revolutionists, against the Austrians and the pope. He married his first cousin, Zénaïde, daughter of King Joseph, a lady who, like himself, loved literature and helped him to bring out his books on European and American ornithology, and his Iconographia della Fauna Italica. In 1850 he went to Paris, where he became Director of the Jardin des Plantes. He published Memoirs of himself and died in 1857, leaving three sons; the eldest of whom, Joseph Louis, died at Rome in 1865. His second son, Lucien Louis Joseph, born in 1828, and educated for the priesthood, was made a Cardinal in 1868. His third son, Napoleon Gregory, was married to the Princess Ruspoli and served with the French army in Algiers and Mexico.

The second son of the Corsican Lucien is Louis Lucien, born in 1813, and distinguished for his cultivation of philology and chemistry. In 1847 he was elected to the French Legislative Assembly from the department of the Seine. He is an LL.D. of Oxford, and has published a book-La langue basque et les langues finnoises (London, 1862) followed by a Basque version of Solomon's Song, and a great many essays and letters printed in the London Athenæum, the Academy, Notes and Queries, etc.

The third son of the first Lucien is Pierre Napoleon, born in 1815, and very much of a wanderer, like most of his family. His nature is rather wilful and vehement. In 1836 the pope sentenced him to exile from Rome for his carbonaro sentiments. On that occasion he had a scuffle with the sbirri and killed one of them. After his liberation from the castle of Santo Angelo he travelled to Germany and England, and then joined the French army in Algeria. Quitting his regiment without leave, he was arrested; and his conduct being commented on by a journal, he fought a duel with the editor. In 1869 he married the daughter of his washerwoman and sturdily refused to divorce her, at the urgent instance of his cousin, the emperor. In 1870 he killed Victor Noir, a journalist, who had come to his house with a challenge from another journalist, and was mulcted in a sum of 25,000 francs. He then migrated to London with his family, and there, in

Bond Street, set his wife up in the business of a fashionable dressmaker, with her name - La Princesse Bonaparte over the window. The act was Napoleonic in its daring, and Madame was happy to find it very profitable. If she has any children, their names are not yet on public record.

The first Lucien had yet another son, Antoine, born in 1816, a man of quiet ideas and ways who lived very much at home with his father, and at the same time sympathized, like the other members of the family, with the malcontents of Italy. He was a member of the French Assembly, but retired from public life in 1851.


The youngest brother of Napoleon I-Jerome, who died in 1860, near Paris, in the calm light of imperialism—had three His Würtemberg issue, Jerome Napoleon, an officer in the army of Würtemberg, was born in 1814 and died in 1847. His second son, Napoleon-Joseph nicknamed Plon-plon in his childhood, from his attempts to pronounce the name Napoléon-was born in 1822 and educated at Rome and in Switzerland; his teacher in the latter place being his cousin, subsequently Napoleon III. Louis Philippe allowed him to reside in France, where he and his father, Jerome, helped in 1849, the advancement of his cousin and tutor. Yet he was very democratic in his ideas, and almost always in opposition to the emperor. He took a slight part in the expedition to the Crimea; but, being "fat and scant of breath," like Hamlet, did not do anything to distinguish himself. He always had a look of Napoleon I; and the lyrist, Béranger, said he was “a medallion of the emperor steeped in German oil." From his mother he derived the placidity of manner which has exposed him to some ridicule and concealed many of his better qualities. In 1859 he married Clothilde, daughter of the late king of Italy and sister of the present king. In 1865 he was present at the inauguration of a statue of Napoleon I at Ajaccio, and, in presence of the empress and her son, made a very democratic speech, for which the emperor publicly rebuked him. In spite of his democracy, the new government of 1871 would not allow him to live in France, and he went to his

estate of Prangins, near Geneva. He has two sons, Victor and Louis, the eldest of whom is seventeen years old.

A notice of the Bonaparte family would be incomplete without mention of the American branch of it. Jerome Bonaparte, son of Jerome, the first emperor's brother, and Elizabeth Patterson, of Baltimore, was born in 1805, in England, whither his mother had proceeded, on the Emperor's refusal to let her land in France. Mother and son soon returned to Baltimore. In 1829 Jerome, Jr. married Miss Susan Williams, of Roxbury, Mass., greatly to the disgust of his mother, who was then in Europe among her husband's princely relations and who had tried to obtain for him one of the daughters of King Joseph. A late number of Scribner's Magazine contains some of her letters to her father (Mr. Patterson) in which she writes a number of vivacious, giddy and shrewish things, indicating that, in her own family, she must have been a petite peste-the epithet Napoleon applied to the Duchess d'Abrantes. In one letter, she calls her husband, Jerome, "the most worthless of his race," and elsewhere she says her son "Bo" has neither ambition nor energy; adding that, after all, one cannot make a silk purse of a sow's ear. Adoring the dignity of the Bonapartes and looking down on the Pattersons, she spent fifteen years in Europe-from 1819 to 1834-and then returned to live, for the next forty-five years, in Baltimore-somewhat after the secluded fashion of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in Italy, and Lady Hester Stanhope in Syria. She was a close economist of her means, which were chiefly derived from the allowance she received from the first Napoleon.

Jerome Patterson Bonaparte visited Paris in 1838 and 1849, and was kindly received by Louis Philippe and Napoleon III. But he could not procure any French recognition of his mother's marriage. He died in 1870. His son, Jerome Napoleon, born 1832, is a graduate of West Point. He served with the French army in the Crimea and elsewhere, till the fall of the emperor. He is married to a Boston lady, and a resident of Baltimore.

The death of the Prince Imperial has devolved the leadership of the Bonapartists on Prince Napoleon, son of Jerome;

and he has accepted it, as a matter of course, receiving only a qualified adhesion from the advocates of imperialism, and hoping very little, probably, from its chances in the future. He has hitherto expressed sympathy with the French republic, and is not a man to plot against it, since France, forgetting old frenzies and delusions, has evidently resolved to maintain it. Her people hope nothing from Bourbons, Orleanists or Bonapartes; names that, in all likelihood, will fade away into the limbo of the Jagellons, Vasas, Stuarts, Estes and Guelfs, where the Hapsburgs and Hohenzollerns will join them, in the fulness of time. On some coming day, a republic of Germany may allow Alsace-Lorraine to choose its allegiance; thus removing the heart-burnings of the French, in a spirit of democratic fraternity, and bringing into life a "Confederation of the Rhine" far more beautiful and beneficent than that of 1807. The people every where are outliving their old enmities-most notably on both sides of the Strait of Calais; and the death of the French prince has given some very remarkable evidence of this change of sentiment. The English feel kindly towards those Bonapartes so hated by their fathers; and a queen of England has wept over the fate of the Corsican's grand-nephew. On the 12th of July, 1879, the day of the funeral at Chiselhurst, Victoria and her daughter Beatrice went to the chapel where the coffin lay, knelt, Catholic fashion, before the candles of the altar, offered flowers, and mingled her tears with those of Prince Napoleon, his sister, Princess Mathilde, and other foreign mourners. On that occasion she observed, in a very natural way, that it was a changed world, when a grandchild of George III could be found at the funeral of a Bonaparte.

All things considered, the Bonapartes have not lived in vain.* The wildest or boldest of the family have shaken

*Conspicuous failures do not prove that men have lived in vain. One of the failures of the present day is Ismail Pasha, who is now at his St. Helena (Naples) dictating his "Mémoires," probably, to some Frenchman. But he has done a thousand things-mostly in a high-handed, overbearing way,--to rouse Egypt from its dream of ages and push it along the highway of modern progress. Civilization is marked by many defeats and overthrows. But, to quote the words of Galileo, e pur si muove.

and hurried the progress of European liberty in a variety of ways, and the terrible disasters that have overtaken some of them have had the effect of softening animosities, and bringing into more kindly relations and a better state of feeling those who had once stood off in differences so mighty." And this may be accepted as the moral of the Napoleonic drama on which the curtain has just fallen.

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