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As a characteristic inftance of the natural talents and difpo fition on which Improvement has to work in the American Indians, compared with thofe of the native Africans, in whom neither force, kindness, nor common experience, have ever yet effected any alteration, we fhall cite a whimfical, but ftriking, adventure between a British officer and an Indian:
An Indian known by the name of Silver Heels, from his fuperior agility, as well as his admirable fineffe in the art of war, and who had killed more of the enemy than any one of the tribes in alliance with Great Britain, accidentally came into the fort * just before a foldier was to receive his punishment of 500 lashes for drunkenness, and expreffed his difpleasure that a man should be fo fhamefully dif graced. He went up to the commanding officer, and asked him what crime the foldier had committed: the officer not chufing to be queftioned, ordered one of his men to fend Silver Heels away, and to inform him that the company of Indians was not agreeable on fuch occafions; Wa! wa! or, Oh! ho! replied the favage, but what is the warrior tied up for? For getting drunk, anfwered the foldier:Is that all? faid Silver Heels, then provide another fet of halberts, and tie up your chief, for he gets drunk twice a day. Having faid fo, he inftantly left the fort, telling the foldier he fhould quickly return, to endeavour to prevent the punishment being inflicted. Soon after the delinquent was tied up, and the drummers in waiting to obey orders, Silver Heels returned; and going up to the officer, with a tomahawk and fcalping knife, faid to him, Father, are you a warrior, or do you think yourfelf fo? If you are brave, you will not fuffer your men to ftrike this foldier whilft I am in this fort. Let me advise you not to spill the good English blood which to-morrow may be wanted to oppofe an enemy.-The officer, turning upon his heel, answered with an indignant look, that the foldier had tranfgreffed, and must be flogged.-Well! replied Silver Heels, then flog him, and we shall foon fee whether you are as brave a warrior as an Indian.
About two days after, the officer was riding fome distance from the fort, and Silver Heels was lying flat on his ftomach, according to his ufual custom when he watched to furprize an enemy. The officer paffed without perceiving him, when he inftantly sprung up, and laying hold of the horfe's bridle, told the officer to difmount and fight him. The officer judging it improper to risk his life against a favage, refufed to difmount, and endeavoured to fpur his horfe. Silver Heels perceiving his intention, tomahawked the horfe, who fell down fuddenly, and the officer rolled on the ground without being hurt. Now, fays Silver Heels, we are on equal terms, and, as you have a brace of piftols and a fword, you cannot have any objection to fight me. The officer ftill refufing, Silver Heels told him, that he thought himself a warrior when he ordered one of his White flaves to be flogged for a breach of martial law, but that he had now forgot the character he then affumed, or he certainly would have fought him: and looking very fternly, added, that he
* Fort George, on the lake St. Sacrament.
had a great mind to make him change his climate; but as that mode of proceeding would not answer his purpose, and fufficiently expofe him among his brother warriors, he might walk home as foon as he pleated; and that to-morrow morning he would come to the fort with the horfe's fcalp, and relate the circumftance. The officer was rejoiced to escape fo well, though he was obliged to walk a diftance of three miles.
The next morning Silver Heels arrived, and asked to see the officer, but was denied admiffion into his prefence. Some of his brother officers came out, and enquired his bufinefs; he related to them the circumftance between the officer and himself, and exhibited the trophy; adding, that to-morrow he intended going to war, and fhould make a point of taking an old woman prisoner, whom he should fend to take the command of the fort, as the great chief was only fit to fight with his dog, or cat, when he was eating. left they should have more than him. Then asking for fome rum (which was given him), he left the fort to fulfil his promife, but was foon after killed in an engagement, fighting manfully at the head of a party of Mohawks, near the Bloody Pond, joining to Lord Loudon's road, in the way to Albany.'
Mr. L.'s observations, respecting the fituation of the loyalifts eftablished in Canada, are fenfible, and claim attention:
The fettlements of loyalifts in Canada bid fair to be a valuable acquifition to Great Britain; and in cafe of a war with the United States, will be able to furnish not only fome thousands of veteran troops, but a rifing generation of a hardy race of men, whofe principles during the laft war ftimulated them to every exertion, even at the expence of their property, family, and friends, in fupport of the cause they fo warmly efpoufed. There was, however, when I refided in the country, one cause of complaint, which, though it may not immediately affect the welfare and profperity of the prefent inhabitants, or prevent an increase of population, in proportion to the unlocated lands, is big with impending danger, and which, for the fatisfaction of the public, I fhall endeavour to explain.
All the land from Point au Baudet (the beginning of the loyalist fettlemen's on the River St. Laurence), to the head of the bay of Kenty, which at this period, I am informed, contains at leaft ten thousand fouls, is faid to be liable to the old feudal fyftem of the French feigneuries; the lords of which claim title to receive fome rent, or exercife fome paramount right, which, though it may be at prefent very infignificant, and which perhaps may never be infifted on, renders every man dependent on the lord of the manor, and, in process of time, as land becomes more valuable, the raising these rents, or the exercise of these rights, may occafion frequent dif. putes: I think therefore, with fubmiffion to our government, that as many hundreds of Americans are now fettled there, and doubslefs many more may occafionally migrate from the United States, either from being difgufted with the polity of the country, or from an idea of reaping greater benefits as fubjects of Great Britain, it behoves us to remove every obftacle of fubferviency, and either by purchase, or any other mode Adminiftration fhall think fit to adopt,
render all the lands in Canada, granted to loyalift fubjects, or others who have, or may voluntarily take the oaths of allegiance, as free as thofe in Nova Scotia.
• Men who have been engaged in their country's cause from the beft of principles, fhould have every poffible indulgence; and in proportion as they have been deprived of comforts by the defolation of war, they fhould be recompenfed without any partial reftrictions, and the remainder of their days rendered as happy as the government they live under can make them.
The population of these new fettlements, and their parallel fituation with Fort Ofwegatche, Carleton Ifland, Ofwego, and Niagra, evince, perhaps, more forcibly than ever, the propriety of retaining thefe barriers in our poffeffion, which, in the former part of this work, I have fully explained; and as the third township alone (which is nine miles fquare) contained, in the year 1787, about feventeen hundred inhabitants, it is difficult to say what number of valuable fubjects that country may hereafter produce; certain it is, that it is capable of fupporting multitudes, as the land is in general fertile, and on an average produces about thirty bushels of wheat per acre, even in the imperfect manner in which it is cleared, leaving all the ftumps about three feet high, and from five to ten trees on an acre. This mode of clearing is in fact abfolutely neceffary, because new cultivated lands in hot climates require shelter, to prevent the fcorching heat of the fun, which, in its full power, would burn up the feed. It has also been found expedient in ftony ground to let the ftones remain, as they retain moisture favourable to vegetation.'
Mr. Long, in return for fome civility received from one of the fervants of the Hudson's Bay Company, enters into a vindication of that company from the charges of difcouraging and alienating the natives, and of oppreffive behaviour toward their inferior fervants; charges which have repeatedly been brought against them. He adds,
It has unfortunately happened that the company's enemies have been frequently of their own household, perfons in whom they placed confidence, and entrusted the mysteries of their commerce. Differences will naturally arife, and doubtlefs have arifen between the governors and their fervants, in which cafe no man is, or ought to be, obliged to stay in a service that is difagreeable to him; but then it is certainly fufficient to leave the employ, and highly improper to endeavour to prejudice the intereft he once thought and felt it his duty to promote; and I am of opinion that not a fingle tranfaction, or circumftance, fhould be revealed that has not an immediate reference to the caufe of the difagreement, or is neceffary to fupport or vindicate a reputation. The prefent governors are men of great probity, and probably may not condefcend to take notice of thefe heavy charges against them; but as the most exalted virtue may be injured by groundless affertions, I trust the public will not be difpleafed with any endeavours, however feeble, to vindicate the character of fo refpectable a body. As I do not
intend to enter on the fubject more fully, I fhall only entreat the reader, if he wishes further fatisfaction on this head, to peruse the publication of Mr. Robfon, [fee M. Review, vol. vii. p. 75.] who was one of the company's fervants, and who Mr. Umfreville acknowledges to be a true and impartial writer. From his account the reader will judge of the propriety of Mr. Umfreville's cenfures on the conduct of the governors of the Hudson's Bay Company. A more copious examination of Mr. Umfreville's publication would exceed the limits I have prefcribed to myself; and I cannot but think that those who perufe it will readily perceive how much in. juftice he has done to the governors and the company.'
It will appear from our account of Mr. Umfreville's publication *, that we did not entertain the highest idea either of his motives or his performance; and we have no conception that Mr. L. is himself without his motives, affuring him withal, that we can have no ill-will to them :-but we freely own, we have no predilection for the long-hackneyed application of the term mystery to commercial tranfactions; allowing that it may fometimes be honeftly applied to proper fecrets in manufactures and handicrafts. The term mystery, in any fenfe, we believe to be feldom used but as a cover for fomething that will not bear expofure; and we hope it was mifapplied with reference to the Hudson's Bay Company.
The vocabularies at the end, which occupy one-third of the volume, do not appear likely to be of any great ufe; for those who would ftudy the Indian languages to much effect, muft learn by the ear rather than by the eye; and the ftructure and orthography, admitting the correctness of the latter, have little that is inviting in them. The volume contains much local information, is furnished with a good map of the western parts of Canada, and is very neatly printed.
ART. V. Eays Medical, Philofophical, and Experimental. Thomas Percival, M. D. F. R.S. & A. S. London, &c. &c. Fourth Edition, revifed and enlarged. 8vo. 2 Vols. PP. 507 and 442. 12s. Boards. Johnton. 1790.
THIS HIS edition of Dr. Percival's Effays + is introduced by the following advertisement :
The prefent edition of this work comprehends not only the author's former volumes, of Medical, Philofophical, and Experimental Effays; but alfo many detached pieces, written at diftant times, and on various occafions, that have been inferted either in the tranfactions of fome of the learned focieties, of which he is a member, or in other periodical journals. He has attentively re
* See Monthly Review Enlarged, vol. v. p. 134.
+ See Review, vol. lvi. p. 120.
REV. JUNE 1792.
vised the whole; has made numerous practical additions; and cor rected or expunged whatever appeared to be inconfiftent with his later experience, and better informed judgment. On certain philofophical fubjects, of which he has treated, much light has been thrown by fubfequent inquirers. He has not, however, attempted to model fuch Effays anew; or to weave into their texture difcoveries and improvements, made fince the period when they were written. For he deems anachronifm, of this kind, to be a violation of literary property; and unfavourable to the interefts of fcience, by creating perplexity in the view of its progreffive advancement.'
Dr. Percival's character being well known to the public, and the principal part of these effays having already come under our review, we fhall content ourselves with offering a few very brief remarks, and fhall scarcely dwell on any fubject, except the new matter, which is not in great abundance.
In the advertifement which we have extracted, Dr. Percival tells us, that he has corrected or expunged whatever appeared to be inconfiftent with his later experience, and better informed judgment. We fear this caution has not been fufficiently obferved. We fee not the utility of the first two effays, the empiric and the dogmatic, each contradicting the other, and both probably afferting more than the author believes. The objection more forcibly affects the two effays on inoculation: the doctrines of one are in abfolute oppofition to thofe of the other. In the fecond volume, the advantages of early inoculation are practically and inconteftibly proved: in the first, the practice is as decidedly condemned: in truth, in one cafe, the author fpeaks from experience and facts; in the other, he indulges in theory and declamation, which his well-informed judgment fhould now have rejected. Other inftances might be enumerated:-but we have done,
Of the effays which are added to this edition, most have before appeared in the memoirs or tranfactions of different focieties; and have, in course, been already noticed by us this is not the cafe with all. In the fecond volume of the Medical Memoirs, Dr. Percival publifhed the cafe of a young lady, affected with pulmonic complaints, and at the fame time pointed out the ill effects of adhering too rigidly to the antiphlogiftic treatment. This is a fubject of importance; and we shall extract what is now farther added, in confequence of the inquiries of a very ingenious phyfician," whose name is not mentioned.
The young lady, whose cafe is briefly defcribed in the Memoirs of the Medical Society, vol. II. p. 297, (p. 336 of the preceding Effay,) had no ftrumous difpofition. The ufe of myrrh was continued, many weeks: geftation was daily employed, when the