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"and unfit to be discussed in the king's bench. "To conclude: they are no matters of fact; they "be not in the trial of the country: the jury "ought not to take any notice of them."

The judge then proceeded to the other prisoners: the evidence produced against them was of the same nature with that which was urged against Campian. The jury retired, and, after deliberating an hour, found them all guilty.

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On the first of the following December, Campian was led to execution. He was dragged to it on a hurdle; his face was often covered with mud, and the people good-naturedly wiped it off. He ascended the scaffold;-there, he again denied all the treasons of which he had been accused. He was required" to ask forgiveness of the queen :' he meekly answered, "wherein have I offended "her? In this I am innocent; this is my last "breath; in this give me credit,—I have, and "I do pray for her." Lord Charles Howard asked him, "for which queen he prayed,-whether "for Elizabeth the queen?" Campian replied "Yes! for Elizabeth, your queen and my queen." He then took his last leave of the spectators, and, turning his eyes towards heaven, the cart was drawn away. "His mild death, and sincere protestations " of innocence," says the writer from whence this account is taken, " moved the people to such com"passion and tears, that the adversaries of the "catholics were glad to excuse his death." Hollingshed says, Campian had won a marvellous "good report, to be such a man as his like was

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"not to be found, for life, learning, or any other quality that might beautify a man."-" All parties," says Mr. Chalmers, in his Biographical Dictionary," allow him to have been a most ex"traordinary man; of admirable parts, an eloquent orator, a subtle disputant, an exact preacher, "both in Latin and English, and a man of good temper and address."

"Certain it is," you say, "that Campian and "his companions suffered for points of state, and "not of faith." I entreat you to peruse their trials; you will find them in the first volume of the State Trials. I most solemnly call upon you to mention a single instance of a crime against allegiance to the queen, which was proved against them : random accusations of this kind are horrible.

You insert a frightful account of the jesuits.Few persons, I believe, have considered the accusations brought against that society, or their vindications, with more attention, or greater impartiality, than myself. The result I have given to the public, in my "Historical Memoirs of the English, Irish, " and Scottish Catholics," and in a separate publication. These I have more than once re-considered, and I have found nothing said in them, in the defence or praise of the society, that I ought to recall +. You conclude what you say respecting them,

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* Chapter XXVI.

+ Historical Memoirs of the Society of Jesus, 8vo. 1823. From two works of character, "Societas Jesu, usque ad sanguinem et vitæ profusionem militans, pro Deo, fide, ecclesiá

by informing us, that "the fourth and peculiar vow "of the jesuits placed them, as missionaries, at the ab❝solute disposal of the Old Man of the Mountain, -alluding to the celebrated, and perhaps fabulous, Prince of the Assassins, mentioned by some of the historians of the crusades. "The popes," you proceed to say, "richly deserved this title of the "Man of the Mountain;' for the principle of assas¿ sination was sanctioned by the two most powerful "of the catholic kings, and by the head of the ❝catholic church. It was acted upon in France " and in Holland; rewards were publicly offered "for the murder of the prince of Orange; and the fanatics, who undertook to murder Elizabeth, ૉર were encouraged by a plenary remission of sins, "granted for this special service."

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Here, you first allude, I suppose, to the massacre on St. Bartholomew's day, ordered by Charles IX. But how can this massacre, or the murder of the prince of Orange, to which you afterwards refer, be justly imputed to any principle of the roman-catholic faith? The plea of Charles IX. was, that the admiral de Coligni and his associ

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"et pieta. Sive vita et mors eorum, qui ex societate Jesu, în causa fidei et virtutis propugnatæ, violenta morte sublati "sunt. Auctore R. P. Tanner, e Soc. Jesu, S. S. Theol. Profess.

Praga, 1675; and, Fasti Societatis Jesu opera et studio, "R. P. Joannis Drewe, S. S. Praga, anno 1750."-It appears, that in Africa, 68,-in Asia, 131,-in America, 55, jesuits had, before the middle of the last century, suffered death,— often after grievous torments,-for propagating the christian faith the number of those who have since suffered death for Christ cannot be inconsiderable.

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ation had been guilty of treason and rebellion, and were then actually engaged in treasonable and rebellious practices; that, by these, they deserved death as traitors; that they would have been condemned to suffer capitally, if the king had been powerful enough to bring them before a proper tribunal; and that, as this was not in his power, the circumstances of the case justified his putting them to death without a trial, by making it â necessary, and, therefore, a justifiable act of self-defence.

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In this light he represented his conduct to the see of Rome, and the foreign courts. I reject the plea as much as yourself; but is it surprising that, in the state of ferment and exaltation in which all minds then were, the plea should have been received by several? Still, how does this prove the princi ple of assassination to be a tenet of the romancatholic church? Does the order given by the episcopalian government of Scotland, for the general massacre of the non-conforming presbyterians,does the massacre at Glenco, the massacre at Munster, the assassination of cardinal Beaton, or the assassination of archbishop Sharp, or the assassination of Francis duke of Guise, prove the principle of assassination to be a tenet of the protestant faith? Far from me and mine be the weakness that receives such an argument; or the wickedness, that, rejecting it themselves, would wish to have it accredited by others. You must remember the magnanimous speech of the duke of Guise to his huguenot assassin : "Your religion taught you to murder me; mine "teaches me to pardon you."

With respect to the murder of the prince of Orange:--that has nothing in common with assassination in the ordinary acceptation of that word. The prince had been tried as a rebel, and condemned for contumacy. If he had professed the catholic religion, and conducted himself in the manner he had done towards a protestant sovereign, would not this have been the case in every protestant state? The consequence was, that an order, (then very usual in such cases, in states on the Continent), was issued, through all the Spanish dominions, offering a reward to any one who should execute the sentence.-What has this, I again ask, in common with the principle of assassination?

You say, that "the fanatics, who undertook to "murder Elizabeth, were encouraged by a plenary "remission of sins, granted for this special ser"vice." I deny the fact most explicitly; I call upon you to mention the names of those fanatics, or the name of any one of them, and to produce evidence of the grant of the remission of their sins. If you have in view cardinal Como's letter to Parry, read it and his trial; then tell me candidly, whether you think that Parry produced the slightest evidence, from which it could be reasonably inferred, that either the pope or the cardinal was aware of any project of assassinating Elizabeth? I beg leave to refer you to what I have written on this subject, in the "Historical Memoirs of the "English, Irish and Scottish Catholics*"

In further proof of your charge of assassina

* Chapter XXXII. sect. 5.

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