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to spread the faith and morality of the gospel, to protect the lower ranks against their oppressors, to preserve peace among princes, and to alleviate the general calamity of the times. Their exertions, during the middle ages, to compel the monarchs of Europe to respect the sanctity of marriage, have not been sufficiently observed. Had it not been for these, 'royal incontinence, even of the worst kind, would probably have become common,
and might perhaps have been generally imitated.
Persecuted and plundered in England, France, Spain, Gerinany, and every other European state, the Jews were uniformly protected by the popes. Great exertions were made by them for the redemption of captives, and the amelioration of the condition of the slaves : in 1167, pope Alexander III. solemnly declared in council, that all christians ought to be exempt from slavery. The popes were always in favour with the lower classes : a certain sign of the protection which that portion of the community received from them. Mr. Sharon Turner observes *, " that no tyranny,” (I wish he had used another word), “was ever established, that “ was more unequivocally the creature of popular “ will; nor longer maintained by popular support :” And that, “ in no point, did personal interest and “ public welfare more unite, than in the encourage“ ment of monasteries." Nothing contributed more to elevate the third estate into notice, or give it importance, than the assistance which the Italian
* History of England, vol. 2, p. 332. 361.
republics, in their contests with the emperors, received from the popes. Their exertions for the conversion of infidels were unremitted. Few nations can read the history of the introduction of christianity among their ancestors, without being sensible of their obligations to the tiara.
Writing to a gentleman of your erudition, I have less hesitation in expressing myself in the manner I have done, than I should have otherwise. No one knows better than yourself, that, whatever advocates for the pope's temporal power may have existed formerly, no advocate for it can be found in the present time. It is rejected in the Gallican declaration of 1682, which was signed by every ecclesiastic, secular or religious, in France. All the English, Irish and Scottish catholics have disclaimed it upon oath. Perhaps it never was quite so hideous as it has been represented; but, « Peace to the strepent horn."
SIR, THE title which you give to the chapter of your work, which I have now to consider, is, “ View of " the Papal System :" The words popery, papal and papist being particularly offensive to roman. catholics, in the sense in which these words are generally used by our adversaries, I have altered it, by substituting the word “roman-catholic” for the word “papal.” In the oath, which the legisla. ture has prescribed to us, we are styled “ catholics.” On this account it has always been a rule with me, to denote, in my publications, the religious denomination of christians to which I belong, by the appellation of " roman-catholics."
But, is it not in strictness entitled to this honourable appellation Speaking of the arians, St. Augustine observes, that “ they called theirs the “ catholic church, and wished others so to call it. “ ,
But,” continues this great man, “ if any stranger “ comes into their cities, and inquires of them for
a catholic church, to which churches do they “ themselves point? Certainly not to their own.”— May I not ask, whether, if a stranger were to inquire, even from a prelate of your church, where the catholics assembled for divine worship, he would point to his own cathedral, or to any of his parochial churches? Would he not point to the place of wor
ship in which those, whom the law terms romancatholics are used to assemble? Would not the same answer be given if the inquiry was made of any protestant in any other condition of life? Would not this be the case all over the world ? And does it not incontrovertibly show the universal feelings of persons of every creed, that mine is the church, catholie, or the church, universally diffused?
Under the numerous heads of,-1. Devotion to the Virgin Mary, the saints and angels, and respect to the cross, and the relics of the saints :--II. Purgatory, and prayers for the dead :--HI. Auricular confession and indulgences :-IV. Grace and freewill :-V. Transubstantiation :- And VI. The authority of the pope :-I shall take successively into consideration, the principal subjects upon which you criminate the roman-catholics in your tenth chapter. A controversial discussion of any of these topics would be misplaced in this publication : a}} that I shall attempt will be, to state, in the shortest manner possible, the doctrine of the roman-catholic church on these different heads, accompanying them with short remarks. I shall close
I shall close my letter with some general observations.
Devotion to the Virgin Mary and the Saints, respect to
the Cross, and to the Relics of the Saints. 1. “ The saints, reigning with Christ, offer up “their prayers to God for man. It is a good and “ useful supplication to invoke them; and to have "recourse to their prayers, help and assistance to “ obtain favours from God, through his Son Jesus “ Christ our Lord, above, who is our Redeemer rand Saviour." This is the decree of the council of Trent*.- The catechism, published in pursuance of its decrees, teaches, that “ God and the saints “ are not to be prayed to in the same manner; for “ we pray to God that He himself would give us
good things, and deliver us from evil things: “ but we beg of the saints, because they are pleas
ing to God, that they would be our advocates, (6 and obtain from God what we stand in need
of t.” Consult Bossuet's Exposition of Faith, under this article; read the catechisms, which we successively put into the hands of children, youth, and persons grown up : examine all our writers, either profound or popular, you will meet with the same doctrine. Open our prayer books, you will find, that, when we address God the Father, God the Son, God the Holy Ghost, or the Holy Trinity, we say to them,
“ Have mercy on us; and that, when we address the blessed Virgin, the saints, or the angels,--the descent is infinite, and we say to them, “ Pray for us.”
What do we think of those, who give to the Virgin Mary, to the saints, or to the angels, the honour due to God? Open Mr. Gother's “ Papist Misrepresented,” abridged by doctor Challoner,
-the editions of which abridgment are countless,you will find in them these strong expressions :
* Sess. xxv. de Invocatione Sanctorum. + Part iv. Quis Orandus.