Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill.

Did this in Cæsar seem ambitious?

When that the poor have cried, Cæsar hath wept;
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff:

Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;

And Brutus is an honourable man.
You all did see that, on the Lupercal,

I thrice presented him a kingly crown,
Which he did thrice refuse.

Was this ambition?

Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And, sure, he is an honourable man.

I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke;
But here I am to speak what I do know.



You all did love him once, not without cause:
What cause withholds you then to mourn for him?


Oh, judgment thou art fled to brutish beasts,
And men have lost their reason! Bear with me:
My heart is in the coffin there with Cæsar,

And I must pause till it come back to me.


1st Cit. Methinks there is much reason in his sayings. 2d Cit. If thou consider rightly of the matter,

Cæsar has had great wrong.

3d Cit. Has he, masters? I fear there will a worse come

in his place.

4th Cit. Marked ye his words? He would not take the


Therefore, 'tis certain he was not ambitious.


1st Cit. If it be found so, some will dear abide it. 2d Cit. Poor soul! his eyes are red as fire with weeping. 3d Cit. There's not a nobler man in Rome than Antony. 4th Cit. Now, mark him, he begins again to speak. Ant. But yesterday, the word of Cæsar might


Have stood against the world; now lies he there,
And none so poor to do him reverence.

Oh, masters! if I were disposed to stir

Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage,


I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong,
Who, you all know, are honourable men.
I will not do them wrong: I rather choose

To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you,
Than I will wrong such honourable men.


But here's a parchment with the seal of Cæsar :
I found it in his closet; 'tis his will.

Let but the commons hear this testament-
Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read—

And they would go and kiss dead Cæsar's wounds,


And dip their napkins in his sacred blood;

Yea, beg a hair of him for memory,

And dying, mention it within their wills,
Bequeathing it as a rich legacy

Unto their issue.


4th Cit. We'll hear the will; read it, Mark Antony.

All. The will! the will!

We will hear Cæsar's will!

Ant. Have patience, gentle friends! I must not read it;

It is not meet you know how Cæsar loved you.


You are not wood, you are not stones, but men ;
And, being men, hearing the will of Cæsar,
It will inflame you, it will make you mad.
'Tis good you know not that you are his heirs ;
For, if you should, oh, what would come of it!

4th Cit. Read the will; we will hear it, Antony :


You shall read us the will; Cæsar's will!

Ant. Will you be patient? will you stay a while?

I have o'ershot myself, to tell you of it.

I fear I wrong the honourable men

Whose daggers have stabbed Cæsar. I do fear it. 4th Cit. They were traitors. Honourable men? All. The will! the testament !

2d Cit. They were villains, murderers!

the will!


The will!


Ant. You will compel me, then, to read the will! Then make a ring about the corpse of Cæsar,


And let me show you him that made the will.
Shall I descend? And will you give me leave?

All. Come down.

2d Cit. Descend.

3d Cit. You shall have leave.

4th Cit. A ring!

[He comes down from the pulpit.

Stand round!

1st Cit. Stand from the hearse, stand from the body. 2d Cit. Room for Antony-most noble Antony!


Ant. Nay, press not so upon me; stand far off.

All. Stand back! room! bear back!

Ant. If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.

You all do know this mantle. I remember


The first time ever Cæsar put it on;

'Twas on a summer's evening in his tent,

That day he overcame the Nervii.

Look in this place ran Cassius' dagger through ;

See, what a rent the envious Casca made!


Through this the well-beloved Brutus stabbed;
And, as he plucked his cursed steel away,
Mark how the blood of Cæsar followed it!
As rushing out of doors, to be resolved.
If Brutus so unkindly knocked, or no.


For Brutus, as you know, was Cæsar's angel;

Judge, oh you gods! how dearly Cæsar loved him.

This was the most unkindest cut of all;

For when the noble Cæsar saw him stab,

Ingratitude, more strong than traitors' arms,


Quite vanquished him; then burst his mighty heart :
And, in his mantle muffling up his face,

Even at the base of Pompey's statue,

Which all the while ran blood, great Cæsar fell.


Oh, what a fall was there, my countrymen!
Then I, and you, and all of us fell down,
Whilst bloody treason flourished over us.
Oh, now you weep; and I perceive you feel
The dint of pity: these are gracious drops.

Kind souls! What! weep you when you but behold
Our Cæsar's vesture wounded? Look you here!
Here is himself, marred, as you see, with traitors.
1st Cit. O piteous spectacle!

2d Cit. O noble Cæsar!

3d Cit. O woful day!

4th Cit. O traitors! villains!

1st Cit. O most bloody sight!



2d Cit. We will be revenged! Revenge! About-seekburn-fire-kill-slay! Let not a traitor live!

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Bru'-tus, a noted Roman citizen who had joined in the conspiracy to murder Cæsar. He was born 85 B.C., and killed himself by falling upon his sword, in a battle where he was defeated. am-bi'-tious, desirous of power. ran'-soms, money received for delivering up prisoners. gen'-er-al cof'-fers, the treasury or place where the public money was kept. Lu'-per-cal, 'the cave of the wolf;'

so called from the story of Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome, having been suckled there by a shewolf.

dis-prove', show to be untrue. rev'-er-ence, honour; respect. mu'-tin-y, rise up against authority. parch'-ment, the skin of some animal prepared for writing


com'-mons, common people. tes'-ta-ment, will.

be-queath'-ing, leaving.


spec'-ta-cle trai'-tors

leg'-a-cy, anything left by will. iss'-ue, children; descendants. Mark An'-to-ny, a connection of Cæsar through his mother. He stabbed himself 31 B.C., after being defeated by Augustus at Actium.

man'-tle, cloak. Cas'-si-us, a Roman noble upon whom Cæsar had bestowed great honour, and the author of the conspiracy to kill him. en'-vi-ous, grudging the fame or advancement of others. Cas'-ca, the conspirator who aimed the first thrust at Cæsar. in-grat'-i-tude, want of thankfulness for benefits received. van'-quished, conquered. Pom'-pey's sta'-tu-e, a statue in

honour of Pompey, a rival of Cæsar, who had been conquered by him.

vest'-ure, the cloak or outer garment worn by Cæsar. trai'-tor, one who betrays or acts falsely.

EXERCISES.-1. The affixes -age, -ance, -ancy, -dom, -ence, -ency, -head, -hood, -ice, denote state, condition, being, quality; as bond, bondage; abound, abundance; constant, constancy; king, kingdom; innocent, innocence; lenient, leniency; God, Godhead; child, childhood; just, justice.

2. Analyse and parse the following:

'The evil that men do lives after them;

The good is oft interrèd with their bones:

So let it be with Cæsar.'

3. Make sentences of your own, and use in each one or more of the following words: Mutiny, legacy, ransom, ambitious.


[This brilliant speech was delivered in the House of Peers, at the opening of parliament in November 1777, on our employing mercenary troops and Indians in the war with America. In spite of the eloquence of Lord Chatham, his amendment was rejected by a vote of ninety-seven to twenty-four.]

1. I cannot, my lords, I will not, join in congratulation on misfortune and disgrace. This, my lords, is a perilous and tremendous moment. It is not a time for adulation; the smoothness of flattery cannot save us in this rugged and awful crisis. It is now necessary to instruct the throne in the language of truth. We must, if possible, dispel the delusion and darkness which envelop it, and display, in its full danger and genuine colours, the ruin which is brought to our doors.

2. Can ministers still presume to expect support in their infatuation? Can parliament be so dead to its dignity and duty, as to give their support to measures thus obtruded and forced upon them? Measures, my lords, which have reduced this late flourishing empire to scorn and contempt! But yesterday, and Britain might have stood against the world; now, none so

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