Madame Mère was not ennobled by any title. A shrewd, sedate gentlewoman, she disliked the state and ceremony of courts; and, happy in the society of a few old friends and the visits of her children, lived a life of calm wonder at the luck of the family, fearing it might come to an end some day, and saving her money to meet any of the turns of fortune. Her daughters shared the splendid rise of her sons. Marie Elise, born in 1777, and married, in 1797, to Felix Bacciochi, a poor officer of good family, was, in 1808, created Princess of Piombina and Grand Duchess of Lucca, in which station she supported her dignity and her husband with remarkable ability. She died in 1820. Her younger sister, Marie Pauline, born 1780, was first married to General LeClerc (1801) and, after his death, to Prince Borghese, in 1803. She was the most beautiful of the family and loved state and splendid society as if she had been to the manner born. She also loved the fine arts and patronized them, and was the favorite sister of the emperor. Her death took place in 1825. Caroline Marie Anunciada, the youngest daughter, born in 1782, was, in 1800, married to the beau sabreur, Joachim Murat; and, in 1808, she found herself Queen of Naples; in which high office she showed as much ruling ability as her husband, and went beyond him in the work of patronizing art and literature, founding schools for female instruction, and increasing the Museo Borbonico from the excavations of Pompeii. Talleyrand used to say of Queen Caroline that she was "a charming woman with the head of Oliver Cromwell." She was by far the ablest woman of the Bonaparte family. She died at Florence in 1839.

"All these and more went flocking" from France and their customary places, on the first exile of Napoleon in 1814. But the curtain which fell on the little isle in that year soon rose again, to exhibit one of the most powerful acts of that vehement life-drama. On the first of March, 1815, after an exile of six months, and while the sovereigns of the Holy Alliance were busily employed in arranging affairs in Europe after the old fashions, Napoleon stepped from a little vessel to the quay at Frejus, in the south of France, with a company of about a dozen persons, and began a march on Paris which is

perhaps the most astonishing on military record. The Bourbon monarchy was guarded by 200,000 armed men and guaranteed by all the kings of Europe, when Napoleon set out. On the 2d of March, he and his little party approached Vizelle, where a strong regiment was drawn up. Flinging open his coat and baring his breast, he advanced and asked aloud if the soldiers wanted to shoot their old commander. The effect was instantaneous; and in half an hour he was on his march to Grenoble at the head of his late opponents. He performed the same sort of military miracle at the barricades of the latter city, raised to oppose him, and still pressed his march forward. At Lyons he found himself suddenly at the head of an army which, the day before, had obeyed the Duc d'Artois; and so travelled onward, without pausing, in a growing tumult of enthusiasm, till he found himself once more in the old palace of Fontainebleau. Between this place and Paris was massed the army of Louis XVIII, commanded by his brother and sworn to seize the fugitive. But the scene at Melun was the crowning astonishment. A hundred thousand men, standing to their arms, looked intensely towards the high road to the south. Suddenly, coming over the ridge, appeared a single calèche, driven rapidly and holding three persons- one of them being General Drouet, the other General Bertrand- while the centre man stood with his arms stretched forward. History narrates what followed. While the army rushed towards the emperor, the royal princes fled to Paris; the calèche coming on swiftly behind them, backed by a hundred thousand men. On the same day, 20th of March, Louis XVIII was driving as rapidly in the direction of Ghent, while Napoleon, entering the Tuileries in the evening, issued his orders as calmly as if he had never left it.* This and other authentic actions of Napoleon throw the fanciful and semi-fabulous exploits of Alexander and Cæsar into the shade, and sufficiently

*The French punctuate their stormiest facts of history with bons mots; and the jest of 1814 was at the expense of the journalists, who, when the invader had landed in France, announced: "The Corsican is in France.' Next day it was: "Bonaparte is at Grenoble ;" in a few days they printed: "General Bonaparte is at Lyons;" then "The Emperor is at Auxerre;" and at last: "His Majesty, the Emperor, reached the Tuileries last evening in good health."

account for the popularity of himself and his memory in France.

The work that followed exhibited the same, if not a greater, amount of energy and genius. For thirty days, as the emperor himself recorded, he spent sixteen hours a day in the effort to raise the army of France from 200,000 to 400,000 men; at the same time announcing a new constitution such as he knew the people of France had long needed. He then summoned the great officers, dignitaries and popular representatives to the grand spectacular pageant of the Champ de Mai-a modern reproduction of the Frankish Campus Madius and there pledged himself and them, on the first of June, to the defence of the country against all its enemies. The allied sovereigns, who had quitted France, retraced their steps and were soon approaching the frontiers with nearly half a million of soldiers. The English and Prussians, under Wellington and Blücher, were still in Belgium; and the emperor, quitting Paris, resolved to fall upon and annihilate them, before the Russians and Austrians could come up. His troops were inferior to those of Austerlitz and Jena; but he beat Blücher and the Prussians at Ligny, and the English from Quatre-Bras, and then, after a night's rest in the midst of a violent rain, stormed the ridges of Waterloo on the 18th of June. The British squares stood steadily on the defensive till the evening, when Blücher with the Prussians, moving against the flank of the French army, forced it back in confusion and put an end to the emperor's latest and most wonderful reign, of "The Hundred Days."

The last scene of all presents us with the little farm-stead of St. Helena, treeless under a tropical sun, and watched day and night by a cordon of English soldiers; and it has, for a great many, as strong an interest as any of those that preceded it. In it Napoleon showed more of his natural character to those about him, whether in his talk or, more simply, in his shirt-sleeves and drawers; as may be gathered from the memorials of him published by Montholon, Gourgaud, Las Cases, Surgeon O'Meara, Antomarchi and others. He was more of the man and less of the emperor. And yet, in one


respect, he insisted on maintaining "state" and waging war to the end. To the English, and against them, he was always Emperor," and manoeuvered against Sir Hudson Lowe as resolutely as he had done previously against kaisers and kings; insisting on a proper personal respect, and resisting all attempts to coerce or intrude upon him in any way. In this, people have discovered a certain littleness. But that was part of his powerful character. He always acted with reference to the feelings and prejudices of men in general; much more than Zeno would have done, or Diogenes, or Ignatius Loyola; and was no ascetic, but a man of strong passions and high-handed ways-one who had, after his own fashion, as lively a sympathy with his fellow-beings as Oliver Goldsmith himself.

In 1821, at the age of fifty-two, Napoleon died of cancer of the stomach; rendered, of course, more deadly by the vehement brain-work of years, and the hot air of St. Helena.* The sovereigns composing the Holy Alliance could now breathe freely. They had been always haunted by the idea that the man of Austerlitz and Moscow might again appear in the midst of them, at any moment; especially as many American vessels had touched at the island. The English were fearful of some American stratagem in the way of carrying off the prisoner, as he, in 1815, had proposed to take up his abode in the United States. In Germany, France, Italy and Spain, things went on after the old fashion; and yet not quite in the old ways. The outbreak of French democracy and the onsets of French armies had changed the thoughts of men; and society, through much tribulation, was making some steps in advance.

Nine years after the death of Napoleon, the Parisians drove the elder Bourbons out of France; and in 1841, Louis Philippe brought back the remains of the emperor and laid them in the grand sarcophagus of the Invalides, thus giving a national

* Marie Louise-twenty-four years old in 1815-did not accompany her husband to Elba or St. Helena. She lived chiefly in Parma as Duchess of Parma, Placenza and Guastalla; and, about a year after the death of Napoleon, married General Count Neipperg, by whom she had several children. In 1836, the troubles of Italy forced her to quit the Duchy and she died at Vienna, in 1847, aged 56.

sanction to the popular feeling of the country, where, in disregard of the old conscriptions, sufferings and invasions, the memory of the great soldier and law-giver was remembered with pride. The poets had helped to strengthen that feeling. Even in England, Byron wrote some of his best things on the theme of Napoleon; and a number of other European poets-Manzoni among them-followed his example. All the great French poets took pride in his glory; most notably, Victor Hugo, who has given the world a number of lyrics on that animating theme-the "Ode to the Column in the Place Vendôme," "Lui," "Bounaberdi," and several others; while Lamartine and Casimir Delavigne, after a less fervid manner, moralized the great character and life-work of the chief, in a very harmonious manner. But, of all those French bards, Béranger has done most

to soften to the heart Napoleon's story;

as all readers of his happy and popular songs-especially the "Souvenirs du Peuple".

"On parlera de sa gloire

Sous le chaume bien longtemps--"

may easily remember.

The biography of Napoleon II, born in 1811, and made king of Rome in his infancy, is as short and shadowy as that of Louis XVII. On the fall of his father, he, a child of three years, was taken by his mother to Vienna, where he was educated, and, in 1818, made Duke of Reichstadt. He was a mild, sickly lad, having more of the Hapsburg than the Corsican blood in his veins. His education was partly military, and he performed for a few years the duty of lieutenant-colonel in a regiment of Hungarian hussars. He died of phthisis, at the Palace of Schoenbrun, in 1832.

Seven years after the burial-pageant of Napoleon, came the Revolution of 1848, which brought the Bonapartes back to France, with the man who, at his baptism, in 1808, had been recognized by Napoleon as among the heirs of his throne. Louis Napoleon was the youngest son of Hortense Beauharnais and Louis, king of Holland, who sometimes said the boy was

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