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manding at sea as of reigning at land? What should hinder her from holding the helm of a fleet with the same safety and steadiness as that of a nation? And why may she not exercise her soldiers, draw up her troops in battle array, and divide her forces into battalions at land, squadrons at sea, &c. with the same pleasure she would have in seeing or ordering it to be done? The military art has no mystery in it beyond others, which women cannot attain to. A woman is as capable as a man of making herself, by means of a map, acquainted with the good and bad ways, the dangerous and safe passes, or the proper situations for encampment. And what should hinder her from making herself mistress of all the stratagems of war, of charging, retreating, surprising, laying ambushes, counterfeiting marches, feigning flights, giving false attacks, supporting real ones, animating the soldiery, and adding example to eloquence by being the first to mount a breach. Persuasion, heat, and example are the soul of Victory and women can shew as much eloquence, warmth and intrepidity, where their honour is at stake, as is requisite to attack or defend a
an army as a parliament; or of com- this very vulgar error gave birth to. When they mean to stigmatise a man with want of courage they call him effeminate; and when they would praise a woman for her courage they call her manly. But as these, and such like expressions, are merely arbitrary, and but a fulsome compli-, ment which the men pass on themselves, they establish no truth. The real truth is, that humanity and integrity, the characteristics of our sex, make us abhor unjust slaughter, and prefer honourable peace to unjust ware And therefore to use these expressions with propriety, when a man is possest of our virtues he should be called effeminate by way of the highest praise of his good nature and justice; and a woman who departs from our sex by espousing the injustice and cruelty of the men's nature should be called a man: that is, one whom no sacred ties can bind to the observation of just treaties, and whom no bloodshed can deter from the most cruental violence and rapine.
But be this as it may, certain it is, that bare strength intitles the men to no superiority above us, as I have already remarked. Otherwise brutes would deserve the pre-eminence of them. And among themselves, the strongest man ought to be the chief in power. Whereas we plainly see that, generally speaking, the strongest are only fit to make drudges to the rest; and particularly in armies, they who have most of brutal vigour are often useful only for fascines to men much weaker than themselves to mount a breach. On the other hand, men who have less strength have very often the most brains. The wisest philosophers, the ablest poets, and
There can be no real difference pointed out between the inward or outward constitution of men and women, excepting what merely tends to giving birth to posterity. And the differences thence arising are no ways sufficient to argue more natural strength in the one than in the other, to qualify them more for military labours. Are not the women of different degrees of strength, like the men? Are there not strong and weak of the greatest princes have not always both sexes? Men educated in sloth had the best constitutions. Henry and softness are weaker than women; was no match in strength with Sir and women, become hardened by ne- John Falstaff. And a Marlborough cessity, are often more robust than perhaps might have routed an army We need go no farther than with more ease than he could have Chelsea for a proof that woman may wrestled with the meanest of his be enured to all the hardships of a soldiers. campaign, and to meet all the terrors of it, as well as the bravest of the opposite sex.
It is quite idle then to insist so much on bodily strength, as a necessary qualification to military employments. And it is full as idle to imagine that women are not naturally as capable of courage and resolution as
What has greatly helped to confirm the men in the prejudiced notion of women's natural weakness, is the
common manner of expression which the men. We are indeed charged,
without any exception, with being Since it would be rather fool-harditimorous, and incapable of defence; ness than courage to withstand brutes, frighted at our own shadows; alarm- who want the sense to be overcome ed at the cry of an infant, the bark of by reason, and whom we want means a dog, the whistling of the wind, or a to repel by force of arms? tale of hob-goblins. But is this uni- And yet it is far from being true. versally true? Are there not men as that all women want courage, void of courage as the most heartless strength, or conduct to lead an army of our sex? And yet it is known to triumph; any more than it is that that the most timorous women often all men are endowed with them. make a virtue of necessity, and sacri- There are many of our sex as intrepid fice their own fears for the safety of as the men; and I myself could, with a husband, a son, or a brother. Fear- more ease and less repugnance, dare ful and weak as they are, they often the frowns and fury of an already behave more courageously than the victorious army which I had forces men under pains, sickness, want, and to resist, than I could stoop to court the terrors of death itself. the smiles of a corrupt minister whom I had reason to despise.
Need I bring Amazons from Scythia to prove the courage of women? Need I run to Italy for a Camila to shew an instance of warlike courage? Would the wife of Petus, who stabbed herself first to encourage her desponding husband to do the like, have been afraid to mount a breach? Would not she, who could snatch the knife from her bleeding breast and serenely give it to Thraseas with a-strike, Petus! it don't smart: would not she, I say, have been equally capable of animating with persuasion and example an army in the defence of her country? Let France boast its maid of Orleans; and other nations glory in their numberless store of warlike women. We need not go out of England to seek heroines, while we have annals to preserve their illustri ous names. To whom did England owe its deliverance from the tyrannic yoke of the Danes? But to pass over the many instances of warlike bravery
Nay fear is even a virtue, in those who know themselves incapable of resisting what they fear; and is only blamable in such as have the power to repel the evil which threatens them. A lawyer, who has spent his whole life in poring over Coke upon Littleton, can no more, with reason, be accused of want of courage for refusing a challenge from an officer of the army, than a soldier can be called a coward for refusing to stake his for
tune against a lady at quadrille. The in our sex, let it suffice to name a manner women are bred in gives Boadicea, who made the most glori them room to apprehend every thing. ous stand against the Romans in the They are admitted to no share of the defence of her country, which that exercises which would qualify them great empire was ever a witness to. to attack or defend. They see them- And if her endeavours did not meet selves helplessly exposed to the out- with the success of an Alexander, a rages of a sex enslaved to the most Cæsar, or a Charles of Sweden in his brutal transports; and find them- fortunate days: her courage and selves victims of contempt to wretches, conduct were such, as rendered her whose prevalent strength is often ex- worthy to be considered equal, if not erted against them with more fury superior to them all, in bravery and and cruelty than beasts practice to wisdom; not to mention the nicer wards one another. Can our fear justice of her intentions. then be imputed to want of courage? Is it a defect? Or ought it not rather to be alleged as a proof of our sense?
Fear is almost an inseparable attendant on virtue. The virtuous are ever timid more or less; their own inoffensive disposition and the knowledge they have how much vice abounds among men, are sufficient to incline them to fear on every appearance of danger. Tis a passion natural to all: princes fear the rebellion of their subjects; generals the surprize of an enemy; and the very man who draws his sword to resent an injury, fears the shame of it, fears his adversary, and fears the law.
Thus far I think it evidently ap pears, that there is no science, office, or dignity, which women have not
an equal right to share in with the "My ventures are not in one bottom men since there can be no superiority but that of brutal strength shewn in the latter, to entitle them to engross all power and prerogative to themselves: nor any incapacity proved in the former to disqualify them of their right, but what is owing to the unjust oppression of the men and might be easily removed. With regard however to warlike employments, it seems to be a disposition of Providence that custom has exempted us from them. As sailors in a storm throw overboard their more useless lumber; so it is but fit that the men alone should be exposed to the dangers and hardships of war, while we remain in safety at home. They are, generally speaking, good for little else but to be our bul warks and our smiles are the most noble rewards which the bravest of them all ought to desire, or can deserve, for all the hazards they encounter, and for all the labours they go through in our defence during the most tedious campaigns.
[To be concluded in our next.]
ANNOTATIONS on SHAKSPEARE,
My ventures are not in one bottom thrusted.
I have no other reason for altering ral verses without meeting any thing this, than that I have passed over sevedoes not find, must make faults. to change in them: an editor who
"And you embrace the occasion to depart." And you'd embrace the ocean to depart. This I alter at my peril.
"We'll make our leisures to attend on your's."
I really see no mighty impropriety in this; the bard means,- We'll make our leisures to attend on your leisures !!!'
"My wind cooling my broth,
This is stark-staring fatuity. Anthonio is thinking of his vessels, and Salarino therefore takes this mode of arousing him from his lethargy: it should be thus
My wind, cooling my broth,
"Do cream and mantle like a standing "That all the yeanlings which were streak'd and pied,
This is a contradiction. I would Should fall as Jacob's hire." write,
Do cream and mantle like a stagnant pool.
I own that the Iricism would still remain, but an alteration is effected at all events, and every alteration is a step to improvement, unless indeed one changes for the worse.
"Farewel, I'll grow a talker for this gear." Farewel, I'll grow a talker for this year.
An error of typography. The old editions have it, I believe, correct; but I have not time to look into them. It is not the business of an editor to
be muddling his brains over old and "You that did void your rheum upon my obsolete books; nor would I do it if it were my mind is too noble.
I could make little sense of this, till, by chance, meeting with a work of Bracton's, (the lawyer), I read, "It was the custom of this county former ly, when a farmer did lose a young sheep, a cow, or a pig, or they did become stricken in years, or did die, for the Lord to allow unto him two shillings and sixpence for and because of a dead gift or mortuary." From all which I infer that Shakspeare wrote, That all the younglings which were strick'd and died, Should fall, &c.
Tripe wants signify the yearning of the bowels, and is, I believe, a Scotch phrase.
I cannot avoid the relation of a story here, which will make the reader smile. An old gentleman, mounting Hampstead Hill, tarried at the Load of Hay, and exclaimed, "This terrible wind brings the rheum into my eyes." "Then why don't you," said the witty landland, "bring your eyes into the room."
"Hie thee, gentle Jew."
I would vary this, I confess, from mere caprice, but every one has his whim as well as his taste.
Hie thee, Gentile-Jew,
conveys to my ears a more pleasing melody; besides which, it expresses the wavering opinion the Hebrew's ap parently generous conduct had cre
"I tell thee, lady, this aspect of mine." It is really wonderful, that both word aspect upon the last syllable. Shakspeare and Milton accent the
"Father, come, I'll take my leave of the Jew in the twinkling of an eye.
I am sorry to say this is a very indecent, though, it must be confessed, a ludicrous allusion to the burial service:
"We shall not all sleep, but we shall be changed in a moment-in the twinkling of an eye."
"Like one well studied in a sad ostent To please his grandam."
There are two kinds of sense, (be- "When you shall please to play the thieves
sides the five); one is denominated common sense, the second nonsense. I'll watch as long for you then!--Come, Our commentators universally prefer approach!" the latter, and therefore never dream of explaining a passage by so slight a difference from the text as the following:
Like one well studied in a St. Austin,
A St. Austin is a prayer-book.
"The hyrcanian deserts and the vasty wilds."
"Adieu! tears exhibit my tongue." There has been violent controversy about this passage, though it be simply an instance of transposition, or, as it is termed by rhetoricians, dislocation." Shakspeare is fond of this kind of writing: thus, in the Taming of the Shrew, the oats have eaten the
The word vasty grows obsolete; I It is true that this may injure the sense, propose substituting "nasty." but the metre is well preserved. I question whether hyrcanian is not corrupted from Hesperian, and whether thered from the gardens of the Hespeour bard did not allude to desserts garides: but this I am not quite clear
horses;" and indeed it is an excellent about: at all events, some deviation device, to give prose an air of blank from the text should be introduced. verse: for example, "Three men thrust themselves into a hole" would be downright and obviously prose, almost to the hero of Moliere, who had spoken in that style all bis life without knowing it. But the expression becomes truly grand inverted thus:
Into a hole three men thrust themselves.
I smell false punctuation here. I'll watch as long for you!-Then, come, approach!
This likewise amendeth the poesy.
Jessica, my girl, There is some ale a brewing. There is some sense in this. UNIVERSAL MAG: Vo... XIV.
"Portia, adieu !"
I never could, with certainty, comprehend the signification of this till I had read that facetious work of M. Louvet de Couvray, entitied La fin des Amours du Chevalier de Faublas. In one of the chapters whereof (I forget which) is this exposition: "adieu* a contraction of." à dieu je vous comDictionary would have given me as mend." I have been told that Entic's much information, which shews how much we are disposed to travel in search of what we have at home; like the man who sought for a cuckold in every parish but his own.