generously prepared for this work by WILLIAM OAKES, Esq., of Ipswich, Mass., who ranks among the first botanists in the country. The eighth chapter remains to be written after a Geological Survey of the state shall have been effected.


Part Second contains a connected Civil History of the state from the first discovery of its territory down to the year 1842. That portion of the history, which precedes the admission of Vermont into the Union, being of a very peculiar and interesting character, has been treated more fully than in any previous history of the state. The materials for this portion have been principally derived from Dr. WILLIAMS' History, the Hon. WILLIAM SLADE'S Vermont State Papers, and a valuable series of papers recently published at Bennington, in the State Banner, under the title of Historical Readings, and understood to be from the pen of the Hon. HILAND HALL, one of our Representatives in Congress. Of these works he has made free use, which he would here publicly acknowledge, as he has often copied their language as well as their facts, and has not been particular to disfigure his pages with quotation marks.

From the admission of Vermont into the Union, only a rapid sketch of the political history of the state has been given; but to oompensate for deficiencies here, he has added, in separate chapters, the history of the political, the literary, and the religious institutions, with a closing chapter upon the state of society. The assistance, which he has received, in the preparation of these, will be found duly acknowledged in the progress of the work.

Part Third is, to a considerable extent, a reprint of the author's Gazetteer, published in 1824. Many additions and corrections have, however, been introduced, together with the most important statistics collected at the last census, and the history of the towns has, in most cases, been brought down to the year 1841.

The Map has been prepared with much care, and will, it is believed, be found more correct than any map of the state hitherto published. It is engraved upon steel, and that, and all the other engravings have been executed expressly for this work, by Mr. J. H. HILLS, of Burlington, and in a manner, which we think highly creditable to him as an artist.

From the beginning of his undertaking, the author has endeavored to keep two objects constantly in view;-first, to embrace in his work every thing of special importance relative to the Natural and Civil History of the state; and, secondly, to publish it in so condensed and cheap a form as to place it within the reach of all the families in the state. In his endeavor to effect these objects he has spared neither labor, nor expense; nor has he had any special regard to a pecuniary recompense from the sale of his book, as will appear from the fact that he has added more than 150 pages to the amount required in order to fulfil the conditions of his prospectus, the whole number of pages being 656, and the number promised only 500.

His work, such as it is, he now submits to his fellow citizens. If it shall answer the purposes for which he has designed it, the author will expect his highest reward in the reflection that he has not added to the number of useless books.

Burlington, Oct. 3, 1842.

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Part First.





Vermont is in the township of Canaan, and the most western in the township of Situation, Boundaries, Extent and Divis- Addison. This state lies nearly in the middle of the north temperate zone. The longest day at the south line of the state, is 15h. 9m. 9s., and at the north line, 15h. 25m. 50s.


Situation.-Vermont is situated in the northwestern corner of New England, and lies between the parallels of 42° 44' and 45° of north latitude, and between 3° 35' and 5o 29' of east longitude from the Capitol of the United States at Washington, or between 71° 33' and 73° 25' of west longitude from Greenwich Observatory. The most eastern extremity of


Where it is not otherwise specified, the longi tudes given in this work are in all cases reckoned from the Capitol of the United States. The longitude of the Capitol from Greenwich, according to the most recent observations, is 77° 1' 48. very much to be lamented that the longitude of places in Vermont is so imperfectly known. We are not aware that a single point within the state has been determined with any pretensions to accuracy. True, a few solar eclipses have been observed and some calculations have been made, for the purpose of deducing from them the longitude of the places; but the only observations within our knowledge, which have hitherto been regarded as entitled to any degree of confidence, were those of the solar eclipse of 1811, made at Burlington by Prof. James Dean and John Johnson, Esq., and at Rutland by Dr. Williams. The longitude of the Uni-ginning he had a tolerable observation, and from this versity of Vermont, deduced from these observa-alone he carefully calculated the longitude by Dr. tions by Dr. Bowditch, was 73° 14' 34", and of RutBowditch's precepts, and the result was 73° 10′36" land court house 72° 57' 27' west from Greenwich for the longitude of the University, or about 4m. less observatory and in accordance with these has the than was obtained from the preceding observations ; longitude of the different parts of the state been and, as he is inclined, from other circumstances, to laid down upon our maps. In 1838, the author pre- think it as near an approximation to the true lonpared, with much care, for observing the large solar gitude as any yet obtained, he has adopted it in this eclipse of that year, for the purpose of determining work. PT. 1. 1

Boundaries.-Vermont is bounded on the north by the province of Canada, on the east by New Hampshire, on the south by Massachusetts, and on the west by New York. The north line of the state runs upon the parallel of latitude 45 north. This line was first surveyed by commissioners appointed by the provinces of New York and Canada, in the year 1767. It was afterwards run, but very erroneously, by I. Collins and I. Carden. in 1772. In 1806, Dr. Samuel Williams made some observations with the view of ascertaining the true north lineof the state, and still further observations were made in 1818, by Messrs. Hassler and Tiarks, surveyors under the treaty of Ghent. Ac-1 the longitude of the University. But the opportunity proved unfavorable, the sun being hid by clouds during the greater part of the eclipse. Of the be




former being about 175 miles, and the latter, following the course of the Connecticut, 215 miles. The state is divided into two equal parts by the parallel of 44d. 9m. north latitude, and also by the meridian in 4d. 19m. of east longitude. These two lines intersect each other near the western line of Northfield, and about 10 miles south westerly from Montpelier, and the point of intersection is the geographical centre of the state.

Divisions.-The Green Mountains extend quite through the state from south to north, and, following the western range, divide it into two very nearly equal parts. These form the only natural division, with the exception of the waters of lake Champlain, which divide the county of Grand Isle from the counties of Franklin and Chittenden, and the several islands which compose that county, from each other, and from the main land. For civil

cording to the latter, the 45th parallel lies | a little to the southward of the line previously established, but it is not yet finally settled. The eastern boundary was established by a decree of George III, July 20th, 1764, which declared the western bank of the Connecticut river to be the western boundary of New Hampshire. The southern boundary is derived from a royal decree of March 4th, 1740, and was surveyed by Richard Hazen, in February and March, 1741. This line, which was the divisional line between Massachusetts and New Hampshire, was to run due west from a point three miles to the northward of Patucket falls, till it reached the province of New York. It was run by the compass, and ten degrees allowed for westerly variation of the magnetic needle. This being too great an allowance, the line crossed the Connecticut river 2' 57" to the northward of a due west line. In consequence of this error, New Hamp-purposes the state is divided into 14 counshire lost 59,873 acres, and Vermont 133,- ties, which are sub-divided into 245 town897 acres, and the south line of the state ships, and several small gores of land, is not parallel with the north line. The which are not yet annexed to, or formed western boundary was settled by the gov-into, townships. The names of the counernments of Vermont and New York at ties, the date of their incorporation, the the close of their controversy, in 1790. shire towns, and the number of towns in This line passes along the western boun- each county at the present time (1842,) daries of the townships of Pownal, Ben- are exhibited in the following table: nington, Shaftsbury, Arlington, Sandgate, Rupert, Pawlet, Wells and Poultney, to Poultney river; thence along the middle of the deepest channel of said river, East bay and lake Champlain to the 45th degree of north latitude, passing to the east-Caledonia, ward of the islands called the Four Brothers, and to the westward of Grand Isle and Isle la Motte. The portion of this line between the southwest corner of the state and Poultney river, was surveyed in 1813 and 1814, and the report and plan of the survey are in the office of the Secretary of State at Montpelier.

Extent and Area. The length of Vermont from north to south is 157 miles, and the average width from east to west 57 miles, which gives an area of 9,0561 *Dr. Williams (vol. I, p. 24) seems to have, insquare miles, or 5,795,960 acres. The advertently, taken the mean of the two ends of the length of the north line of the state is 90 state for its mean width and thus computed the miles, and of the south line 41 miles, but, area at 10,237 1-4 square miles, or 1181m. too much; on account of the great bend of the Con- but this is the area which has usually been given in our geographies and other works respecting Vernecticut to the westward, the mean width mont. As the area of countries forms the basis of of the state is considerable less than statistical tables, it is a matter of some consequence the mean between these two lines, as that it should be correctly stated. Suppose for example, we wish to know how Vermont compares above stated. The width of the state with the other states in density of population, we from Barnet to Charlotte through Mont-divide the population of each state by its arca and pelier, which is 50 miles nearer to the the quotient is the average number of persons to northern than to the southern boundary, if we take the last census and the area at 10,237, square mile in the states respectively. Now is only about 60 miles. On account of the population is only about 28 to a square mile, but the irregularities in the western and east. if we take the true area, 9,056, it is 32 to the square ern boundaries, both these lines are lon- to the other states. According to the census of 1820, mile,which would effect very materially its relation ger than the mean length of the state, the Vermont was set down as the 10th state in density




Feb.11, Bennington

Incorporated. Shire Towns. Na
Feb.27, 1787 Middlebury, 22
Nov. 5, 1792 Danville, 18
Chittenden, Oct.22, 1782 Burlington, 15
Essex,. Nov. 5, 1792 Guildhall, 17
Franklin, Nov. 5, 1792 St. Albans, 14
Grand Isle, Nov. 9, 1802 North Hero, 5
Lamoille Oct.26, 1835 Hydepark, 12
Feb. 1781 Chelsea,
Orleans, Nov. 5, 1792 Irasburgh, 19
Rutland, Feb. 1781 Rutland,
Washington Nov. 1, 1810 Montpelier, 17
Windham, Feb.11, 1779 Newfane,
Windsor, Feb. 1781 Woodstock, 23




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of population, whereas, if the true area had been used in the computation, she would have ranked as the eighth.


of the roads, more particularly in their more judicious location near the streams, Face of the country. the difficulty of crossing the mountain has Mountains.-The surface of Vermont is nearly vanished. In the southern part of generally uneven. A few townships along Washington county, the Green Mountains the margin of lake Champlain may be separate into two ranges. The highest of called level; but with these exceptions, these ranges, bearing a little east of north, the whole state consists of hills and val- continues along the eastern boundaries of leys, alluvial flats and gentle acclivities, the counties of Chittenden and Franklin," elevated plains and lofty mountains. The and through the county of Lamoille to celebrated range of Green Mountains, Canada line; while the other range strikes which give name to the state, extends off much more to the east through the quite through it from south to north, keep-southern and eastern parts of Washinging nearly a middle course between Con- ton county, the western part of Caledonia necticut river on the east and lake Cham-county and the north western part of Esplain on the west. From the line of Mas-sex county to Canada. This last is called sachusetts to the southern part of Wash- the height of lands, and it divides the ington county, this range continues lofty, waters, which fall into Connecticut river, and unbroken through by any considera- in the north part of the state, from those ble streams; dividing the counties of which fall into lake Champlain and lake Windham, Windsor and Orange from the Memphremagog. This branch of the Green counties of Bennington, Rutland and Ad- Mountains, though it no where rises so dison. In this part of the state, the com-high as many points of the western branch, munication between the eastern and west- is much more uniformly elevated; yet ern sides of the mountain was formerly the acclivity is so gentle as to admit of difficult, and the phrase, going over the easy roads over it in various places. mountain, denoted an arduous business. The western range, having been broken But on account of the great improvement through by the rivers Winooski, Lamoille and Missisco, is divided into several seetions, these rivers having opened passages for good roads along their banks, while


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the intervening portions are so high and Rivers and Streams.-The rivers and steep as not to admit of roads being made streams lying within the state of Vermont over them, with the exception of that por- are very numerous, but small. They, in tion lying between the Lamoille and Mis- most cases, originate among the Green sisco. This part of the Green Mountains Mountains, and their courses are short presents some of the most lofty summits and generally rapid. Connecticut river in the state; particularly the Nose and washes the whole eastern border of the Chin in Mansfield, and Camel's Hump in state, but belongs to New Hampshire, the Huntington. These, together with other western margin of that stream forming important mountains and summits in the the boundary line between New Hampstate, are exhibited in the foregoing table shire and Vermont. The Connecticut reand cut, and will also be described in the ceives the waters from 3,700 square miles Gazetteer, under their respective names. of our territory. It receives from VerThe sides, and, in most cases, the sum-mont, besides numerous smaller streams, mits of the mountains in Vermont, are the waters of the eleven following rivers, covered with evergreens, such as spruce, viz: Wantasticook, or West, Saxton's, hemlock and fir. On this account the Williams', Black, Ottaquechy, White, French, being the first civilized people Ompompanoos uc, Wait's, Wells', Paswho visited this part of the world, early sumpsic, and Nulhegan. Clyde, Barton gave to them the name of Verd Mont, or and Black river run northerly into MemGreen Mountain; and when the inhabi- phremagog lake. Missisco, Lamoille, tants of the New Hampshire Grants as- Winooski and Poultney river and Otter sumed the powers of government, in 1777, creek flow westerly into lake Champlain, they adopted this name, contracted by the and the Battenkill and Hoosic westerly, omission of the letter d, for the name of into Hudson river. Deerfield river runs the new state." southerly from Vermont and falls into the Connecticut in Massachusetts; and the Coatacook and Pike river head in the north part of the state and run northerly into Canada, the former uniting with Massuippi river at Lenoxville and the latter falling into the head of Missisco bay. All these streams and many smaller ones will be described in the Gazetteer under their respective names.

*This name is said to have been adopted upon the recommendation of Dr. Thomas Young-(see

part 2d, page 106.) The following account of the christening of the Green Mountains, is given by the Rev. Samuel Peters in his life of the Rov. Hugh Peters, published at New York in 1807.

"Verd-Mont was a name given to the Green Mountains in October, 1763, by the Rev. Dr. Peters, the first clergyman who paid a visit to the 30,000 settlers in that country, in the presence of Col. Taplin, Col. Willes, Col. Peters, Judge PeNo country in the world is better supters and many others, who were proprietors of a plied with pure and wholesome water large number of townships in that colony. The than Vermont. There are scarcely any ceremony was performed on the top of a rock farms in the state which are not well wastanding on a high mountain, then named Mount tered by springs, or brooks; and none, Pisgah because it provided to the company a clear with the exception of those upon the islsight of lake Champlain at the west, and of Con- ands in lake Champlain, which are not in necticut river at the east, and overlooked all the the vicinity of one, or more, considerable trees and hills in the vast wilderness at the north mill stream. But while Vermont is so and south. The baptism was performed in the abundantly supplied with water, there is, following manner: Priest Peters stood on the probably, no part of our country in which pinnacle of the rock, when he received a bottle of so little stagnant water is found. The spirits from Col. Taplin; then haranguing the waters of the lakes and ponds are usually company with a short history of the infant settle-clear and transparent, and nearly all the ment, and the prospect of its becoming an impreg- springs and streams are brisk and lively. nable barrier between the British colonies on the It is a common remark that the streams Bouth and the late colonies of the French on the in this state have diminished very much north, which might be returned to their late own in size, since the country began to be ers for the sake of governing America by the dif- cleared and settled, and it is doubtless ferent powers of Europe, he continued, 'We have here met upon the rock Etam, standing on Mount Many mills, which Pisgah, which makes a part of the everlasting hill, the He then poured out the spirits and cast the bottle spine of Asia, Africa and America,holding together the terrestrial ball, and dividing the Atlantic from the Pacific ocean-to dedicate and consecrate this extensive wilderness to God manifested in the flesh, and to give it a new name worthy of the Athenians and ancient Spartans,-which new name is Verd Mont, in token that her mountains and hills shall be ever green and shall never die.'

true to some extent.

the rock Etam."

There is no doubt that the name Verd Mont had

been applied to this range of mountains long pre-
vious to the above transaction, (if, indeed, it ever
took place;) but we do not find that the name Verd
Mont, or Vermont, was ever applied to the territory
generally known as the New Hampshire Grants,
previous to the declaration of the independence of
the territory in January, 1777.

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