V. In this story of the child's visit to the forest, and of his communion with the flowers and birds, the birds and flowers are represented as having human feelings and habits. The child is like a poet, and fancies animals and things to be alive, to possess souls, and to act like human beings.


We observed, in our first lesson, that we know the meaning of what is said to us by the louder tones given to the important words that is, by the emphasis of "force." Listen to another way by which a word is made emphatic. "Y-o-u did that; I k-n-o-w you did."

Observe that "you " and "know" are spoken more slowly than the other words-that we give more time to them.


Time," then, as well as "force," helps us to empha


As louder force is represented to the eye by printing the emphatic words in italics and CAPITALS, So longer time may be represented to the eye by spacing the words. to which it can be given, thus: "Y-o-u are the very s-o-u-l of mischief, and, if you don't behave better, I shall send you a-w-a-y."

We can not stretch out the long time on the syllable "mis" in mischief, or "bet" in better. And the reason is, that these syllables are short (by nature and good usage), and time long enough for good emphasis can be given only to the longer sounds. But, when the accented syllables are open and long, remember that the emphasis of time is much more thoughtful and graceful than that of force.

"Thanks!' said the judge; 'a s-w-e-e-t-e-r draught From a f-a-i-r-e-r hand was never quaffed.""

"I had a brother once, a g-r-a-cious boy,

A sur mer b-1-0-0-m on his f-a-i-r cheeks, a s-m-i-l-e
Parting his innocent lips. In one short hour,
The pretty, h-a-r-m-less boy was s-l-a-i-n."

"Oh! you h-a-r-d hearts, you c-r-u-e-l men of Rome!" "D-e-a-r, gentle, p-a-tient, n-o-b-l-e Nell was deadn-o s-l-e-e-p ɛo b-e-a-u-tiful and c-a-l-m."

"Gentle" and "dead" are short, and can not take long time; so they, like all other short syllables, must be emphasized by force and slide.


1. Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt when I sank into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave, having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on toward the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in.

2. I had so much presence of mind as well as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavored to make on toward the land as fast as I could, before another wave should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy which I had no means or strength to contend with.

3. My business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so, by swimming, to

preserve my breathing and pilot myself toward the shore, if possible: my greatest concern now being, that the wave, as it would carry me a great way toward the shore when it came on, might not carry me back again with it when gave back toward the sea.


4. The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness toward the shore, a very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, and gave me breath and new courage.

5. I was covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and, finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward against the return of the wave, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath, and till the water went from me, and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength I had, farther toward the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forward as before, the shore being very flat.

6. The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me; for the sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force that it left me senseless, and indeed helpless as to my own deliverance; for the blow, taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite

out of my body; and, had it returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water: but I recovered a little before the return of the wave, and, seeing I should again be covered with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back.

7. Now, as the waves were not so high as the first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and, the next run I took, I got to the mainland, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.

Daniel De Foe.

FOR PREPARATION.-I. Have you read the "Adventures of Robinson Crusoe"?

II. En-děav'-ored, bug'-i-ness (biz'-nes), re-lieved', eoŭr'-aġe (kŭr’ej), eon-fù'-şion ( zhun), rãişe (rāz), breath, tō'-ward (tō ́ard), bur′-ied (běr ́id), might'-y (mit'-i), a-gain' (-gén').

III. Change, so as to express present time, these words: sunk, swam, carried, driven, went, left, took, had, got, found, was, saw, came, gave. Past forms of stand, walk, run?

IV. Confusion, deliver, presence of mind, furious, concern, surface, fatal, abated, fetched, contend, pilot, recover, resolved, clambered.

V. How many waves did Crusoe encounter before he reached the land? What was the nature of the shore of the island upon which Crusoe was wrecked? (steep and precipitous, or flat? See § 7.) Can you explain what causes waves? Notice old-fashioned expressions and uses of words in this picce, and change them to such expressions as we use in ordinary life; e. g., "water I took in"; "make on toward the land"; "held it out"; "the blow taking my side and breast"; "gave back"; "fetched another run"; sat me down."


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