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HE sudden variation of the weather from dry to wet, and the long continuance of the latter, has produced several changes, particularly on the low grounds, which must continue exceedingly prejudicial for some time. On the other hand, the discontinuance of the dry weather has been particularly favourable for sowing on the clover layers and fallows.
The lands intended for spring crops have been laid up in the most husband-like manner. Turnips which had suffered from former drought, have been much improved by the late showers. Many of the wheats lately sown have been brought up by the late rains. All kinds of grain rise well from the flail and the machine. Hops and horses have been upon the advance; and lean stock continues dear. Peas also continue to look up.
Price of meat in Smithfield Market:-Beef, 4s. Od. to 5s. Od ;-Mutton, 4s. 9d. to 5s. 9d.;-Veal, 5s. 8d. to 6s. Ed.;-Pork, 6s. Od. to 7s. 6d.
Middlesex, Nov. 25.
AVERAGE PRICES OF CORN,
By the WinchesterQuarter of 8 Bushels, and of OATMEAL per Boll of 140lbs. Áverdupois, from the Returns received in the Week ended Nov. 17, 1810.
Wheat Rye Barley | Oats
5 40 10 42
Bedford 91 2 49
45 9 25
49 8 30
0 Northumberland 77
8 49 S 34
47 8 36 4 Chester
0 32 9 Anglesca.
Average of England and Wales.
Wheat 100s.9d.; Rye 52s.1d.; Barley Devon...
of 32 10 Essex
0 34 2Kent
이 45 0 31
6 43 6 30
Peck Loaf, 5s.3d, 5s.2d. 5s.2d. 4s.1ld.
0 Sus ex
Barley Oats. d. s. ds. d. 49 0 44 052 6 958 O 42 3132 0 32 0 231 11 621 5
327 8 329 1
9 29 5
57 7 290
BILL of MORTALITY, from OCT. 24, to NOV. 20, 1810.
2 and 5 - 204
40 and 50 146
50 and 60
42 7 89 0 $9
2 42 0 38
9 42 10 41
560 0 38
9 54 10 44
627 10 8 10 16 0 817 11 026 0
527 10 126 2
60 and 70 -117 70 and 80 77 80 and 90 - 22 90 and 100. 5
PRICE OF STOCKS, from OCT. 26, to Nov. 94, 1810, both inclusive.
Imperial Imperial Irish India India S. SS Sea Exche 3 p. Cent Anns. 5p. Stock. Bonds. Sto. Anns. Bills.
Reduc. Consols. Cons. 5 p. Cent.]
17 13-16ths 647
17 13-16ths 65]
67 67 821 1001 17 13-16ths 651 6 1-16th
8 15 4 do. 67
do. 67 662
N° LXXXV.-VOL. XIV.] For DECEMBER, 1810.
"We shall never envy the honours which wit and learning obtain in any other cause, if we can be numbered among the writers who have given ardour to virtue, and confidence to truth."-DR. JOHNSON.
ESCHINES' DIALOGUE on VIRTUE; Whether it can be taught? Translated by Dr. ToULMIN.
[Continued from 267.]
Soc. Can you name the master whom each of these men had?
Fr. No: for their names have not been transmitted to us.
Soc. Can you then mention any disciple of either of them, whether foreigner or fellow citizen, freeman, or slave, who became wise and good by his intimacy and conversation with them?
Fr. No such a one is spoken of. Soc. Did jealousy, then, restrain them from imparting some portion of their virtue to other men? Fr. Perhaps so.
Soc. Do cooks, physicians, and architects act on this principle; lest they should be opposed by rivals in their respective arts? For, it would be against their interest to have many rival artists, or to live among many in the like occupation. But is it against the interest of good men to dwell among those who are like to them? Fr. It may
Soc. Are not good men also just?
Fr. No, certainly.
Soc. No good man, then, can be so jealous of another, as to be averse from his becoming good and like to himself.
Fr. It seems so from your reasoning.
Soc. Have you heard, that Themistocles had a son, who was called Cleophantus?
Fr. I have heard so.
Soc Themistocles, certainly, was not jealous of his son, on account of his excelling in goodness; nor, being himself a virtuous man, as we have said, would he envy any other man's
Fr And they would, perhaps, have been so, if they had not died young.
Soc. You are, very properly, an advocate for your favourite youths. But if virtue could be taught, and Pericles had it in his power to make his sons good men, he would rather have formed them to be skilful in that kind of virtue, in which he himself excelled, than in music and the agonistic exercises. But it can not be taught. For Thucydides brought up
Soc. You know, that Themistocles taught his son to be a skilful and good horseman : for, when he mounted a borse, he stood erect on it; and in this upright posture threw darts, and did many other wonderful feats. He two sons, Milesias and Stephanas, for had him instructed also in other arts, whom you can not allege the plea and formed to skill in every thing you have made for the sons of Pewhich his masters taught him. Have ricles. One of them you knew, when you not heard this from old persons? he had reached to an advanced age, Fr. I have. the other much longer. Their father had them as well instructed as any Athenians were, especially in wrest ling: for he placed one under Xanthias, and the other under Eudorus. They appear to have been excellent wrestlers.
Soc. There is no ground, then, to blame a defect of capacity in the
Fr. Not justly, from what you have
Soc. Have you heard from any old or young person, whether this Cleophantus, the son of Themistocles, was a wise and good man in those points in which the father excelled?
Fr. I have not heard.
Soc Can we suppose, that, as he wished his son to be instructed in other matters, he would not be desirous that he should surpass his contemporaries in that wisdom in which he himself excelled, if virtue could be taught?
Fr. It is improbable that he would
c He was then such a teacher of virtue as you propose. Let us advert to another, namely, Aristides. In the education of Lysimachus, as far as he could procure masters, he had him instructed the best of all the Athenians but he could not make him superior to other men. You and I knew him, and have conversed with
Fr. It is true.
Soc. You know, also, that Pericles gave an education to Paralus and Xanthippus, for the one or the other of whom you appeared to me to have a great affection. These, you are aware, were instructed in horsemanship and music,and the agonistic exercises, in a manner not inferior to that in which any other Athenian was taught these arts. Did not he, then, wish to make them superior men?
Fr. They were.
Soc. Truly; therefore, in which points he must be at a great expence in the education of his sons, he had them taught; but where the expence was not necessary to make them superior men, if the attainment could be taught, he had them not instructed in it.
Fr. That is not probable
Sor. But, perhaps, Thucydides was a poor man, and had but few friends or relations at Athens; but he was a man of rank, and a person of great influence among the other Greeks: so that it was easy for him to find, among his fellow citizens or foreigners, some ready to instruct his sons, and train them up to excellence in what could be taught, if, on account of his direction of the republic, he was not himself at leisure to do it. But virtue, my friend, can not be taught. Fr. It may be so.
Soc. But, if virtue can not be attained by instruction, are men good by nature? Let us investigate this point, we shall, probably, come to some conclusion on it. To begin; are there not horses which are naturally good and excellent.
Fr. There are.
Soc. Are there not some men who have the art of discriminating the natural qualities of horses, as to formation, pace, and spirit; whether they be full of fire, or dull and heavy?
Fr. There are such men.
Soc. But they who possessed such an art, would deserve to be held in high account, inasmuch as they would be able to pronounce, even from their childhood, what youths would become good men: whom, selected from others, we might keep in the public citidal; as we would lay up silver, and even more carefully, that they might not be exposed to be corrupted in war, or by any perilous circum
Soc. What name do you give to stances; but be preserved to become, when they attained to full age, the saviours and benefactors of the state.
The danger is, that men become virtuous neither by nature or education.
Ir. If men appear to you, Socrates, to be formed to goodness neither by nature nor by discipline: by what other means are they to be trained to it?
Fr. The veterinary. Soc. Is not the like discernment exercised with respect to dogs, to distinguish between those of good or bad natural qualities?
Fr. There is.
Soc What is it called?
Soc. Are there not those who try gold and silver, to ascertain the purity of metal, or the alioy in them?
Fr. There are such.
Soc What name do you give them? Fr. That of the assayers of gold and silver.
Soc. The instructors of youth, also, observing the diversity of the human body, in the constitutions, of different men, of young and old, and their fitness or unfituess for respective exertions, can judge what actions will be performed by them worthy to be recorded; and what hope can be entertained, that their athletical exercises will be executed with ability and perfection.
Fr. It is granted.
Soc. With which ought the republic to be most solicitous to be furnished with good horses and dogs, and such animals, or with good men?
ness in men, so as to enable you to
Ir. With good men.
Soc. If, then, the natures of any men were well disposed to virtue, do you not think that those men would perform all things in a manner that would lead you to an accurate knowledge of their dispositions?
Ir. It is probable.
Sor Can you mention any art which is employed in discovering the natural marks and evidences of good
Soc. I do not think that this can be easily shewn. I conjecture, indeed, that virtue is a possession derived from the divinity: and that men become good as they attain the character of prophets and oracles. For these become such, not by nature or art, but by the inspiration of the gods. Thus there have been good men who have, under a divine afflatus, predicted future events, and the fates of particular cities, with more clearness and certainty than the soothsayers. For women sometimes exclaim, "Such a man is divine." The Lacedæmonians, when they would bestow a high encomium on a person, say that man is divine." Homer and other poets often use this language. When God also is disposed to bless a state, he raiseth up good men; but when a state is to suffer adversity, he removes them from it. So it seems to me, that virtue, which is neither from nature, nor can be taught, is attained and possessed by a divine destiny.
Remarks on the preceding Dialogue, selected from LE CLERC's Notes. Although the word virtue is,.generally, used by philosophers to denote moral habits, yet, in this conversation, it must be taken in a more extensive sense, as comprehending the arts of