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ried to Thomas Bladen, Esq. member of parliament for Ashburton, in Devonshire; and Mary, to the honourable Charles Calvert, lord Baltimore.
Sir Theodore Janssen, the first baronet, died Sept. 23, 1748, aged 94; and was succeeded by
Sir Abraham Janssen, Bart. his eldest son; who dying unmarried, at Paris, Jan. 19, 1765*;
Sir Henry Janssen, Bart, the next brother, succeeded to the title.
Stephen-Theodore Janssen, for many commercial and other public services, particularly in the Rebellion of 1745, was elected, in 1747, one of the Representatives in Parliament for the City of London; in 1748 was elected Alderman of Bread-street Ward; in 1749 was chosen Master of the Company of Stationers; and in the following year was again Master of the Company, and also Sheriff of London. In that year he married Catharine, one of the daughters of Colonel Soulegre, of the Island of Antigua; and she dying in 1757, left one daughter, named Henrietta, born 1752.
In 1754, he had the honour of being elected Lord Mayor of London; but in January 1756, by unavoidable misfortunes, he became a bankrupt; yet such was the integrity of his conduct, that, in
* Over a vault in Wimbledon Church are the arms of the Family, and this inscription: "This vault contains the remains of the body of Sir Theodore Janssen Bart. once Lord of this Manor 1748. Likewise Sir Abraham Janssen Bart. 1765."
Of this he gave the most convincing proof in the following letter, which he addressed to the Livery of London, when he solicited the office of Chamberlain, Jan. 16, 1765.
"Gentlemen, As it has been impossible for the whole of what I said to the Livery of London on the day of election, and what I intended further to say, could be all got ready for the papers, through the multiplicity of business in which I am en. gaged, I hope the conclusion of what I intended saying with respect to my debts, on account of which I have been so much trąduced, will be satisfactory to my fellow citizens for the present. During the year I had the honour of being Lord Mayor, I met with very unexpected disappointments of considerable sums of money; this occasioned my leaving several debts unpaid, contracted during that year. Soon after a commission issued against me; upon which I laid down my equipage, discharged all my
January 1765, on the death of Sir Thomas Harrison, Mr. Janssen became a candidate for the office of Chamberlain of London; and was successful at the close of the poll, against four competitors*.
The new Chamberlain was not elected many days, before he had a further opportunity of demonstrating the reality of his intention to pay his creditors in full. His Brother, Sir Abraham Janssen, who died at Paris during the election, left him an annuity of 500l.; which he immediately offered to sale for the benefit of his creditors; and it was accordingly sold at Garraway's, on the 7th of March, to his brother, Sir Henry Janssen, the residuary legatee, for 5000l.
In 1763, he was the Author of a very useful work, intituled, "Smuggling laid open in all its extensive and destructive Branches+.
In February 1766, by the death of his brother, Sir Henry Janssen, at Paris, without issue, he suc→ ceeded to the title of Baronet, and to the principal part of the family estates.
servants except three, and retired with my wife and child to a house of thirty-six pounds per annum in Hertfordshire.
"My wife died about two years after; I then took a lodging in town of eighteen shillings a week, and lived there, as I have ever since, without a servant, although many times afflicted with illness. I may also aver that I have spared myself cloaths, and that in my diet I have been as sparing as any mechanick. All this while my income has been about 600l. per annum, consisting of an annuity of 300l. from my late father-in-law, and further allowance from my family; out of this I can safely say I have not spent more than 120l. per annum, and that all the rest has been faithfully paid among my creditors (though not obliged by law, they hav ing signed my certificate) amounting in the whole to between 4 and 5000l. A list of many of them paid in full is left with the Common Council of Bread Street Ward, of which I am Alderman.
"I do further declare, that it is my determined resolution to continue living in the same frugal manner, till the last shilling is discharged; and in case any turn of fortune should happen to me, my whole just debts shall be discharged so much the sooner, as I am determined to persevere in preserving the character of an honest man. STEPHEN THEODORE JANSSEN, Thrift Street, Soho. These were, Mr: Alderman Turner, who had 1202 votes ; Mr. Till, 250; Mr. Deputy Ellis, 229; Mr. Freeman, 180. Mr. Janssen had 1316.
† See a full account of it in Gent. Mag. vol. XXXIII. p. 183.
On the 6th of February 1776, on account of his age and infirmities, he resigned the office of Chamberlain; and on the 20th of that month had the happiness of receiving the thanks of the Livery of London for his various and important services, as Representative of the City in Parliament, as Alderman, Sheriff, Mayor, and Chamberlain, and for his uniform zeal and activity in promoting, on every occasion, the true interest of this Metropolis.
Sir Stephen died April 7, 1777, universally respected for his many public and private virtues. In the class, indeed, of virtuous citizens his memory stands in a very conspicuous point of light. He was a Merchant of eminence and merit; but, by sudden and extraordinary losses, fell into embarrasssments and became a bankrupt. He afterwards received from his relations a yearly allowance of about 600l. On one fifth of this sum he contrived to subsist in a recluse style of living, far different from the former splendour of his situation as a Merchant of opulence, an Alderman of London, and Representative in Parliament for that City. The remaining four fifths of his income were allotted to the discharge of his debts under the commission, which he put in a regular course of payment, and actually paid between 4000 and 5000l. though his certificate had been signed, and consequently no legal claim remained against him. At this juncture a vacancy in the office of Chamberlain of the city of London furnished an opportunity of his becoming a candidate, and he carried his election by a great majority against one very respectable and powerful opponent, merely by the sense which the City entertained of his past services and honest conduct. By this means he was not only enabled speedily to discharge the remainder of his debts with interest, but to regain an ample and independent provision for the future. Such is the influence of tried integrity over the minds of men! and though it is not to be expected that every instance of a conscientious discharge of duty should be recom
pensed by temporal rewards, yet it will always insure that peace of mind, which is superior to all the advantages the world can bestow. At his death, the title became extinct.
JOHN BOYDELL, Esq. Alderman of LONDON.
The history of this worthy Alderman affords an extraordinary instance of what a life of spirited exertions is able to accomplish. It appears almost impossible that an individual, who began the world in so humble circumstances, could have effected so much for the improvement of the Arts, and of the national taste. He was a native of Derbyshire, and was originally intended for a Land Surveyor. When more than 20, he was put apprentice to a Mr.Tomms, an Engraver, at a time when there were no very eminent Engravers in England. He saw the necessity of forcing the art of Engraving, by stimulating men of genius with suitable rewards. He himself mentioned, that the first means which enabled him to encourage other Engravers, were the profits he derived from the sale of a book of 152 prints, engraved by himself; and he very modestly allowed, that he himself had not at that time arrived at any eminence in the art of Engraving, and that those prints are now principally valuable from the comparison of them with the improved state of the art within the last 60 years. With the profits of this book, however, he was able to pay very liberally the best Epgravers then in the country, and presented the publick with English engravings of the works of the best Masters. The encouragement he experienced from the publick was equal to the spirit and patriotism of the undertaking, and soon laid the foundation of an ample fortune.
He was elected Alderman of Cheap Ward in 1782; Sheriff in 1785; Lord-mayor in 1790; and in the same year Master of the Stationers Company.
The Alderman had the satisfaction to see in his life-time the effect of his labours. Though he
never himself made great progress as an Engraver, yet he was the greatest encourager of the art that this country ever saw. The English engravings, which were before considered much inferior to those of foreign nations, began from that time to be highly prized; and the exportation of them became a valuable article of commerce. Having done so much for the art of Engraving, he resolved to direct his efforts to encourage the art of Painting in this country. To this effect he undertook that superb edition of Shakspeare, the originals of which were for several years exhibited in the Shakspeare Gallery. The expence of these paintings was prodigious, and more, perhaps, than any individual had ever before embarked in for such an object.
The effect which this produced on the fortune of the worthy and patriotic Alderman will be best explained by the Letter which he addressed to his friend Sir John Anderson; by whom it was publicly read in the House of Commons, when applying for leave to dispose of the Paintings, &c. by Lottery *.
Cheapside, Feb. 4, 1804.
The kindness with which you have undertaken to represent my case, calls upon me to lay open to you, with the utmost candour, the circumstances attending it, which I will now endeavour to do as briefly as possible. It is above sixty years since I 'began to study the Art of Engraving, in the course of which time, besides employing that long period of life in my profession, with an industry and assiduity that would be improper in me to describe, I have laid out with my brethren, in promoting the commerce of the Fine Arts in this country, above 350,000?. When I first began business, the whole commerce of prints in this country consisted in importing foreign prints, principally from France, to supply the cabinets of the curious in this kingdom. Impressed with the idea that the genius of our own coun trymen, if properly encouraged, was equal to that of Foreigners, I set about establishing a School for Engraving in England; with what success the publick are well acquainted. It is, perhaps, at present sufficient to say, that the whole course of that commerce is changed; very few prints being now imported into this country, while the foreign market is principally supplied with prints from England. In effecting this favourite plan, I have not only spent a long life, but have employed near 40 years of the labour of my nephew, Josiah Boydell, who has been bred to the business,