C. archboldi is probably most closely related to C. eublepharus among the neotropical species. Points of similarity include the narrowly separated, hairy eyes; long distal antennal segments and sensory pattern 3,11–14; single spermatheca; and general structure of the male genitalia, especially the shape of the parameres. However, C. eublepharus (redescribed by Wirth and Blanton, 1959, p. 424, under the name C. transferrams Ortiz) has a distinct wing pattern and a definite, round palpal pit.

Larval Habitat.—Unknown.

Biting Habits.-The species was collected twice by Dr. Aitken at a chick-baited trap and it is probably ornithophilic.

Culicoides arubae Fox and Hoffman

(Figs. 5, 8, and 30)

Culicoides arubae Fox and Hoffman, 1944, p. 109 (male, female; Aruba I.; fig. wing) —Barbosa, 1947, p. 11 (distribution; fig. palpus, male genitalia) — Ortiz and Mirsa, 1952, p. 269 (redescribed; Venezuela; illus.):-Jones and Wirth, 1958, p. 86 (larval habitat; Texas) —Wirth and Blanton, 1959, p. 464 (redescribed; Panama; illus.) – Jones, 1961a, p. 702 (larval habitat; Texas) –Jones, 1961b, p. 742 (pupa, in key).

Culicoides sp. 1, Fox, 1942, p. 420 (pupa; Dutch West Indies; from crab holes; illus.).

Female.—Wing length 1.17 mm. Head: Eyes narrowly separated, bare. Antenna (fig. 8, a) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 22–13–13–13–13–12–12–11–15–15–

16–17–32; AR 0.87; sensory pattern 3–10. Palpal segments (fig. 8, e) with lengths in proportion of 15–30–48– 11–11; PR 2.3; third segment with broad, shallow sensory pit. Proboscis long, P/H ratio 0.90; mandible with 14–16 teeth. Thorax: Dark brown; mesonotum (fig. 8, c) densely pale grayish pruinose with median and sublateral vittae indistinctly yellowish-brown fumose; pattern of numerous punctiform brown dots at seta bases; scutellum dark brown in middle, pale on sides. Legs dark brown with distinct annulations; knees narrowly pale, then narrow blackish rings succeeded by narrow pale rings on each side on femora and tibiae; femora narrowly pale at bases; fore femur with narrow pale ring at midlength; tibial comb (fig. 8, d) with seven to eight spines, the one nearest the spur longest. Wing (fig. 8, b, 30, i): Pattern as figured; membrane milky white, with limited dark-gray markings, giving appearance of blackish spots on whitish ground; 2RC blackish; veins pale margined; cell R5 with a large pale spot surrounding a small black spot behind 2RC, a broad, V-shaped mark and a small distal round pale spot in apex of cell; cells M1 and M2 with three small round pale spots past level of forks; two pale spots in cell M4 and two in distal portion of anal cell; base of wing extensively pale. Macrotrichia sparse but well distributed over wing including anal cell; CR 0.52; 2RC with distinct lumen. Halter knob infuscated. Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (fig. 8, f) two (occasionally three, as figured) plus rudimentary third and sclerotized ring; functional ones slightly unequal, ovoid, measuring 0.043 by 0.038 mm. and 0.038 by 0.029 mm.; without sclerotized necks.

Male Genitalia (fig. 8, h).-Ninth sternum with shallow caudomedian excavation, ventral membrane not spiculate; ninth tergum short and

tapering with large triangular apicolateral processes and deep caudomedian notch. Basistyle with dorsal and ventral roots simple, slender; dististyle nearly straight, tapering to slender, bent, pointed tip. Aedeagus broad and stout, basal arch extending to half of total length; distal portion with broad truncate tip. Parameres (fig. 8, g) separate; each with large, laterally directed basal arm bearing a lateral knob; main body short, slightly crooked, tapering to simple, ventrally bent, distal filament.

FIGURE 8.—Culicoides arubae: a, Female antenna; b, female wing; c, thoracic pattern; d, tibial comb; e, female palpus; f, spermathecae; g, male parameres; h, male

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genitalia, parameres removed.


Distribution.—Aruba I., Colom

bia, Panama, Texas, Venezuela (fig.

5). Type.—Holotype, female, Aruba I., Netherlands Antilles, AugustSeptember 1929, W. A. Hoffman (University of Puerto Rico collection). West Indian Records.ARUBA ISLAND: Holotype female, allotype male, one paratype male, data as above (Fox and Hoffman, 1944). Discussion.—The correct systematic position of C. arubae is not readily apparent. It is similar in wing pattern, the punctiform mesonotal pattern, and presence of frontal tubercles to C. variipennis, the North American member of the subgenus Monoculicoides that shares its coastal habitat with C. arubae in Texas. C. arubae differs from C. variipennis, however, in number of spermathecae and in the separate male parameres, two important subgeneric characters excluding C. arubae from Monoculicoides and bringing it within our concept of the subgenus Oecacta. This species is included in the West Indies list because it occurs on the island of Aruba off the coast of Venezuela (fig. 5). Larval Habitat.—The type series was reared by Hoffman from crab holes on Aruba Island. Jones and Wirth (1958) and Jones (1961a) reared C. arubae from the margins

of salt-water pools in pickleweed and grassy salt marshes and a nonvegetated fresh-water slough in the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Aransas County, Tex., where associated Culicoides taxa were C. bermudensis and C. variipennis australis Wirth and Jones.

Biting Habits.-Wirth and Blanton (1959) reported C. arubae taken from the ear of a mule, Corozal, C.Z., Panama.

Culicoides barbosai Wirth

and Blanton (Figs. 5, 9, and 30)

Culicoides barbosai Wirth and Blanton, 1956c, p. 161 (male, female; Panama, Florida, Bahamas, Ecuador; illus.):Lewis, 1958, p. 721 (Jamaica; internal anatomy; illus.):-Wirth and Blanton, 1959, p. 400 (redescribed; illus.):Davies, 1964, p. 33 (biology; Jamaica). —Linley, 1965a, p. 58 (pupa; Jamaica; illus.):-Linley, 1966b, p. 1 (ovarian cycle; Jamaica).-Linley and Davies, 1971, p. 264 (biology and control; Florida, West Indies).

Female.—Wing length 0.88 mm.

Head: Eyes (fig. 9, d) nearly contiguous, bare. Antenna (fig. 9, a) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 18–13–13–13–13–13– 13–13–15–18–20–20–28; AR 0.93; sensory pattern 3,7–10. Palpal segments (fig. 9, c) with lengths in proportion of 7–17–21–8–8; PR 2.2; third segment moderately swollen, with a small deep sensory pit. Proboscis moderately short, P/H ratio 0.68; mandible with 16 teeth.

Thorax: Mesonotum (fig. 9, e) pruinose gray with pattern of darkbrown punctiform dots at bases of mesonotal hairs, these dots irregularly fused in some areas, principally in two sublateral, longitudinal bands; scutellum narrowly dark in middle, yellowish on sides. Legs (fig. 9, g) dark brown; knee spots blackish; all femora with subapical, all tibiae with subbasal, and hind tibia with apical, narrow pale rings; tibial comb with four spines, the one nearest the spur longest. Wing (figs. 9, by 30, a): Pattern as figured, 2RC dark to tip; large yellowish anterior spots at wing base and over r-m crossvein; two longitudinally elongate poststigmatic pale

spots in cell R5 narrowly fused to form an hourglass-shaped spot; distal pale spot in cell R5 large, rounded, and broadly meeting anterior wing margin; two pale spots in cell M1, the proximal one streaklike and lying adjacent to vein M2, the distal one usually connected by a narrow pale line to wing margin; veins M1 and M2 very faintly pale margined on distal halves; a pale line running through cell M2 to pale spot at apex of cell; large pale spot in cell M4; two pale spots, more or less coalesced, in distal part of anal cell. Macrotrichia numerous on distal

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FIGURE 9.—Culicoides barbosai : a, Female antenna; b, female wing; c, female palpus; d, female eye separation; e, thoracic pattern; f, spermathecae; g, hind femur and tibia; h, male parameres; i, male genitalia, parameres removed.


half of wing and a few in anal cell; CR 0.58. Halter dark. Abdomen: Dark brown, cerci pale. Spermathecae (fig. 9, f) two plus sclerotized ring and rudimentary third; spermathecae ovoid with short, slender necks; subequal, each measuring 0.045 by 0.030 mm. Male Genitalia (fig. 9, i.).-Ninth sternum with broad caudomedian excavation, ventral membrane not spiculate; ninth tergum long, apicolateral processes moderately long and slender. Basistyle with slender, “foot-shaped” ventral root, dorsal root slender; dististyle long and slender, with bent apex. Aedeagus with basal arch extending to 0.7 of total length, basal arms slender and slightly curved, distal portion tapered to slender, rounded point with an indistinct lateral pair of pointed hyaline processes near juncture with arch. Parameres (fig. 9, h) separate; each with strongly sclerotized basal knob, stem slender and curved near base, distal portion gradually more swollen, with a distinct low ventral lobe, then distally becoming quite slender, tapering to a fine point with a few minute lateral fringing spines. Distribution.—Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Florida, Jamaica, Panama (fig. 5). Type.—Holotype, female, Mojinga Swamp, Panama Canal Zone, January 1953, F. S. Blanton, light trap (USNM 63157). West Indian Records.BAHAMAS: Abaco, Marsh Harbour, 13 April 1968, G. M. Stokes, light trap, 4 females; Grand Cay,

November 1957, R. Arundel, annoying man, 7 females; same, 25 January 1969, Stokes, biting man, 10 females; Grand Turk Island, May 1968, M. E. C. Giglioli, 2 females; Nassau, no date, Bishop, No. 14902, 30 females; New Providence Island, Coral Harbour, 24 November 1968, Stokes, biting man, 5 females; North Bimini Island, Paradise Point, 30 November 1968, Stokes, light trap, 2 females; South Bimini Island, June–July 1951, M. Cazier, C. and P. Vaurie, Berlese trap, 1 male, 3 females (AMNH); same, 1 December 1968, Stokes, biting man, 1 female. CAYMAN ISLANDS: No locality, November 1967, M. E. C. Giglioli, 1 female; Driftwood Village, 1 January 1970, J. E. Davies, light trap, 4 females. CUBA: Guantanamo Bay, 21 February 1962, E. R. Turner, light trap, 1 male, 3 females; same, 3 September 1964, T. S. Josey, light, 1 female; same, February–April 1970, J. E. Tisdale, light trap, 1,000's. JAMAICA: Reading, 4 miles east Montego Bay, reared from larvae (Linley, 1965a; Davies, 1967).Portland Ridge, PWD Fish Lodge, Clarendon Parish, 21 August 1967, E. G. Farnworth, biting man, 17 females. Discussion.—A complete review of our current knowledge of the biology and control of C. barbosai was published by Linley and Davies (1971). This species can readily be distinguished from C. furens, with which it is usually found, by the lack

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