placed on the oo converts the ĭ into a y-sound, and gives the current English sound) is represented in nine ways: 1. In many words by u (tube), ew (few); 2. In a few words by ue (hue), ūi (juice), eu (neuter), ieu (lieu), iew (view), eau (beauty), ua (mantūa-maker).

XIV.—The sound ǎ is represented in eight ways: 1. In many words by ŭ (bŭt), ỏ (son, and terminations in ion), oŭ (toŭch, and terminations in ous); 2. In a few words by oo (blood), ỏe (does), oi (porpoise), io (cushion), eò (dungeon).

XV. The sound û is represented in nine ways: 1. In many words by û (bûrn), ẽ (her), I (first); 2. In a few words by ea (heard), ō (wõrk), oû (scoûrge), ỹ (mỹrtle), a (liar), uẽ (guerdon). This sound, like â in âir (à in ȧsk, and the guttural uh), is diphthongal, occasioned by the transmutation of the rough or trilled r to the smooth or palatal r, the effort expended in trilling the tongue having weakened into a guttural vowel-sound ŭh, heard as a glide from the previous vowel-sound to the r. Very careful speakers preserve enough of the original sounds of e, i, and y to distinguish them from o or u, although the common usage, here and in England, is to pronounce them all alike, except before a trilled r. Smart says: "Even in the refined classes of society in England sur, durt, burd, etc., are the current pronunciation of sir, dirt, bird; and, indeed, in all very common words it would be somewhat affected to insist on the delicate shade of difference." The careful teacher will, however, practice his pupils in this delicate distinction enough to make them well acquainted with it. The same guttural vowel-sound ůh occurs as a vanish after ē (mere), ī (fire), ō (more), ù (pure), etc. XVI.—The sound u is represented in nine ways: 1. In many words by ōō (bloom); 2. In a few words by ou (group), o (do), u (rule), ew (grew), ewe (yu), ue (true), ui (fruit), oe (shoe), œu (manœu̟vre). This is the general sound of ù after an r or sh sound, because the first part of the diphthong (1-00) is lost (after r) or absorbed (in sh).

XVII.—The sound u is represented in four ways: 1. In many words by oo (brook); 2. In a few by u (bush), ou (would), o (wolf). XVIII.—The diphthong oi (= a-Ĭ or aw-e), as in coil, is represented also by oy (boy).

XIX. The diphthong ou (= ä-00), as in bound, is represented also by ow (crowd).

XX. The sounds of ġ in gem, of g in get, of s in so, of § in was, of ç in cell, of e in eat, of ch in child, of eh in ehorus, of çh in machine, of x in ox, of x in exact (gz), of n in no, of n in concord (kongkord), of th in thing, of th in the, are marked, when marked, as here indicated.

XXI. The sound of f is represented by ph (philosopher) in many words, and by gh (cough) in a few words. The sound of v is represented by f in of and ph (Stephen) in a few words. The sound of sh is represented by c (oceanic), s (nauseate), t (negotiation), ce (ocean), ci (social), se (nauseous), si (tension), ti (captious), ch (chaise), sc (conscientious), sch (schorl), sci (conscience). xi = ksh in noxious, xu = kshu in luxury, su= = shu in sure; zh is represented by si (fusion), zi (grazier), s (symposium), ti (transition), ssi (abscission), g (rouge); zu = zhu in azure.

B.—Table of Sounds represented by Letters and Combinations. 1. a-eight sounds: ale, åt, älms, åsk, câre, all, was, any (ě). 2. e-five sounds: ēve, mět, thêre, her, pretty (1).

3. i-four sounds: ice, it, fatigue, fir.

4. 0-eight sounds: nōte, nôr, not, move, wolf, wõrk, sỏn, wom

en (i).

5. u-eight sounds: use (yu), cube, but, rude, pull, fûr, busy (1), bury (ě).

6. y-three sounds: bỹ, lyric, mỹrrh.



7. aa = â, ä; æ= ē, ĕ; ai = ã, â, ă, ĕ, ī, Ĭ; ao =ā, a; au= = ā, ä, a, ō; aw = a; awea; ay ã, â, ĕ, ī; aye: 8. ea= ā, â, ï, ẽ, ĕ, ŭ, û; ee= = ē, Ĭ, ā; ei = ã, â, ē, ĕ, ī, Ĭ; ey ē, ī; eo= ē, ě, ō, ô, ŭ; eu = ũ, yụ, yù; ew= ū, ō, u, yụ; =ō, ù; ewe=yu; eye=i; eou= = yǎ.

= ā, eau

9. ia = Ĭ, yă; ie – ē, ě, î, ì, yě, yŭ; io= yō, yŭ, ù; iuyụ; ieu

=ū; iew = :ū; ion = yů.

10. oa= ō, a; oe = ẽ, ě, ō, ụ, ŭ; oi
=Õ, Ụ, ů; ou = ow, a, ō, ọ, ọ,
11. ua =ă, ä, ũ, wã, wă, wä, wa, wa;

: oy, Ĭ, ù, wĩ, wa; œuu; 00 ŭ; ow = ou, ō, Ŏ; oy = oi.

ue = ē, ě, wē, wě, ũ, û, ụ, yụ; ui =ī, 1, ū, ụ, wī, wi, wĩ, wē; uo = wō, wŏ; uy = ē, I; uayē; uea we; uee wē; uoy woi; uay = wā, ē.



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