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knight, nor in providing a portion of the third branch of the legislature, at the marrying of bis daughter. As that there is a great difficulty in dethe great bulk of the people had nei- termining not only when the repre. ther power, property, nor knowledge sentatives of the people were first of the affairs of the state, and were summoned, but also when they bekept in the most servile condition, came a separate house. I believe it the haughty barons of those times will be a fruitless attempt in search. were too proud of their rank to stoop. ing after authentic documents for into consult with the representatives of formation on this sul ject prior to the the common mass of the people. reign of Henry the Third.

In the early letters of attendance Brady says, “I confess the parlia. under seal, and in the summonses to ment rolls of Henry the Third and parliament, we may learn who were Edward the First are wanting, so that the persons who composed the 'great we cannot be so well assured what council; and in them we may see that was done in the parliaments of those they were archbishops and bishops, times as we may be afterwards; yet abbots, priors, earls, knights, and there are writs of summonses extant great barons, and some others who upon the close rolls before and after had duties to perform, according to those times, by which the bishops, the services stipulated for in their earls, and barons, were summoned charters: which was the case of the to the great council; and we have Barons of the Cinque Ports, after their the close rolls of John and Henry emancipation and enfranchisement. the Third, in which anciently most

If those who contend that the come of the writs of summons to the comnions formed a part of the Witenage- mons in other kings' reigns were mot of the Saxons, or the great council entered. It is therefore very strange, of the nation, in the time of the first if the commons were represented by Norman kings, they may perhaps see knights, citizens, and burgesses, and some reason for changing their opi- summoned to parliament as at this nions, by consulting Magna Charta, day, that there cannot be found any which says, the king declares “ Ad summonses to them upon such rolls, habendum commune consilium regni as well as to the Lords. summoneri faciemus archiepiscopus, The parliament summoned by the episcopus, abbates, comites, et ma- Earl of Leicester, while he had Kirg jores barones, sigillatim per litteras Henry the Third and Prince Edward nostras et præterea faciemus sum- in his custody, could not be exactly moneri in generale, per vice comites, upon the plan of the present parliaet balivos nostros illos que de vobis ment, though he might, without any tenent in capite :” which is, “ To design, give the first rude outline of hold the common council of the it, in summoning the knights,citizens, kingdom, we shall cause the arch- and burgesses, to answer his interested bishops, bishops, abbots, earls, and purposes and to increase his popu. great barons, to be summoned indi- larity; for when the king reassumed vidually by our letters; and, besides, his liberty, after the battle of Eves. we shall cause all those in general ham, he called a parliament accordwho hold of us in capite to be sum- ing to the ancient usage, by sunmonmoned by our sheriffs and bailiffs.” ing the prelates, earls, barons, and

The lowest members in society great men; but he did not cause an. which the king promised to call to writs to be issued, as Leicester had the great council of the nation, by done, to citizens and burgesses; por his letters of attendance, were those were there any summoned to the par. who held lands of him in capite, or liament held in the fiftieth year of his who had services to perform, which reign, if we except those who ha! they had contracted for in their char- contracted for any particular service ters; but, as for his summoning any It does not appear that his son, Ed. representative of the commonaliy, it ward the First, deviated from the does not appear that it was even usual custom in the early part of his thought of at that time.

reign in summoning members to the After all, it must be confessed by great council of the nation ; for we every candid inquirer into the origin learn in the Statute of Westminster,

certain

which passed in the third year of Ed- In the thirty-third year of Edward
ward the First, that “ Ceux sont les the Third, the king gave many thanks
establishments le Roy Edward tits le to the archbishops, the bishops, the
Roy faits a Westminster a son primer earls, barons, knights of counties,
parliament general apres son corone- and to the citizens and br:rgesses,
ment lendemaine de la cluse de Pasche for attending the parliament at his
lan de son raigne 3. par de son coun- com:nand; by which it appears that
sell & par lessenment des archieves, the citizens and the burgesses were
ques, evesques, abbes, priors, countes, summoned to appear in the council
barons, & tout le commonalty de la of the nation towards the close of
terre iilonques summones :" which is, that reign.
These be the acts of King Edward, We certainly read that, so early as
son of King Henry, made at West- the reign of Edward the Second, the
minster, at his first parliament gene. Jords and the commons granted sup-
ral after the coronation, on the Mon- plies to the king; but, when they were
day of Easter, set as in the third year first separated, and claimed different
of his reign, by his council, and by privileges, and the essence of privi-
the assent of archbishops, bishops, leges, as mentioned by a
abbots, priors, earls, barons, and all barrister, must not depend "pon

what the commonalty of the realm being our ancestors have told us, but upon thither summoned.

what we can gather from the retineThis was called a general parlia- ment of modern times. ment, because all the commonalty of It is in vain to look for the reprethe land, or, in other words, all the sentatives of the people assembled in lesser barons and tenants in capite, parliament prior to their having ibeir were summoned. There is a bundle personal liberty and their property of writs, of the eighteenth year of secured to them by law; and by their Edward the First, directed to the industry the iphatitants of counties, sherifts of several counties, and they cities, and borouglis, had accumulated are the most ancient of any extant, wealth to enable them to pay a proor perhaps that ever were; in which portionable puse of the times to the writs they were directed to chuse two hing. It was the security of perseil knights for each county; and it is and property which first roused the Fery probable that the summonses activiy and the industry of Englishfor knights, citizens, and burgesses, men ;-and, while this protection rewere omitted from the forty-ninth of mains, the spirit of enterprise will Henry the Third to the eighteenth never forsake them, but spur ibem of Edward the First. At that time on in the pursuits of victory and the king wanted scutage of bis sub- wealth. jects, and, as many of the citizens Instead of searching in the dark and burgesses were grown rich by ages of our history, or in the reigns commerce, lie might think it more of the Tudors or the Smarts, for political to summon-e them to par- precedents to support privileges which liament, to persuade them to give are not clearly detined, we should their assent to his request, rather shew more wisdom in attending to than to demard it of them, as such Soom, wbo says, “The beginong a step might cause disaffeciion, and of strite is as when one lettern out weaken their attachment. Whether water; therefore be advises to leave this is the first time that the citizens off contention before it be meddled and burgesses were generally sum- with.” moned, or whether they were regularly called 10 attend parliament atier

For the Universal Magazine. wards, may perhaps be questioned; but one thing may be rather more

LITERATURE FOR

LOUNGERS.
HAVE never vid t with

any satis-
not meet in
separate houses, as they do at present; the tanciful appellations bestowed,
for it was the opinion of Sir Edward throughout this country, on the revel-
Coke, that the lords and commons Jers who assemble to celebrate:Twelfth
originally sat together.

Day. The custon might originale in

1

certain, that the barong, ube citiet I factory account of the origin of

the Christnias carousals once main- The love of ancestry is a weakness tained in the inns of court. It is (if so it must be termed) common to certain that the chief actors in these the inhabitants of every civilized por. festivities were distinguished by hu- tion of the globe; but the nobles of mourous and satirical names, during no state can vie, in point of family the period of Wassalry. It does not antiquity, with those of Venice.occur that this singular practice ex- Other countries have been conquered isted before the reign of Henry VIII; and over-run, or so intermingled with and, perhaps, the following circun- surrounding districts, that the origin stance may have some connexion with of the oldest families may be traced the original creation of twelfth-night to a comparatively modern date. He peer and peeresses. ---Flenry, having who looks back on an ancestry dissummoned a shooting-match at Wind- tinctly ascertained to the 10th or 11th sor, one Barlow, an inhabitant of century, is, ir most countries, respected Shoreditclı, so entirely eclipsed his for the antiquity of his honours. But compeers, that the king jocosely de- it is not so in Venice. Some of the clared he should be ever afterwards Roman families, which, during the stiled the Duke of Shoreditch ; anid, ravages of the Huns, took shelter in from that time, the officers of the the Isles of Venice, and were then London band of archers were known' considerable enough to be intrusted and called by fantastic appellations, with the affairs of goverpment, still as Marquisses of Clerkenwell, Isling- remain, and are certainly the most ton, and Hoxton; Earls of Cheapside, ancient in Europe. Many of these Watling-street, &c.

clearly trace their genealogy to the

time of Attila the Hun, who invaded Respecting another favorite custom, Italy in 452. that of “making April Fools," Lord Valentia observes that nearly a simi- The French, as a nation, have gelar practice prevails, at a peculiar nerally been considered less sensible season, among the natives of Hindo- to the charms of nature than any other

people in Europe. The few gentle

men's seats observable in France are Among the numerous votaries of chiefly old, and are generally situated light literature, there have not been either in, or immediately contiguous wanting some possessed of leisure to to, a provincial town; and those inquire into the meaning of Horns which are placed amidst more retired being usually ascribed to those who scenery, are by no means conspicuous are unhappy enough to have wives for elevation of site or harmony of of over- accommodating dispositions. prospect. The temper of the last -A writer (who must certainly be years of the old monarchy precluded termed learned, since he expresses the expenditure of wealth in the himself in Latin) informs us that erection of new buildings; so that it none but horned animals are grega- remains problematical whether tbe rious, and intermingle' in common, increase of encouragement given to and that thence originates the gibe landscape painting, and to poetry de. under consideration. But it is evident scriptive of natural images, would that this author is mistaken, both in have induced a better taste in the regard to his presumed fact of natural French at the latter part of the 18th history, and the application of it.- century. It is certain that the magic There is no room for doubt as to the of Rousseau's writing had caused it to foundation of the custom. The an- be fashionable for the French to spend cient soldiers wore, during military soine of the finest weeks of every year excursions, the horns of such animals in the seclusion of the country; a ciras bad been sacrificed to the god of cumstance which renders it probable battles; and it was in allusion to the that, it intestine commotions had not prevalent levity of their help-mates intervened, the inhabitants of modern during the separation, that every un- Gaul would have gradually acquired fortunate husband was first said to be a taste for the picturesque; and, in one who wore the horns.

imitation of the English, have learned to consider the intermingled beauties

stan.

of wood and water, of hill and dingle, useful publications, the sum of ten the prime objects required in plan- pounds per year. The value of money ning the site of a provincial residence. was then in England as 5 to 1 com

pared with Scotland; and a ProfesThe Emperor Charles V caused a sor's salary, in the Scottish univerconsultation of divines to be held at sities, was 44s. 6d. per annum. Salamanca, for the purpose of ascertaining whether it was pot impious Queen Elizabeth is well-known to to permit persons to anatomise the have been parsimonious in every parhuman body, though the advance. ticular. The following instance of ment of science was the object which this saving knowledge in her majesty prompted dissection. It is curious to is not, I believe, to be seen in any observe, that, at the very period of other work than the Life of Sir Thomas this consultation, the emperor was Smith, the secretary ;-a book pubengaged in a campaign, during which lished in the sixteenth century, and between twenty and thirty thousand almost unknown at the present day. men fell victims on the field of battle! When the Earl of Desmond (that po. Yet, let us not, without reflection, tent instigator of rebellion among ibe deride the seeming inhuman capri- Irish) was prisoner in England, ciousness of the en peror's conduct. A. D. 1572, the queen consented to He had been taughi to esteem am- a political reconciliation; and, in obbitious warfare glorious; he was ig. servance of the rank and immense norant of science, and had been bred power of the earl, and in considerto habits of religious bigotry. The ation of his promising to drive the inconsistency, therefore, was the con- rebels entirely out of Ireland, she insequence of education, and by no formed the secretary of her graciously means the failing of the natural inan. inteoiding to conter some tokens of

her regard on De-mond before he left One of the correspondents of the the metropolis. Sir Thomas applaudUniversal Magazine has stated many

ed this intention, and then the queen reasons for believing that religious professed ber readiness to bestow on prejudice has

grossly exaggerated the the demi-monarch a piece of silk for asperity of Mary, Queen of England. his apparel, together with some of This writer has not entered into a

the current coin of her kingdom.comparison of the numbers who feli " Upon which Sir Thomas's judg. martyrs to religious opinions in the ment was, that, seeing the queen sister reigns of Mary and Elizabeth. would tie the ear) to her service with But it should, certainly, be remem- a benefit, it should be done liberally bered that Elizabeth put to death, on

and largely, not grudgingly and meanaccount of religion, 108 persons ;

ly. Which, as he added, did so diswhich leaves only a balance of 109 grace the benefit, that, instead of love, against the perseci'ting Queen of the it many times left a grudge behind in Catholics. 'But, then, only iwo of the heart of him ihat "received it, Elizabeth's martyrs suffered by fire;

which marred the whole benefit.”the rest died on the gibbet. - Let The queen was proud of her frugality, those, who feel inclinedl, mention this and therefore was not offended with latter circumstance in alleviation of the secretary's advice. the Protestant Queen's cruelty.

The above-mentioned Sir Thomas

Smiih wrote a long conversational Henry VIII, though he professed disquisition on the propriety of his so much fondness for the arts, and royal mistress entering into that holy so great a reverence for learning, was not in the habit of bestowing a munificent remuneration on men of let- exercise of archery. From the infortered eminence. He assigned to

mitjon of an ancient, and somewhat Roger Ascham", as a reward for his scarce volome, I am enabled to men

tion that Ascham was likewise a cele.

brated cock fighter.—This latter parIt is evident, from his works, that tiality is, I believe, not noticed by bis this elegant writer was.skilled in the biographers.

state, against which her love of sway capable of making a tolerable defence. adduced stronger arguments than any. The town forms an oblong and irreopposed by the well-meaning zeal of gular square; the streets run at right the secretary:

Sir Thomas was a angles, and the houses are seldom warm advocate for her majesty marry- above one story high, built of wood; ing with an Englishman, and some neatness

and cleanliness prevail idea of his styit, and of the manner throughout. There are two wellin which it was usual to address the built churches, one for the European sovereign, may be formed from the and the other for the Malay christians. following passage of his work : All the other public buildings are Then, if there be any qualities and withinside the fort, except the stadperfection in any of our nation which house, which fronts the fort, and is a hermajesty can like, were it not more neat stone builing two stories high. to be wisuéd for her bighness to make The town is plentifully supplied with her choice there, where her own self water, and though not of the best is judge, than to build upon hearsay, quality, it is both wholesome and and, in so weighty a maiter, (by well-tasted. But the water for the marrying an alien-prince) to buy, as shipping is, for the most part, taken the cominon proverb is, a pig in the from a steain on the north side of poke."

the barbour.

The island is divided into districts, Short Account of the VALUABLE

called Negrees, and the officers who SETTLEMENT of AMBOYNA, and govern them are distinguished by the its DePENDENCIES, recently cap

titles of regents, rajahs, patties, and tured.

The three principal r::Orancayos.

jabs are permitted to inherit their THE eleven islands which formed regencies in their own families, and are, Amboyna preper, Ceram, Bouro, tuguese wbo first settled on the island; Amblauw, Manipa Kelang, Bonoa, all the others are appointed by the Ceram-laut, Noussa-laut, Honimoa, governor. They receive a per centage and Oma. The middle of the island on the cloves produced in their reof Amboyna is in 3" 45 S. latitude, spective districis. Though the coni. and in 128° 40' longitude E. from pany consider themselves as paraGreenwich. It consists of two penin- mount lords of the soil, the clove sulas, connected by an isthmus of plantations are considered as the inabout a mile across. The barbour heritance of the natives, and are inthat is formed by these two peninsuas alienable. There are some lots of is called the Bay of Amboyna, and is land, bowever, which bave been a commodious and sate one. com- granted as alienable property, under pletely land-locked. The island is a prohibition of cultivating cloves. very mountainous, and the loftiest The grounds which yield cloves are summits are covered with trees, and called Duty-lands; a regular register give a rich and picturesque appear of their produce is kept, the trees are ance. The sojis mostly a reddish numbered once a year, and their quaclay; but in the vallies, it is blackish, lities particularly noted. The people and mixed with sand.

are bound to deliver the entire proThere are no minerals found in the cluce into the company's stores, uuder island ; but, in some parts, abundance pain of death. When young trees of brimstone is found, particularly on shoot up in remote parts, they are the mountain Wawani, which was either iransplanted into the dilj. formerly a volcano, and in 1695 made grounds, or are destroyed. a dreadful eruption.

The clove-tree grows to the height Fort Victoria, the principal fortress, of about forty or fifty feet in a taveuris an irregular hexagon, with a ditch ahle soil, and, when well attended to, and covered way on the land side, it' begins to bear at the end of nine and a horn-work towards the sea; years, and continues in perfection till which, were it not commanded by it is forty years old. The usual time two ranges of heights, within from of the clove-crop is from October till 700 to 1200 yards distance, would be December, when they are of a reddish

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