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True it is that their history is not specially connected with that part of the world, and that their name of Polish has been assigned for scientific, not for territorial, reasons. It is customary, in respect to the varieties and species, and even genera, of both plants and animals, to bestow upon them names, because of certain ostensible similitudes, or characteristics, by which they can be likened, or compared, to other familiar things: the entire nomenclature, indeed, in the sciences of Botany and Natural History, is really so derived and constructed.

It will now be shown that the fowls under consideration have, in accordance with such usage, received the appellation they now bear. And, although names are often given from almost trivial or imaginary resemblances, yet, in the case of Polish Fowls, it will be found that the peculiar anatomical conformation of the skull—and which is altogether unique—as well as the more ostensible mass of feathers, or topknot, on the head, afford not only an appropriate, but a natural and scientific reason, for the name imposed upon them.

This peculiarity consists in a large and prominent development of the cranium, or skull-cap, which, on dissection, I discovered to be remarkably elevated and round; whilst, in all other fowls, the head is flattened. In Polish chickens, this elevated and globular shape of the skull is so remarkable, that the brain appears as if encased in a round ball, lying on the top of the head. I conceive, then, that it is this singular and unique elevation of the top of the head, or poll, together, it may be added, with the ball of feathers thereon, that has furnished their characteristic cognomen of Poll-ish Fowl-that is, fowls with the peculiarly globular, elevated, and tufted poll--and which term has been naturally converted into Poll-ish. The word Poland, sometimes made use of, is evidently nothing more than a conversion of Polish ; it is used synonymously, but Polish Fowl, not Poland Fowl, is the evident grammatical term, whether the birds came from Poland, or were named from personal characteristics.

This explanation of their name, in strict accordance with scientific usage, and natural as it is simple, at once frees us from all the speculation and fanciful opinion in which writers have indulged, when considering the history, or probable origin, of these fowls. Whilst this unique anatomical configuration of the skull suggests additional claim to their being considered a recognised and genuine species : and although it is true that it has not been before noticed by authors of our own times, yet it could not have always escaped the keen search of the older naturalists.

F. R. HORNER.

DISEASES OF PIGEONS.

CANKER. (See Wounds.)

CORE.-This is the name given to a complaint consisting of a hard, cheesy substance, of a yellowish white colour, and resembling the core of an apple, which is sometimes found in the vent, and also in the gullet. This will ripen and maturate, and may be then discharged, dissected, or drawn out. A purge of jalap may also be given.

CROP-BOUND, resulting from an obstruction of the food, generally from the pigeon having gorged too much.

- This disorder is by far the most frequent in the Pouter pigeon, because of the large size of the crop. The distention is often exceedingly large, the crop sagging almost to the very ground, also being icy cold to the touch. The remedy is simple: place the bird in a warm or woollen stocking, the head and crop being supported as upright as may be; then hang the stocking up (the head of the bird upwards) in a warm room, for ten or twelve hours, when it will invariably be found that the food has passed the crop.

DIARRHEA, or SCOURING.-A complaint too well known to need description. The remedy, chalk. Give a bolus of compound chalk, the size of a bean, twice a day, till the bird is cured.

ERUPTIONS upon the skin, (perhaps from giving too much hemp seed,) sometimes known as Small Pox:-even if unattended to, we have never seen any ill effects result to the young pigeons, which are more usually attacked; and it seems to us to be merely a natural effort to throw peccant humours out of the system, which will generally disappear in a week or ten days. All external applications, though generally recommended, are as useless and uncalled for, as in small pox in our own species.

GIDDINESS.-(See Vertigo.)

GIZZARD (FALLING).—This and many other peculiar internal diseases young pigeons are more particularly liable to; and are mostly caused by constitutional weakness or disorder. After numerous experiments, we are convinced that in all confirmed cases, (which may easily be known, by the lower part of the abdomen sagging on the ground,) the shortest way is to wring the necks of the poor birdsas they have never recovered under any treatment. It will be found that this large discoloured protrusion of the body, is really caused not by the simple falling of the gizzard, but by its being, with other internal parts, propelled downwards by hardened fatty growth from the liver, or upper part of the gizzard itself.

MEGRIMS. (See Vertigo.)

MOULTING.-It will sometimes happen that pigeons suffer much, and are unable to get through so well or quickly as they should ; in which case resorting to high feeding on corn and hemp seed, with warmth, will greatly facilitate moulting. A little salt and alum constantly given dissolved in the water is also good at such times.

VERMIN.-These are generally the consequence of low keep and filth. Various remedies are offered, such as fumigating with spirits of turpentine, tobacco, snuff, and stavesacre;

but the only effectual remedy is thorough and constant cleanliness, and providing, daily, pans of water for the pigeons to bathe in. If the bird is much pestered with vermin, they may be at once cleared off by thorough washing with soft soap and water, taking care, of course, to dry the feathers afterwards with a soft cloth and the warmth of a fire. A little mercurial ointment also, rubbed under the wing, on the sides, will kill the vermin.

VERTIGO.-This disease (but little understood by Fanciers generally) is closely allied to the apoplectic seizures in poultry, and depends on a similar state of the brain,—viz. congestion of the blood vessels, and finally effusion of blood thereon. The only beneficial treatment is, confinement to the loft, bleeding at the vein under the wing, and administering a few grains of jalap, or a comp. rhubarb pill.

WENS, or fleshy tumours, commonly on the shoulderjoint of the wings, not unfrequently occur in old birds which have been much flown. They are seldom cured, but may from time to time be cut off or opened, and washed with a solution of alum and water, or, which is preferable, have some dry powdered alum dusted over the parts.

WORMS, about 1ļ inch long and 1 inch broad, sometimes collect in a lump at the orifice of the vent; and can only be got rid of by injections of sweet oil and spirits of turpentine, continued for two or three days, but not oftener than once a day: or a compound rhubarb pill may be taken occasionally.

WOUNDS upon the head or wattles of Carriers and Barbes from fighting, should be carefully washed with a solution of sulphate of zinc and water, and anoint with a few drops of olive oil every day until well. If, however, the parts canker, as it is called, various remedies are adopted : the following will be found the most efficacious,-wash with two drachms of alum in one and half ounces of water or weak vinegar, or any spirit and water, and then anoint with an unguent composed of honey and powdered burnt alum ; or mix twenty grains of red precipitate with half an ounce of honey, and use as the previous unguent; or dissolve five grains of white vitriol in half a table-spoonful of vinegar, and mix with alum and honey, and use as the other remedies.

WOUNDS on the feet or legs will generally heal better and sooner when let alone.

INDEX.

ALGERINE Fowl, 191.

170.

Bankiva Fow], 70.
BANTAM FOWL-Origin, 162; de-

scription. 163; good sitters, 340;
destructive to insects, 340 ; quali.
ties, '380; rearing, 446.

African, 186. Black, 167. Bue-
nos Ayres, 187. Gold-laced, 171.
Nankin, 165. Sebright, 167. Sil.
ver-laced,

Speckled, 166.
White, 164. Yellow, 165.
Barn-door Fowl, 173.
Bavarian Crested, 180.
Bengal Fowl, 182.
Brahma Pootra - Origin, 96 ; descrip-

tion, 98; as layers, 330.
Brazilian Fowl, 180.
Breda Fow), 181.
Breeding stock, 363, 405–412.
Bronzed Fowl, 66.
Bruges Fowl, 180.
Caponizing poultry, 422.
Ceylon Jungle Fowl, 197.
Cleanliness, importance in rearing

poultry, 403.
COCHIN CHINA FOWL-Origin,

76 ; description, 79 ; rules for se-
lecting, 88, 376, 377; as layers,
327; for the table, 329.

Black, 94. Brown, 93. Buff, 91.
Grey, 91. Grouse-coloured, 94.
Partridge-coloured, 94. Red, 92.

White, 90.
Cock-crower, the king's, 23.
Cock-fighting, 11-17.
Cock-pit, the royal, 16, 17.
Cock-throwing. 19--21.
Cocks, dancing. 22.
Columbian Fowl, 177.
Crêve Caur Fowl, 179.
Cramming poultry, 420-422,
Creeper, or Dwarf Fowl, 184.
DISEASES OF FOWLS, 471-497.

Apoplexy, 476. Comb, (white)
477. Cramp, 478. Crop-bound,

479. Croup, 480. Diarrhea, 482.
Egg-eating hens, 483. Gapes, 484.
Gout, 484. Lameness, 484. Lice,
485. Lungs (inflammation), 485.
Pneumonia, 486. Moulting, 486.
Ovaries, 487. Parasites, 488.
Rheumatism, 490. Roup. 490.
Rump Gland, 494. Soft Eggs, 494.

Spinal disease, 494.
DISEASES OF PIGEONS, 499–501.

Canker, 499. Core, 499. Crop-
bound, 499. Diarrhæa, 499. Erup-
tions, 499. Giddiness, 500.

Giz.
zard, falling, 500. Megrims, 500.
Moulting, 500. Vermin, 500.
Vertigo, 501. Wens, 501. Worms,

501. Wounds, 501.
DORKING FOWL - Origin, 119;

description, 122 ; as layers, 334,
375, 377, 379; rearing, 445.

Black, 131. Black-breasted, 128.
Black-breasted Silver, 130. Cuckoo,
130. Golden, 130. Grey speckled,
127. Hen-cock, 131. Japanned,
130. Muffled, 131. Pencilled, 128.
Red speckled, 128. Ruffed, 131.
Spangled, 128. Sussex, 125.

White, 122.
DUCKS—7, 32, 304 ; wild species,

305; domestic species, 308 ; as
food, 353; as layers, 354 ; selection
of stock, 367 ; qualities, 383, 384 ;
houses for, 400 ; breeding, 411;
fattening, 419; as incubators, 432;
rearing, 453 ; feeding, 460.

Aylesbury, 310, 355. Brazilian,
312. Call, 319. Dutch, 319, 358.
East Indian, 316, 357. Marsh, 319.
Muscovite, 312, 356. Rouen, 308,

355. Tufted, 320.
Dung of Fowls as manure, 326, 347,

351.
Dwarf or Creeper Fowl, 184.

Eggs, 48, 324, 362, 368.
Eggs, preserving, 368; setting, 425;

soft, 487.
Egyptian Fowl, 198.

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