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MR. ROBERT RAIKES
was of a very respectable family, and was born at Gloucester in the year 1735. His father was of the same business as himself, a printer, and conducted for many years, with much approbation, the Gloucester Journal. The education Mr. Raikes received was liberal, and calculated for his future designation in life. At a proper season he was initiated into his father's business, which he afterwards conducted with punctuality, diligence, and care. Several pieces, among which may be pointed out the Works of Dr. Tucker, Dean of Gloucester, are such as will suffer nothing by any comparision with the productions of modern typography. The incidents of Mr. Raikes's life were few, and those not enough distinguished from the rest of the world to admit of a particular detail. It is sufficient to say, that in his business he was prosperous, and that his attention was not so wholly confined to it, but that he found time to turn his thoughts to subjects connected with the great interests of mankind and the welfare of society. By his means some consolation has been afforded to
elder branch of the family. They were all buried at St. Laurence's Church in Reading. The Baronet of 1754 is called Knol lys of Thame. I am, Sir, your very faithful, DANIEL PRINCE."
After the publication of Three Volumes of Bishop Atterbury's Letters, Mr. Prince favoured me with the following friendly intimation:
"The Rev. Dr. Atterbury, the son of Osborne Atterbury, is now settled here. He is a man of learning, preferred in Ireland*. I shewed him your request, and from a laudable zeal for the honour of the Bishop and his family, he would wish to be informed of the nature of the work, and what materials you have. Then, if he approved of the undertaking, he would readily give all the assistance in his power. So that, if you approve it, he will be glad to hear from you, and will send his answer. Without doubt, Dr. Atterbury is very completely furnished to give the best account of the Bishop and the whole family, as he was also Student of Christ Church, has been Proctor, and has gone through all the offices in that very great Society."
Francis Atterbury, D. D. Præcentor in the Cathedral of Cloyne, and Rector of Clonmel, or the Great Island, in the Diocese. By this respectable Gentleman I was favoured with several of his Grandfather's Letters.
sorrow and imprudence; some knowledge, and consequently happiness, to youth and inexperience.
The first object which demanded his notice, was the miserable state of the County Bridewell within the City of Gloucester, which being part of the County gaol, the persons committed by the magistrate out of sessions for petty offences, associated, through necessity, with felons of the worst description, with little or no means of subsistence from labour; with little, if any, allowance from the County; without either meat, drink, or cloathing; dependent chiefly on the precarious charity of such as visited the prison, whether brought thither by business, curiosity, or compassion. To relieve these miserable and forlorn wretches, and to render their situation supportable at least, Mr. Raikes employed both his pen, his influence, and his property, to procure them the necessaries of life; and finding that ignorance was generally the principal cause of those enormities which brought them to become objects of his notice, he determined, if possible, to procure them some moral and religious instruction. In this he succeeded, by means of bounties and encouragement, given to such of the prisoners as were able to read; and these, by being directed to proper books, improved both themselves and their fellow prisoners, and afforded great encouragement to persevere in the benevolent design. He then procured for them a supply of work, to preclude every excuse and temptation to idleness. Successful in this effort, he formed a more extensive plan of usefulness to society, which will transmit his name to posterity with those honours which are due to the great benefactors of mankind. This was the institution of Sunday schools, a plan which has been attended with the happiest effects. The thought was suggested by accident. "Some business," says Mr. Raikes, "leading me one morning into the suburbs of the city, where the lowest of the people (who are principally employed in the pin manufactory) chiefly reside, I was struck with concern
on seeing a groupe of children, wretchedly ragged, at play in the street. An enquiry of a neighbour produced an account of the miserable state and deplorable profligacy of these infants, more especially on a Sunday, when left to their own direction." This infor mation suggested an idea," that it would be at least a harmless attempt, if it should be productive of no good, should some little plan be formed to check this deplorable profanation of the Sabbath." An agreement was soon after made with proper persons, to receive as many children on Sundays as should be sent, who were to be instructed in reading and in the Church catechism, at a certain rate. The Clergyman who was curate of the parish at the same time undertook to superintend the Schools, and examine the progress made. This happened about 1781, and the good consequences evidently appeared in the reformation and orderly behaviour of those who before were in every respect the opposite of decency or regularity. The effects were so apparent, that other parishes, in Gloucester and in various parts of the kingdom, adopted the scheme, which has by degrees become almost general, to the great advantage and comfort of the poor, and still more to the security and repose of the rich. Since the first institution, many thousands of children have been employed, to their own satisfaction, in acquiring such a portion of knowledge, as will render them useful to society, without encouraging any disposition unfavourable to themselves or the world. Where riot and disorder were formerly to be seen, decency and decorum are now to be found; industry has taken the place of idleness, and profaneness has been obliged to give way to devotion. It is certain, if any reformation of manners is to be hoped for, it must be from a continual attention to the education of youth. The benefits which have sprung up in consequence of Mr. Raikes's plan are too obvious to need a defence, were any person captious enough to cavil with an institution, which requires only to be observed
to extort applause. Satisfied, that the rising generation will feel the influence of the benevolent intentions of Mr. Raikes, we have great satisfaction in joining our plaudit to those of the world at large; and without hesitation place him in the same form with those whose active benevolence entitles them to be looked up to with reverence and respect to the latest posterity *.
He was for some years a member of the Court of Assistants of the Stationers Company; and died at Gloucester, April 5, 1811, aged 75.
MR. SAMUEL GOADBY
was the son of Mr. Samuel Goadby, a very worthy and respectable man, who resided in one of the good old houses that were pleasantly situated in Moorfields. He enjoyed a lucrative and respectable place under the City of London; and at his death, Mr. John Goadby, his eldest son, was chosen to succeed his father. The subject of this article was born on St. Matthew's day, in the year 1719; I believe at the house in Moorfields. Mr. Goadby had a large family; and Mr. Samuel was bound apprentice to a Mr. Virtue, a stationer at the Royal Exchange; and either a short time before Mr. Goadby had completed his apprenticeship, or very soon after, Mr. Virtue died, leaving a widow and two daughters. Mr. Goadby, at this early period of life, had conducted himself in so exemplary a manner, that it was thought right to take him into partnership with Mrs. Virtue; he was also so highly esteemed by all that knew him, that he had several offers made of proposed advantage, to entice him to leave the connexion he was engaged in: but his reply was, "I will never forsake the widow and the fatherless." This was not
* A letter from Mr. Raikes, on his plan for establishing Sunday Schools, may be seen in Gent. Mag. vol. LIV. p. 410.
merely a warmth of expression, produced by the feelings of the moment; but a fixed principle, upon which he acted to the close of a long life. The partnership continued for 11 years; and, at the close of that period, the interest of Mrs. Virtue and Mr. Goadby were made one by their marriage. Mrs. Goadby did not live more than 14 years after their union; but, previous to her death, she said, that her marriage with Mr. Goadby was one of the most propitious circumstances of her life. It is hoped, the writer will not be thought too minute; but, if a character is to be held up to the publick as a proper subject for their respect and imitation, domestic and social virtues, piety and benevolence, must form the grand outlines of a proper object of real respect. The Hero, the Statesman, the Poet, or the Painter, demand, and frequently, as such, deserve our admiration; but it is only to the man of domestic worth and social excellence, that the homage of the virtuous heart will ever be offered.
The pious man, the man of universal benevolence, and unwearied assiduity in every good work, is so incalculable a blessing to society, that we are called upon, by every good principle, to appreciate, respect, and emulate. Mr. Goadby was one of the six gentlemen, who, about the year 1750, formed (we believe) the first society in England for the promotion of religious knowledge amongst the poor. He was indefatigable in his endeavours to secure the everlasting and present felicity of his fellow mortals. His expressive countenance would be illumined or be clouded, as the tale you told presented to his view a suffering or happy fellowbeing; but his feelings did not pass off in the vapour of mere external sensibility; he sought the object of distress; and he did not then say, "Be ye warmed, and be ye filled; but gave them not those things that are needful for the body"-No, he warmed, cloathed, and filled them. The Writer of this article has known him, when near So years of age, ascend