man of making her war. And therefore to use these exself

, by means of a map, acquainted pressions with propriety, when a man with the good and bad ways, the dan- is possest of our virtues be should be gerous and safe passes, or the proper called etfeminate by way of the highstuations for encampment. And est praise of his good nature and jus what should hinder her from making tice; and a woman who departs from herself mistress of all the stratagems our sex by espousing the injustice and of war, of charging, retreating, sur- cruelty of the men's nature should be prising, laying ambushes, counter- called a man : that is, one whom no teiting inarches, feigning Aights, giv- sacred ties can bind to the observation ing false attack's, supporting real ones, of just treaties, and whom no bloodanimating the soldiery, and adding shed can deter from the most cruenital example to eloquence by being the violence and rapine. first to mount a breach. Persuasion, But be this as it may, certain it is, heat, and example are the soul of that bare strength intitles the men to victory: and women can shew as no superiority above us, as I have almuch'eloquence, wärmth and intre- ready remarked. Otherwise brutes pidity, where their honour is at stake, would deserve the pre-eminence of 23 is requisite to attack or defend a them. And among themselves, the

ystrongest man ought to be the chief There can be no real difference on power. Whereas we plainly see pointed out between the inward or that, generally speaking, the strongest outward constitution of men and are only fit to make drudges to the , women, excepting what merely tends rest; and particularly in armies, they to giving birth to posterity. And the who have most of brutal vigour are differences thence arising are no ways often useful only for fascines to men sufficient to argue more natural much weaker than themselves to srength in the one than in the other, mount a breach. On the other hand, to qualify them more for military la- men who have less strength bave very bours. Are not the women of differ- often the most brains. The wisest ent degrees of strength, like the men ? philosophers, the ablest poets, and Are there not strong and weak of the greatest princes have not always both sexes : Men educated in sloth had the best constitutions. Henry and softness are weaker than women; was no match in strength with Sir and women, become hardened by ne- John Falstatt. And a Marlborough Cessity, are often more robust than perhaps might have routed an army

We need go no farther than, with more ease than he could have Chelsea for a proof that woman may wrestled with the meanest of his be enured to all the hardships of a soldiers. Cainpaign, and to meet all the terrors It is quite idle then to insist so of it, as well as the bravest of the op- much on bodily streng!h, as a necesposite sex.

sary qualification to military employWhat has greatly helped to confirm ments. And it is full as idle to imathe men in ihe prejudiced notion of gine that women are not naturally as women's natural weakness, is the capable of courage and resolution as conmon manner of expression which the men. We are indeed charged,

towo.

men.

women

want

without any exception, - with being Since it would be rather fool-harditimorous, and incapable of defence; ness than courage to withstand brutes, frighted at our own shadows; alarm- who want the sense to be overcome ed at the cry of an infant, the bark of by reason, and whom we want means a dog, the whistling of the wind, or a tó repel by force of arms ? tale of hob-goblins. But is this uni- And yet it is far from being true versally true ? Are there not men as that all

courage, void of courage as the most heartless strength, or conduct to lead an army of our sex? And yet it is known to triumph ; any more than it is that that the most timorous women often all men are endowed with them. make a virtue of necessity, and sacri- There are many of our sex as intrepid fice their own fears for the safety of as the men; and I myself could, with a husband, a son, or a brother. Fear- more ease and less repugnance, dare ful and weak as they are, they often the frowns and fury of an already behave more courageously than the victorious army which I had forces men under pains, sickness, want, and to resist, than I could stoop to court the terrors of death itself.

the smiles of a corrupt minister whom Fear is almost an inseparable at. I had reason to despise. tendant on virtue. The virtuous are Need I bring Amazons from Scythia ever timid more or less; their own to prove the courage of wonen? inoffensive disposition and the know- Need I run to Italy for a Camilla to ledge they have how much vice shew an instance of warlike courage ? abounds among men, are sufficient Would the wife of Petus, who stabbed to incline them to fear on every ap- herself first to encourage her despaud. pearance of danger. 'Tis a passion ing husband to do the like, have been natural to all : princes fear the rebel- afraid to mount a breach? Would Jion of their subjects ; generals the not she, who could snatch the knife surprize of an enemy; and the very from her bleeding breast and serevely man who draws his sword to resent an give it to Thraseas with a-strike, injury, fears the shame of it, fears his Petus! it don't smart : would not adversary, and fears the law.

she, I say, have been equally capable Nay fear is even a virtue, in those of animating with persuasion and exwho know themselves incapable of ample an‘army in the defence of her resisting what they fear; and is only country? Let France boast its maid blamable in such as have the power of Orleans, and other nations glory to repel the evil which threatens in their numberless store of warlike them. A lawyer, who has spent his women. We need not go out of whole life in poring over Coke upon England to seek heroines, while we Littleton, can no more, with reason, have annals to preserve their illustri. be accused of want of courage for re- ous names. To whom did England fusing a challenge from an officer of owe its deliverance from the tyrannic the army, than a soldier can be called yoke of the Danes ? But to pass over a coward for refusing to stake his for- the many instances of warlike bravery tune against a lady at quadrille. The in our sex, let it suffice to name a manner women are bred in gives Boadicea, who made the most glorithem room to apprehend every thing. ous stand against the Romans in the They are admitted to no share of the defence of her country, which that exercises which would qualify them great empire was ever a witness to. to attack or defend. They see them. And if her endeavours did not meet selves helplessly exposed to the out, with the success of an Alexander, a sages of a sex enslaved to the most Cæsar, or a Charles of Suveden brutal transports; and find them- fortunate days: her courage and selves victims of contenipt to wretches, conduct were such, as rendered her whose prevalent strength is often ex- worthy to be considered equal, if not erted against them with more fury superior to them all, in bravery and and cruelty than beasts practice tó- wisdom; not to mention the picer wards one another, Can our fear justice of her intentions. then be imputed to want of courage ? Thus far I think it evidently apIs it a defect? Or ought it not rather pears, that there is no science, office, to be alleged as a proof of our sense? or dignity, which women have not

bis

an equal right to share in with the “My ventures are not in one bottom men: since there can be no superi

trusted.” ority bụt that of brutal strength shewn My ventures are not in one bottom thrusted. in the latter, to entitle them to engross

I have no other reason for altering all power and prerogative to themselves : nor any incapacity proved in ral verses without meeting any thing

this, than that I have passed over sevethe former to disqualify them of their to change in them: an editor who right

, but what is owing to the unjust does not find, must make faults. oppression of the men and might be easily removed. With regard howerer to warlike employments, it seems “ And you embrace the occasion to depart." to be a disposition of Providence that And you'd embrace the ocean to depart. custom has exempted us from them.

This I alter at my peril. As sailors in a storm throw overboard their more useless Jumber; so it is but fit that the men alone should be

“We'll make our leisures to attend on exposed to the dangers and hardships

your's." of war, while we remain in safety at home. They are, generally speaking,

I really see no mighty improprietv good for little else but to be our bul, in this; the bard means,- We'll warks: and our smiles are the most make our leisures to attend on your noble rewards which the bravest of

leisures !!!' them all ought to desire, or can deserve, for all the hazards they en

“ My wind cooling my broth, counter, and for all the labours they

Would blow me to an ague.' go through in our defence during the

This is stark-staring fatuity. Anmost tedious campaigns.

thonio is thinking of his vessels, and (To be concluded in our next.] Salarino therefore takes this mode of

arousing him from his lethargy: it

should be thusANNOTATIONS on SHAKSPEARE.

My wind, cooling my broth, SIR,

Would blow me to the Hague, EING about to publish an edi- where, it may be supposed, the vessels happy by your circulating the following specimen. The work is nearly ready for the press, and waits but for the last hand being applied to a pre

I pray you have a mind where we must

meet." fatory essay, proving that Reynolds approaches as near to Plautus, as Dia.

A simple alteration illuminates the mond does to Shakspeare, and that profound darkness of these lines : Steffington would write better plays if he had any knowledge of the drama.

I pray you have a hind that we must eat.

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But at dinner time

But at dinner time

MERCHANT OF VENICE.

ful.

Act 1st.

“I hold the world, but as a world, Bassanio; * Your mind is tossing on the ocean."

A stage, where every one must play his part, The folly of editors in overlooking And mine's a sad one.” this nonsense would be truly wonderful, if any human folly were wonder

If I were not excessively delicate in

changing a letter of such a writer as Your mind is crossing of the ocean.

Shakspeare, I would slightly alter this

into "Do overpeer the petty traffickers.” I told the world it was a world, Bassanio,

The whole sentence evinces that our A stage which every one must ride in fast; author meaned to describe the pride And mind Abaddon. of the Argosies. I therefore, without That is, take care of the devil, Basbesitation, prefer

sanio; ride fast, and take care of the De overbear the petty traffickers.

devil,

“ Do cream and mantle like a standing “ That all the yeanlings which were pool.”

streak'd and pied, This is a contradiction. I would should fall as Jacob's hire." write,

I could make little sense of this, till, Do cream and mantle like a stagnant pool. by chance, meeting with a work of

I own that the Tricism would still Bracton's, (the lawyer), I read, "It remain, but an alteration is effected at

was the custom of this county former

ly, when a farmer did lose a young all events, and every alteration is a step to improvement, unless indeed sheep, a cow, or a pig, or they did be one changes for the worse.

come stricken in years, or did die, for the Lord to allow unto him two shil

lings and sixpence for and because of “ Farewel, I'll grow a talker for this gear.” a dead gift or mortuary," From all Farewel, I'll grow a talker for this year. which I infer that Shakspeare wrote,

An error of typography. The old That all the younglings which were strick'd editions have it, I believe, corroct;

and died, but I have not time to look into them. Should fall, &c. It is not the business of an editor to be muddling his brains over old and “ You that did void your rheum upon my obsolete books; nor would I do it if beard." it were: my mind is too poble.

I cannot avoid the relation of a story

here, which will make the reader smile. “ 'Tis not unknown to you, Anthonio, An old gentleman, mounting HampHow much I have disabled my estates.” stead Hill, tarried at the Load of Hay, 'Tis not unknown to you, Anthonio,

and exclaimed, “This terrible wind How much I have bedevil'd my estates.

brings the rhcum into my eyes.” “Then I alter this for the same reason that why don't you," said the witty landthe Englishman drank gin-because I land, “bring your eyes into the room. like it.

“ Hie thee, gentle Jew." “ How to get clear of all the debts I owe." I would vary this, I confess, from

I am convinced, with my Lord mere caprice, but every one has his Kames, that the best chronology of whim as well as his taste. the order of Shakspeare's plays might

Hie thee, Gentile-Jew, be derived from internal evidence- conveys to my ears a more pleasing The above line, for instance, evinces melody; besides which, it expresses the Merchant of Venice to have been the wavering opinion the Hebrew's apthe first almost of his productions parently generous conduct had crewritten whilst he was very poor. ated.

“ Yet, to supply the ripe wants of my

“ I tell thee, lady, this aspect of mine." friend, l'll break a custom."

It is really wondeiful, that both Anthonio means to say, that to save word aspect upon the last syllable.

Shakspeare and Milton accent the his friend from starvation, he will, contrary to custom, borrow money at “usance," or, according to the more “Father, come, I'll take my leave of the modern term, usury."

We must Jew in the twinkling of an eye.” now, therefore, place ourselves in the

'I am sorry to say this is a very indesituation of Shakspeare, and imagine cent, though, it must be confessed, a how he would express “ hunger;" not ludicrous allusion to the burial stiu surely by “ripe wants," but certainly vice: thus :

“ We shall not all sleep, but we shall be Yet, to supply the tripe wants of my friend, changed in a moment–in the twinkling of

an eye.” Tripe wants signify the yearning of the bowels, and is, I believe, a Scotch “ Like one well studied in a sad ostent pbrase.

To please his grandam."

I'll break a custom.

There are two kinds of gense, (be- “When you shall please to play the thieves sides the five); one is denominated

for wives, common sense, the second nonsense. I'll watch as long for you then !--Coire, Our commentators vojversally prefer

approach!" the latter, and therefore never dream I smell false punctuation here. of explaining a passage by so slight a l'll watch as long for you !--Then, come, difference from the text as the follow

approach! ing:

This likewise amendeth the poesy.
Like one well studied in a St. Austin,
To please his grandam.
A St. Austin is a prayer-book.

“ The hyrcanian deserts and the vasty

wilds." “ Adieu! tears exhibit my tongue."

The word vasty grows obsolete; I There has been violent controversy true that this may jojure the sense,

propose substituting “nasty." It is about this passage, though it be sim- but the metre is well preserved. I ply an instance of transposition, or, as question whether hyrcanian is not corit is termed by rhetoriciaus, disloca, rupted from llesperian, and whether tion." Shakspeare is fond of this kind our bard did not allude to desserts gaof writing: thus, in the Taming of the thered from the gardens of the HespeShrew, * the oats have eaten the rides: but this I am not quite clear horses;" and indeed it is an excellent about: at all events, sonie deviation device, to give prose an air of blank from the text should be introduced, verse: for example,

“ Three nien thrust themselves into a bole" would be downright and obviously prose, alınost

“ Portia, adieu !" to the hero of Moliere, who had spoken I pever could, with certainty, comin that style all bis life without know- prehend the signification of this till! ing it. But the expression becomes had read that facetious work of M. truly grand inverted thus:

Louvet de Couvray, entitled Latin des Amours du Chevalier de Faublas.

In one of the chapters whereof(I for“But, tho'I am a daughter to his blood,

get which) is this exposition: “adieu I am not to his manners."

a contraction of." à dieu je vous com

mend." I have been told that Eutic's How ridiculous! Shakspeare had in

Dictionary would have given me as hvis mind's eye the Salique law, which much information, which shews how debars women from the rights of in. much we are disposed to travel in heritance. Jessica, therefore, bitterly scarch of what we have at home; like complaius, in allusion to this, –

the man who sought for a cuckold in But, iho I am a daughter to his blood, every parish but liis own.

I am not to his manors.
But what could editors, for the most

“ Hanging and wiving goes by destiny." part educated at the plough's tail, know of the Saliqire law?

I have consulted Lowth, and, finding this line to be ungrammatical,

esteem the whole an interpolation. Jessica, my girl,

MOMUS: There is some ill a biewing." Critics are like dogs, not so much for Swift's reason" that they sparl

EMILIUS AND SOPHIA; OR

RECLUSE. inost when there are fewest bones," but that where one is at fault, the [Continued fium p. 120.] whole pack juevitably follows. All the editors have passed this line over unnoticed, and yet it is evidently cr- which once constituted the glory and

greatly incomprehensible! That foncous. I read

the happiness of my life, now causes Jessica, my girl,

my shame and despair. How sha! T There is some alo a brewing. describe such a fatal deviation ? No. There is some sense in this,

Never shall my pen disclose si a UNIVERSAL MAG: Vol. XIV.

Into a hole three men thrust themselves.

THE

2 B

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