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of the small round pale spot in the middle of wing cell R5. Larval Habitat.—Breeland (1960) reared C. barbosai numerous times in Panama from coastal mangrove areas where it showed a preference for coral sand habitats near the ocean shoreline. Linley (1965a) described the pupa reared from the banks of a small spit projecting into a mangrove swamp at Reading, near Montego Bay, Jamaica. Larvae were found in yellow mud, drier than that yielding C. insignis, more toward the landward side of the spit. C. furens was also found breeding at this spot. Davies (1967) reported that C. barbosai in Jamaica is almost entirely confined to the tidal waters of the seaward edge of mangrove swamps and is most numerous in the red mangrove habitat (Rhizophora mangle L.). The emergence rate is inversely proportional to the mean tides, and outbreaks may be expected in April–May and October–November when the sea levels are minimal. C. barbosal habitats are generally at about 0.2 of a foot lower level than those of C. furens. Biting Habits.-Studies on the biting habits of C. barbosai in Jamaica were reported by Kettle and Linley (1969a). This species was found to prefer the arm to the leg when biting humans. Kettle (1969b) found that biting activity was crepuscular and nocturnal with a peak at dawn. He (1969c) reported that moderately high windspeed (above 3 m.p.h.) reduced the biting rate.
Culicoides borinqueni Fox and Hoffman
(Figs. 4, 10, and 30)
Culicoides borinquemi Fox and Hoffman, 1944, p. 110 (male, female; Puerto Rico; fig. wing). Fox, 1946, p. 252 (Puerto Rico).-Fox, 1949, p. 30 (redescribed; Puerto Rico; illus.).-Fox and Kohler, 1950, p. 342 (Puerto Rico).-Fox and Maldonado, 1953, p. 165 (Puerto Rico).-Linley, 1965a, p. 58 (pupa; Jamaica; illus.).
Culicoides species 2–Fox, 1942, p. 417 (pupa; Puerto Rico; illus.).
Female.—Wing length 1.05 mm. Head: Eyes (fig. 10, c) contiguous, bare. Antenna (fig. 10, a) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 25–20–20–20–20–20–20– 20–42–42–50–50–58; AR 1.46; five distal segments elongated; sensory pattern 3,5,7,9,11–15. Third palpal segment (fig. 10, d) broad, PR 2.0; sensory pit round, shallow. Proboscis short, P/H ratio 0.62; mandible with 12–15 minute teeth.
Thorax: Golden brown pollinose on scutellum and disk of mesonotum; pleuron and margins of mesonotum dark brown. Legs (fig. 10, f) dark brown; knees with prominent broad yellowish bands covering apices of femora and bases of tibiae on all legs; knee spot blackish on fore leg only; tip of hind tibia broadly pale; tibial comb with four spines, the one nearest the spur longest.
Wing (figs. 10, b, 30, b): Pattern as figured; 2RC dark to tip; wing deeply infuscated due to coarse microtrichia; with prominent pattern of discrete small whitish spots arranged as for C. bredini, but the distal pale spot in cell R5 usually more obliquely oriented with anterior end directed somewhat distad, anal cell with two well-separated distal pale spots; apices of veins M3+4 and Cu1 pale at wing margin in addition to pale apices of veins M1 and M2. Macrotrichia numerous, extending to base of wing except in radial field; CR 0.62; 2RC with broad lumen. Halter infuscated. Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (fig. 10, e) two plus rudimentary third and short sclerotized ring; functional ones oval with short necks; subequal, each measuring 0.045 by 0.032 mm.
Male Genitalia (fig. 10, h).Ninth sternum with broad, shallow, caudomedian excavation, ventral
membrane not spiculate; ninth tergum short and tapering, with long, slender, pointed, apicolateral processes, caudal margin between them straight. Basistyle moderately stout with simple, slender ventral and dorsal roots; dististyle slender and nearly straight, with bent, pointed tip. Aedeagus with basal arch extending to 0.42 of total length, basal arms moderately slender and curved; distal portion moderately slender with simple rounded tip. Parameres (fig. 10, g) separate; each with
slender, moderately long, basal process bearing a well-developed lateral knob; stem moderately stout at base, rapidly tapering at about midlength to slender, ventrally bent, simple filamentous tip.
FIGURE 10–Culicoides borinquent: a, Female antenna; b, female wing; c, female eye separation; d, female palpus; e, spermathecae; f, hind femur and tibia; g, male parameres; h, male genitalia, parameres removed.
Distribution.—Jamaica, Puerto Rico (fig. 4). Types.—Holotype, female, allo
type, male, two female paratypes, bred from a tree hole, Palmas Abajo, Puerto Rico, February 1931 (University of Puerto Rico collection). West Indian Records.JAMAICA: Brandon Hill, Montego Bay, reared from tree holes; Ewarton, St. Catherine Parish, at light (Linley, 1965a).-Askenish, near Dolphin Head, Hanover Parish, 20 June 1970, E. G. Farnworth, light trap, 1 female; Bath Fountain, St. Thomas Parish, 18 May 1970, Farnworth, light trap, 3 females; Hardwar Gap, Hollywell, Portland Parish, 16 June 1970, Farnworth, light trap, 3 males, 20 females; same, Institute of Jamaica cabin, 3,750 ft., 16 June 1970, Farnworth, light trap, 1 female; same, 20 February 1969, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 1 female; Negril, Westmoreland Parish, 20 November 1968, R. E. Woodruff, light trap in tropical hammock, 1 female; Reach, 2 mi. w. Manchioneal, Portland Parish, 24 November 1968, Woodruff, light trap, 1 female; Runaway Bay, St. Ann Parish, February 1969, Wirth, light trap, 3 females; Worthy Park, St. Catherine Parish, 11 November 1968, Woodruff, light trap, 2 females. PUERTO RICO: Guyanilla, March 1949, Fox, reared from tree hole, 1 male, 1 female (Wirth and Hubert, 1960).-Palmas Abajo, February 1931 (Fox and Hoffman, 1944, types).-Carolina, 20 September 1949, I. Fox, reared from tree hole, 1 male; Fajardo, 1 July 1952, F. S. Blanton, light trap, 1 female.
Discussion.—C. borinquemi is very similar and closely related to C. bredini from Dominica but can be distinguished by the presence of the pale apices of wing veins M3+4 and Cul, the presence of a sensory pit on antennal segment 9 as well as on 3,5,7,11–15, darker halteres, a shorter and stouter basal arch on the aedeagus, and a shorter and more abruptly tapering main body on the parameres.
Larval Habitat.—The type series was reared from a tree hole in Puerto Rico (Fox, 1942; Fox and Hoffman, 1944). Linley (1965a) reared C. borinquemi from tree holes in Jamaica, in one of which it was associated with C. hoffmani.
Wirth and Blanton
(Figs. 4 and 11)
Culicoides bredini Wirth and Blanton, 1970a, p. 41 (male, female; Dominica; illus.).
Female.—Wing length 1 mm.
Head: Eyes (fig. 11, a) contiguous, bare. Antenna (fig. 11, c) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 28–20–20–20–20–20–21– 22–47–50–52–52–73; AR 1.60; five distal segments elongated; sensory pattern 3,5,7,11–15. Third palpal segment (fig. 11, b) broad; PR 1.8; sensory pit round, shallow. Proboscis moderately long, P/H ratio 0.80; mandible with 12 minute teeth.
Thorax: Golden brown above on scutum and scutellum; humeri and lower pleuron dark brown. Legs (fig. 11, f) dark brown; knees with prominent broad pale area covering apices of femora and bases of tibiae on all legs, knee spot blackish on fore leg only; tip of hind tibia narrowly pale; tibial comb with four spines, the one nearest the spur longest. Wing (fig. 11, d): Dark gray due to coarse microtrichia, with prominent pattern of discrete small white spots; pale spot over r-m crossvein extending to costal margin; two poststigmatic pale spots in cell R5 small, round and separate, the hind one lying slightly proximad of the other; distal pale spot in cell R5 small and round, lying near apex of cell but well removed from margin; cell M1 with two pale spots, the proximal one broadly extending over base of vein M2 into cell M2; the latter with pale spot lying behind medial fork, another in front of mediocubital
fork, and a small round pale spot near wing margin; cell M4 with a
large pale spot in distal portion; anal cell with a double (sometimes divided) pale spot in distal portion; apices of veins M1 and M2 with a pale spot at wing margin. Macrotrichia long and coarse, moderately sparse, a few extending to base of wing except in radial field; CR 0.62; 2RC with broad lumen. Halter yellowish, base of knob slightly infuscated. Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (fig. 11, e) two plus a rudimentary third and a long, slender, sclerotized ring; functional ones oval with short necks; subequal, each measuring 0.065 by 0.043 mm. Male Genitalia (fig. 11, h).Ninth sternum with broad, shallow, caudomedian excavation, ventral membrane not spiculate; ninth tergum short and tapering with long, slender, pointed, apicolateral processes, caudal margin between them straight. Basistyle moderately stout with short, broad, ventral root and slender dorsal root; dististyle slender and nearly straight, with bent, pointed tip. Aedeagus with basal arch extending to half of total length, basal arms slender and slightly curved; distal portion slender with slightly flaring, rounded, simple tip. Parameres (fig. 11, g) separate; each with well-developed, lobate, laterally directed basal knob; main portion slender, curved, without ventral lobe, abruptly bent twice near apex and tapering to slender, pointed tip without fringing spines. Distribution.—Dominica (fig. 4). Types.—Holotype, female, allotype, male, paratypes, 44 males, 114 females, Clarke Hall, Dominica, 28 March 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap (USNM 70641). West Indian Records.DOMINICA: Antrim Estate, 1,000 ft., 15 March 1956, J. F. G. Clarke, 1 female; Cabrit Swamp, 23 February 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 2 males; Clarke Hall, May–June 1964, O. S. Flint, light trap, 3 males, 4 females; same, July–September 1964, T. J. Spilman, light trap, 7 males, 40 females; same, October 1964, P. J. Spangler, at light, 1 male; same, January–March 1965, Wirth, light trap, 17 males, 33 females; d’Leau Gommier, 17 March 1956, Clarke, at light, 5 males, 11 females; Fond Figues River, 13 March 1965, Wirth, light trap, 2 females; Macoucheri, 5 March 1965, Wirth, at light, 2 females; Manets Gutter, 15 March 1965, Wirth, 1 male, 4 females; Pont Casse, May-June 1964, Flint, at light, 6 males, 7 females; South Chiltern Estate, 10 February 1965,
FIGURE 11—Culicoides bredini: a, Female eye separation; b, female palpus; c, female antenna; d, female wing; e, spermathecae; f, hind femur and tibia; g, male parameres; h, male genitalia, parameres removed.
Wirth, light trap, 2 males, 10 females. Discussion.—This species was named for J. Bruce Bredin in appreciation of his interest in, and support of, the Biological Survey of Dominica. C. bredini has a wing pattern very similar to that of C. daedaloides from Panama. In the latter species, however, the distal pale spot in cell R5 is transverse and meets the anterior wing margin. C. daedaloides also has no pale spot lying in front of the mediocubital fork, and the distal pale spot in cell M2 meets the wing margin. In addition, the antennal sensory pattern of C. daedaloides is 3,8–10, the mesonotum bears a prominent pattern of pale patches, and the male parameres are shaped differently. C. borinquemi from Jamaica and Puerto Rico is also similar to C. bredini, but differs in having the apices of the veins M3+4 and Cu1 pale at the wing margin, the halteres deeply infuscated, the antennal sensory pattern 3,5,7,9,11–15, the male aedeagus with a shorter basal arch and stouter basal arms, and the parameres shorter and more abruptly tapering in midportion. Larval Habitat.—Unknown. Biting Habits.-Unknown.
Culicoides decor (Williston)
(Figs. 2 and 12)
Ceratopogon decor Williston, 1896, p. 281 (female; Saint Vincent, W.I.; fig. wing).
Culicoides decor (Williston).-Johannsen, 1943, p. 779 (combination).-Wirth and Blanton, 1956d, p. 227 (notes on type; comparison).-Forattini, 1957,