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VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL; With Notices respecting Men of Letters, Artists, and Works

in Hand, &c. &c. WE death of the Rev. Richard America, Isaac Weld's Travels through whilst his works were in the press, a the Penal Laws of Pennsylvania, and fourth volume is now to be added to Turnbull's Visits to the Fhiladelphia the three previously announced, which Prisons. · will consist of Renarks made by Mr. In the press, Ancient Poems from Cecilin conversation on a great vari- MSS. of the time of Queen Elizaety of topics in Life and Religion, and beth, never before published, with an which could not, with propriety, be introduction, notes, and an appendix, published before. A memoir of Mr. by John Fry. Cecil will accompany the first vo- Mr. Kidd's edition of Dave's Mis. lume, and it is supposed the whole cellanea Critica, is in considerable will be ready for publication by' forwardness. Christmas,

A literary gentleman has undertaken Mr. Ruding's great work on the to translate, from the French, an Coinage of the Kingdom and its De Abridgement of the Theological pendencies is in considerable forward- Works of the Ilon. Emanuel Sweilen. ness, and may be expected by 'the borg; with a preliminary disservation latter end of the present, or the be- upon his life and writings; with a ginning of the next year.

preface by the cranslator, and notes, The fourth and last volume of explanatory and critical, in one vo. Stewart's Athens will be published in lume octavo. ilie ensuing winter.

The Dramatic Works of Lillo, the George Ross, Esq. of the Inner author of George Barnwell, &c. the Temple, is preparing for publication scarcity of which have long since fixed a work on the Law of Vendor and them at a very high price, are now Purchaser, considered with a view to reprinting in a superior style, under mercantile productions.

the inspection of a gentleman well Hints on Toleration, in five Essays, known to the late Isaac Reed. submitted to the Right Hon. Lord Mr. Allnutt, of Henley, is engaged Viscount Sidmouth and the Dissen- upon a pew and improved edition of ters, is in the press.

an Account of the Navigations of the The Rev. James Rudge, lecturer of Rivers and Canals west of London. Limehouse, is preparing for the press

A new edition of the works of ArchTwenty-five Discourses on the Creed, bishop Secker is in the press, to be delivered in the parish church of St. comprised in six large octavo volumes

. Anne, Linehouse, at the afternoon

Dlemoirs of the Life, Writings, and A religious poem, called Joseph, in Correspondence of ine láte Mr. Wilblank verse, 'historical, patriarchal, liam Smellie, printer in Edinburgh, and typical, with potes, by the Rev. secretary to the Scottish Antiquaries, Charles Lucas, A.M. curase at Ave. F.R.S. &c. will shortly be published; bury, Wilts, is in the press.

together witir a selection from his biA new edition of the Poetical Works engraved portrait

. By Robert Kerr,

therto unpublished Essays; with an of Dryden, in a uniform size, with F.R.S. and F.A.S. lo two volumes BIr. Malone's edition of ihe Prose

octavo. This work will comprise a Works, with the Notes of the die Dri view of the literary history of ScotWarton, Mr. John Warton, and

land, from 1758 to 1795, with numeothers, will appear early in the winter.

rous anecdotes of eminent learned Another volume on Capital Pu- Scotsmen, and accounts of many iinnishments is in a state of great for- portant publications in which Ms. wardness. To this, by way of appen. Smellie was concerned dix, will be added, Extracts on Mr. Windham, we understand, has Prisons, from Liancourt's Travels in left behind him three Treatises on

lecture.

Mathematical Subjects, which lie to be inconceivable: the former apdirected, by his will, should be put pears of a rich marrowy consistence into the hands of the Bishop of Ro- and fine colour, and never acquires a chester, in order that, if he thought brittle hardness, nor tastes too salt; them of value, they should be pub- the latter is comparatively hard and lished.

brittle, approaching nearer to the apMr. Cromek, the editor of 'The Re- pearance of tallow, and is much salter. liques of Burns,' has in the press a blowever, it must be noted, that butvolume of traditional poetry, collect- ter cured in the Scotch manner should ed by him in the twin districts of stand a month or three weeks at least Nithsdale and Galloway. The volume before it is used. If opened sooner, will contain historical notices relative the salts are not sufficiently blended. to the manners and customs of the The pernicious practice of keeping peasantry.

milk in troughs lined with lead ought to be avoided, as well as the salting of

butter in stone jars, as both of these ARTS, SCIENCES, &c. Canova is at present engaged upon lity to the human constitution: nei.

communicate a very prejudicial quatwo colossal statues in bronze of the ther is the want of real cleanliness so Emperor Napoleon, one on foot, the soon discovered in these as in the use other on horseback. Richetti, a ce- of wooden dishes. lebrated founder, has already produced the cast of the former. The recolata, which in po other instance

The superb palm, called the cycas latter will, it is said, surpass in size has been known to blow in Europe, is the largest known wo: ks of the kind, now in an advanced state of fructifwhether ancient or modern.

cation in the Bishop of Winchester's A Substitute for Olive Oil.-The fo- conservatory at Farnham Castie. reign papers for 1907 contain the fol: Mr. Stephenson's patent for an imlowing notice, under the head of proved machine for filteriog water Venice: “We have for a length of may be made in various forms: but a time experienced a great scareity of water-tight vessel in the shape of a oil, owing to the destruction of olive chest is preferable, of a breadth and trees during the war. Luckily, the depth about equal, with a length Chinese radish has been introduced double of either. In this body or here by M. Grandi, and is cultivating lower part, and from one side to the with great success. It gives an oil su- other, there must be a division going perior to that already known, not from the upper face or cover of the merely for the table, but for produ- body down to about an inch of the ciog light, and many medical pur. bottom, and joined to the top or cover poses, particularly in pulmonary and and to the sides, so that the water canTheumatic aflections, and also in pleu- not pass from one compartment of the risies and convulsive coughs; the body into the other, but only through whole of which has been ascertained the space left at the bottom of the by experiments made by Dr. Frans. division. For the upper face or cover cisco de Olivero of Verona.” Now there are two openings, one over each with what practicability the Chinese compartment, through which are to sadish could be imported or culti-. be introduced, first, a level stratum vated in England may be a question or layer of sand, previously washed, worthy of the naturalist.

to separate any clay or other soluble Scotch Method of curing Butter:- matter that may be mixed with it. A Take two parts of the best cominon layer of grossly pounded charcoal is salt, one part of sugar, and one part to be ; laced over the sand; over of salt petre, beat them up together, another layer of sand. Then a waterand blend the whole completely; take ter-tight vessel is to be inserted over one ounce of this composition for the upper surface, descending through every pound of butter, work it well it nearly to the upper surface of the into the mass, and then close it up in upper stratum of sand. This vessel is the ordinary vay till wanted for use. to hold the water to be filtered; and The difference between this butter at the bottom, sponge is to be placed and that cured by common salt is said so as it may be compressed by it's

the

water above. This sponge is to keep and as they see it commonly towards back the foul matter that may be in the fore part of the ship, they imagine the water. The water received into it is employed in guiding and tracing the descending branch passes the com- out the course, whence it has received pressed sponge through a stratuin of the name of pilot. Probably it is sand, a 'stratum 'of charcoal, and either amusing itself or pursuing its through another of sand. It then prey. It sometimes attends the dogreaches the bottom of the compart- fish and the shark, and swims at the ment under the descending branch, height of a foot and a half from the whence it flows through the opening snout of the latter; imitates all its in the bottom of the middle division moveinents, and seizes any part of the into the other compartment, and then shark's prey which may escape him. ascends through a stratum of char. Though so small as not to exceed six coal, and through another of sand, and inches, it will keep pace with ships in rises into that ascending branch which their swiftest course. That in Mr. serves as a reservoir for the filtered Foster's possession was lately caught water, from which it may be drawn in Solway Frith. off hy a cock or otherwise. The

A Method of keeping Fruit Trees in sponge must be occasionally taken out Vigour.-Herbage growing round fruit to be cleaned, and the charcoal, after trees, either in fields or orchards, being a certain time, replaced by fresh and injurious to their vegetation, particumore pure. The sand also must be larly to peach trees, io prevent which, occasionally changed or well washed. in Germany they surround them with

Mr. J. D. Ross, of Princes-street, the refuse stalks of fax, after the fihas improved the eye-bath, to clear brous part has been taken off, spread

eye from extraneous matters, and ing it over the ground as far as their to assist the sight, which he makes as roots extend. No weeds will grow an ornament for a lady or gentleman's under this Hax, and the earth remains dressing-room.

fresh and loose. Even a withered Capt

. Manby, whose ingenious in- peach tree has been recovered by these rention for preserving the crews, &c. means, and bore larger and better of vessels stranded on the coast, has fruit than before. improved the same since he met with The leaves of trees falling in auparliamentary aid. According to his tumn may also be employed advanfecent experiments on the beach at tageously ihis way; but dry branches, Cromer, he can now throw the grapple, or something else, should be laid over Jog line, &c. from a mortar to a dis- them to prevent their being blown tance of 404 yards.

away by the wind. The walnut trees Mr. Joseph Foster, fishmonger in appear to be the best. Carlisle, has in his possession a pilot- Poppics and Carrots cultivated togefish, the only one supposed to have ther.-On light soils in Germany the appeared on these coasts. It is of the poppy branches shoot out but little, order of Thoracci, which compre- and its roots are scarcely sheltered hends seventeen genera, and upwards from the strong heats. The carrot coof two hundred and twenty species, vers these roots with its leaves, and preIt is found in the Mediterranean and serves them from drought by retaining Atlantic, chiefly towards the Equator. the moisture in the ground; at the Tic shape of the body resembles a same time it allows the poppy to enjoy mackerel; the head is long and the sun and air freely, and cannot insmooth, and the snout advances some jure it in the ground, as its root strikes

distance beyond the mouth. It has perpendicularly downward, while that | two small fins near the head, another of the poppy ramifies near the surface. i running along the back from the head The produce of the ground is thus to the tail, and one under the belly of doubled, and the poppy thus joined similar length. The colour in gene- with the carrot is not injured in quan. ral is brownish, changing into gold; tity or quality. Carrot seed sown beand there are several transverse black tween the intervals of the poppies, on belts. Mariners observe, that this a quarter of an acre of land, produced fish frequently accompanies vessels, nearly seven bushels of poppy seed,

from which were expressed twelve to a considerable extent, by which a
quarts of clear and well favoured oil, good deal of money is earned.
and twenty-one pints of a thicker oil.

Denmark,
How to preserve growing Plants at
Sea.- Particular care, if pot placed in

The Academy has proposed the fol. a cabin, must be taken to keep them lowing prize questions for the present covered during stormy weather, or year: such as jaises the least saline spray in In Mathematics. A body which has the air; for the chief damage plants the form and figure of a cylinder, such are liable to at sea, is occasioned by as Congreve's rockets, is projected at the saline particles with which the air a certain elevation or angle with the is then charged. But, during mode. horizon, and is continually impelled rate weather, it will be proper to keep by the fames which issue from it. the boxes open, and also during mo- Tbe substance which feeds the fire is derate rain, which is louch better for gradually consumed, and the weight plants than water from the cask; how- of the body diminished. This being ever, too much moisture is more the case, ist, What is the curse de dangerous than drought. Placing scribed by that body? 2d, If the inthe chests, in Indianen, round the tammable matter contained in the capstan on the quarter deck seenis the cylinder burns in such a manner, that best on many accounts. While the the infamed strata are neither paraldecks are wasbing in a morning, the lel to each other, nor perpendicular to boxes should be shut, and covered the axis, to what perturbations will with a piece of canvas, &c. When the rocket be subject: how are they plants from a cold climate get into a to be prevented or corrected? 3d, warm one, they shoot most luxuriant- As it is necessary that the cylinder he ly, and often choke or kill one ano- perforated and hollowed, so as to ai ther; the longer shoots must therefore ford the fame a greater surface, and be frequently shortened, and as many to increase the force of the fame that of the leaves thioned as will give the issues from it, it is required to know sest air and rooin. Baskets wiih roots, what form or figure is most advanand potatoes with succulent plants, tageous for the excavation: The Sga may be hung against the projecting ciety wishes, if possible, that attention part of an Indiaman which covers the be paid to the resistance and pressure wheel, or hung over the stern, if pro- of the air; but yet the prize will be tected by a tarpaulin, or painted can- adjudged to the best answer to the vas. Seeds should be kept in a cool above three questions. ' dry place, and never below in the gun- In Natural Philosophy.-Philosca room, hoid, or lower deck. Roots phers have long bestowed great paios ought to be packed in dry sand, after in seeking a discovery of the connec being moderately dried.

tion between electricity and magnem ism, which exbibit phenomena sa

similar and so different. Moderno Africa.

servations have added means for proA knitting school, consisting entire. secuting these researches. The older ly of Hottentots, is carricd on at Be- philosophers have left us numerous thelsdorp with great promise, not with experiments, which do not exactis standing the death of its founder, correspond with those of the present Mrs. Smith. About shirty children day. The Royal Society, thinking "poll have had their food in it daily, and as the whole that this part of experimenvet without touching their funds. The tal 'philosophy may be considerably call for stockings and nightcaps is be. improved, offers a prize to the writer, yond expectation, as the industry of who, taking experience for his guide. the people increases. Mats and Caffre shall give the best exposition of tl.: baskets are made in abundance, and mutual connection between electricity sold at Fort Frederic and other parts and magnetism. of the country. A considerable trade In Philosophy.—There are personi is likewise carried on by our people in who still deny the utility of physical salt. Svap boiling, sawing, and wood doctrines and experiments in explain. cutting for waggons, is also carried on ing the phenomena of the mind and

What rank

other.

coul: others, on the contrary, con- which ought to be employed. --Se. teinptuously reject the psychological cond, What is the present state of observations and reasons in researches, pharmacy in France ? which relate to the body, or restrain does it hold in tiie healing art? And the application of them to certain what are the ameliorations of which it diseases. It would be useful to dis- is susceptible? The prize for the best cuss these two opinions, to shew and memoir on the first question is a gold establish, more clearly, how far medal of 200 francs. The next is of psychology and natural philosophy the value of 100. The memoirs to be may be combined, and to demon- delivered at Paris ou or before the 1st strate, by historical evidence, what of October, 1310. each of these sciences has hitherto

The following account of a new contributed to the advancement of the optical instrument is copied from a

recent French Journal :-“ It is well Án Universal and Characteristic Lan- known that the art of perspective conguage. That, proposed by Leibnitz, sists in representing, on a plane surhaving never been sufficiently ex- face, objects in the position in which plained !, y himself, and appearing not the eye perceives them. Descriptive to bave been understood by any per- geometry furnislres the means of doing son, the question is, to give an accu. ibis; but the method which it teaches rate and luminous designation of that

pre-supposes science and demands language; to point out the way that is time. The painter, without having capable of leading to this desirable recourse to geometry, draws on a simobject, and at the same time to exa- ple purview from habit and practice mine how far the methods hitherto in his art. However excellent his eye, tried in certain sciences, for instance, and however skilful an artist may be, in mathematics and chemistry, might he cannot fatter himself with obtainhe successfully employed to philoso. ing geometrical precision. A new, phy and the oiher branches of huinan instrument has, therefore, been inknowledge. For the best answer to vented, which enables every draftscach of these questions the Academy man, without knowing the rules of offers a gold medal of the value of perspective, to design with ease and fifty Danish ducats. Answers to all, correctness all kinds of subjects on excepting the last, to be sent, before every scale not exceeding five decithe conclusion of 1810, either in La- metres square. This invention betin, French, English, German, Swe- longs to Ál. Roggero, of the Conserdish, or Danishi, to M. Buyge, profes- vatory of Arts and Manufactures. sor of astronomy al Copenhagen.

Among other ingenious instru

inents contrived with this view, that France.

by Mr. George Adams has been pecuThe Pharmaceutical Society at larly distinguished. But from the Paris has announced the following great number of joints of which the prize questions: First, Ascertain, as inechanism is coinposed, all of them far as possible, whether there exists in were more or less liable to disadvanvegetables an identical principle, tages, which M. Roggero's instruinent which chemists have designated by the bas entirely set aside. The has also name of extractive? Ought we to united solidity to precision in the retain the ancient classification divid- transmission of the movements, beed, according to Rouelle, into gummy, sides having furnished his instrument resinous, gummo-resinous, resino- with an achromatic glass, by which gummy, and saponaceous extracts? we may trace the perspective of obCan a more methodical and more ex- jects placed at a distance." act classification be established by

Germany. means of chemical experiments made on the principal substances in phar- Last surminer an experiment of a macy furnislied by extracts? Indi- new kind was tried at Philipsthal, in cate, according to ibe nature of their East Prussia, to split a rock by means different constituent principles, the of lightning. An iron rod, similar to mode of preparation best adapted for a conductor, was fixed in the rock. each, and the nature of the menstrua and, on the occurrence of the first

UNIVERSAL MAG, VOL. XIV.

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