ters as had been the objects of the general's aversion and resentment. Unhappily, his disappointments had soured his temper; the affair of Monmouth, several pieces of scurrility from the press, and numerous instances of private slander and defamation, so far got the better of his philosophy as to provoke him in the highest degree, and he became as it were, angry with all mankind.

"To this exasperated disposition we may impute the origin of his Political Queries, and a number of satirical hints, thrown out both in his conversation and writing, against the commander in chief. Humanity will draw a veil over the involuntary errors of sensibility, and pardon the sallies of a suffering mind, as its presages did not meet with an accomplishment. General Washington, by his retirement, demonstrated to the world that power was not his object; that America had nothing to fear from his ambition; but that she was honored with a specimen of such exalted patriotism as could not fail to attract the attention and admiration of the most distant nations.

"The reader then will not wonder that General Lee, disappointed in his career of glory, should be continually inculcating an idea of the extreme danger of trusting too much to the wisdom of one, for the safety of the whole; that he should consider it as repugnant to the principles of freedom and republicanism to continue for years one man as commander in chief; that there should be a rotation of office, military as well as civil; and though the commander of an army possessed all the virtues of Cato, and the talents of Julius Cesar, it could not alter the nature of the thing, since by habituating the people to look up to one man, all true republican spirit became enervated, and a visible propensity to monarchical government was created and fostered; that there was a charm in the long possession of high office, and in the pomp and influence that attended it, which might corrupt the best dispositions.

"Indeed it was the opinion of Marcus Aurelius, whose virtues not only honored the throne but human nature, that to have the power of doing much, and to confine that power to doing good, was a prodigy in nature. Such sentiments of this divine prince, who was not only trained up in the schools of austere philosophy, but whose elevated situation rendered him the most able judge of the difficulty there is in not abusing extensive power, when we have it in our hands, furnish substantial arguments for not entrusting it to any mortal whatsoever. But while we are convinced of the justness of these sentiments, we are led the more to respect and reverence our most disinterested commander in chief, who stands conspicuous with unrivalled glory, superior to the fascinations which have overthrown many a great and noble mind."

Before any further steps were taken toward the publication of this work, Goddard addressed General Washington, in the most respectful manner, giving him the outline of the plan, with assurances that every possible precaution would be taken to avoid injuring either his reputation or his feelings. To this letter the general returned the following answer, which, I believe, has not before been published.


Mount Vernon, 11th June, 1785.

"On the 8th inst. I received the favour of your letter of the 30th of May. In answer to it I can only say, that your own good judgment must direct you in the publication of the manuscript papers of General Lee. I can have no request to make concerning the work. I never had a difference with that gentleman, but on public ground; and my conduct towards him upon this occasion, was only such as I conceived myself indispensably bound to adopt in discharge of the public trust reposed in me. If this produced

in him unfavourable sentiments of me, I yet can never consider the conduct I pursued with respect to him, either wrong or improper, however I may regret that it may have been differently viewed by him, and that it excited his censure and animadversions.

"Should there appear in General Lee's writings any thing injurious or unfriendly to me, the impartial and dispassionate world must decide how far I deserved it from the general tenor of my conduct. I am gliding down the stream of life, and wish, as is natural, that my remaining days may be undisturbed and tranquil; and, conscious of my integrity, I would willingly hope that nothing will occur to give me anxiety; but should any thing present itself in this or in any other publication, I shall never undertake the painful task of recrimination, nor do I know that I shall even enter upon my justification.

"I consider the communication you have made, as a mark of great attention, and the whole of your letter as a proof of your esteem.

"I am, Sir, Your most obedt. humble servant, "Mr. Goddard. Go. WASHINGTON."

Goddard continued the Journal, and published it twice a week until August, 1792, and then sold his right to James Angell, who for three years had been his partner. Angell did not publish the Journal a long time, but sold the establishment to Philip Edwards, and soon after died of the yellow fever in Philadelphia.

Before 1786, Edward Langworthy was, for a few months, a partner with Goddard in the Journal.


Only two newspapers were published in Virginia before 1775. They were both printed at Williamsburg. The first, which was under the influence of the governor, commenced August, 1736. The second in 1766.1

The first public journal printed in the colony was entitled,

The Virginia Gazette.

It appeared as early as the year 1736, on a half sheet foolscap, and, occasionally, on a whole sheet, printed by William Parks, who continued it until he died, in 1750. Some months after his death the paper was discontinued.

The Virginia Gazette.

With the freshest Advices Foreign and Domestick.

This in fact was but a renewal of the first Gazette, which had been a short time suspended, but it commenced with No. 1. It was published weekly, on Monday, on a crown sheet, folio, neatly printed, and had a cut of the Virginia arms in the title. The first number was published in February, 1751. Imprint," Williamsburg: Printed by William

1 See note on page 331, et seq., volume I.

Hunter, at the Post-Office, by whom persons may be supplied with this paper. Advertisements of a moderate length for Three shillings the first week, and Two shillings each week after." In this Gazette were published, in 1757, many well written essays, under the signature of The Virginia Centinel.

Hunter died in 1761. The Gazette was enlarged to a demy size, and published by Joseph Royle; after whose death it was carried on by Purdie and Dixon; who continued it until the commencement of the war; and Purdie alone published it several years during the revolutionary


The Virginia Gazette.

Published by Authority.

Open to all Parties, but influenced by none.

This paper was first published in May, 1766, and continued weekly, on Thursday. A cut of the arms of the colony was in the title. It was well printed with new types, on a demy sheet, folio. Imprint, "Williamsburgh : Printed by William Rind, at the New Printing-Office, on the Main Street. All Persons may be supplied with this Gazette at 12/6. per Year." At the end of the first year, "Published by Authority" was omitted in the head of the Gazette.

This paper was published by Rind until his death, which happened on the 19th of August, 1773. Clementina Rind, who was his widow, continued it after he died; and to her succeeded John Pinckney, who also died soon after, and the Gazette was discontinued.

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