tized ring; functional ones ovoid with short slender necks; unequal, measuring 0.065 by 0.053 mm. and 0.051 by 0.042 mm. Male Genitalia (fig. 18, h).Ninth tergum with caudomedian margin slightly produced in a rounded process, sometimes slightly bilobed, apicolateral processes absent. Aedeagus narrow with short basal arch, anterior margin with distinct sclerotized band; distal portion with internal sclerotized anterior projection and round terminal papilla. Parameres (fig. 18, g) fused on proximal portion for about a third of total length, fused portion slightly broader than long, terminal filaments slender with fine fringing hairs dis

tally. Distribution.—Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Grenada, Honduras,

Panama, Trinidad, Venezuela (fig. 3). Types.—Holotype, female, allotype, male, and one female paratype, Maracay, Venezuela, 2 August 1927, with cast pupal skins, reared from bromeliads (University of Puerto Rico collection). West Indian Records.GRENADA: Lake Grand Etang, 2 mi. w., 4–8 August 1963, O. S. Flint, 1 female (Wirth and Blanton, 1968). Discussion.—This large blackish species is distinguished by its slender, spindle-shaped third palpal segment with scattered sensilla, its prominent wing pattern with an isolated pale spot at the base of cell R5, anterior to the base of vein M1, and with the base of cell M4 not pale margined, its pale-colored mid

knee, and its hind femur which lacks a subapical pale band. Larval Habitat.—The type series was reared from bromeliads in Venezuela. Aitken (1957) reared this species from Heliconia bracts in Trinidad; Williams (1964) reared it in Trinidad from banana stump, Heliconia bracts, bamboo internode, and Calathea flowers; and Wirth et al. (1968) reared it from Heliconia bracts in Panama. Biting Habits.--Carpenter (1951) and Wirth and Blanton (1959) found C. heliconiae abundant in collections from stable traps in Panama, and the latter concluded that the species must be strongly attracted to horses.

Culicoides hoffmani Fox

(Figs. 6 and 19)

Culicoides hoffman; Fox, 1946, p. 251 (female; Trinidad; biting man; fig. wing, mesonotal pattern).-Fox, 1949, p. 29 (male, female; Puerto Rico; reared, tree hole; fig. palpus, spermathecae, male genitalia),—Fox and Kohler, 1950, p. 342 (Puerto Rico).-Fox and Maldonado, 1953, p. 165 (Puerto Rico).-Wirth and Blanton, 1956b, p. 189 (redescribed; distribution; illus). —Linley and Kettle, 1964, p. 129 (larva, pupa; Jamaica; illus.)-Linley, 1965a, p. 57 (Jamaica; reared from tree hole).-Wirth and Blanton, 1971, p. 36 (notes; separation from debilipalpis and eads.).

Female.—Wing length 0.76 mm.

Head: Eyes moderately separated, with longer interfacetal hairs than in C. debilipalpis. Antenna (fig. 19, a) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 14–11–13–15–15–14– 14–15–14–14–15–15–25; AR 0.79; Sensory pattern 3,8–10. Palpal segments (fig. 19, c) with lengths in proportion of 6–11–19–6–7; PR 1.6; third segment short and swollen, with a moderately large and deep sensory pit. Proboscis moderately short, P/H ratio 0.70; mandible with 14 teeth. Thorax: Dark brown; mesonotum (fig. 19, f) with a sublateral pair of darker brown patches widest at midlength. Legs dark brown; fore femur and midfemur with subapical, all tibiae with subbasal, and hind tibia with apical, narrow, pale rings; tibial comb (fig. 19, e) with four spines, the one nearest the spur longest.

Wing (fig. 19, b): Pattern as figured; 2RC dark to apex; pale spot over r-m crossvein small; cell R5 with three pale spots, the poststigmatic pair separate, small and round, the posterior one located nearly directly behind the other, distal pale spot not reaching anterior wing margin, transversely oval; cell M1 with two pale spots; cell M2 with pale spot at basal arculus, pale spot behind medial fork, but none in front of mediocubital fork; only one pale spot in distal portion of cell M2, located at wing margin; cell M4 with round pale spot in distal portion; anal cell with one pale spot in distal portion. Macrotrichia moderately sparse, usually confined to distal half of wing, rarely extending to base of cell M2; CR 0.59. Halter slightly infuscated, flat end of knob whitish. Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (fig. 19, d) two plus rudimentary third and sclerotized ring; oval with long slender necks; slightly unequal, measuring 0.048 by 0.034 mm. and 0.043 by 0.031 mm. Male Genitalia (fig. 19, h).Ninth sternum with broad, shallow, caudomedian excavation, ventral membrane not spiculate; ninth tergum long and tapering, with large, triangular, apicolateral processes. Basistyle with ventral root “footshaped,” posterior heel poorly developed, dorsal root slender; dististyle slender and nearly straight with hooked tip. Aedeagus with basal arch rounded, extending to slightly more than half of total length, basal arms slender and curved; distal portion broadly expanded and well sclerotized, with three strongly sclerotized distal points. Parameres (fig. 19, g) separate; each with basal knob, stem slender, midportion sinuate, no trace of ventral lobe; distal portion tapering to ventromesally bent distal point with lateral fringe of fine hairs. Distribution.—Antigua, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Jamaica, Saint Croix, Saint Lucia, Trinidad (fig. 6). Types.—Holotype, female, paratype, female, Camuto Village, Trinidad, 11 April 1941, biting man (University of Puerto Rico collection).

FIGURE 19–Culicoides hoffmani: a, Female antenna; b, female wing; c, female palpus; d, Spermathecae; e, tibial comb; f, thoracic pattern; g, male parameres; h, male

genitalia, parameres removed.


West Indian Records.

ANTIGUA: Wallings Dam near Sweets Village, 15 September 1965, R. Martinez, biting man 3 PM, 1 female. BARBADOS: No locality or date, No. 830, A. H. Jennings, 2 females. CAYMAN ISLANDS: No locality, June 1970, J. E. Davies, 2 females; Grand Cayman, Southwest Point, 3 November 1969, Davies, light trap, 1 female. DOMINICA: Cabrit Swamp, 23 February 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 1 female; Carholme Estate, 7 February 1965, Wirth, sweeping, 2 males; Clarke Hall, January–March 1965, Wirth, light trap, 1 male, 9 females; d'Leau Gommier, 17 March 1956, J. F. G. Clarke, at light, 1 male; South Chiltern Estate, 20 February 1965, Wirth, light trap, 1 female. JAMAICA: Brandon Hill, Montego Bay, reared from tree hole, larvae (Linley and Kettle, 1964; Linley 1965a).-Caymans Estate, 9 June 1962, A. Ventura, chickenbaited trap, 1 female; Worthy Park Estate, St. Catherine Parish, 11 November 1968, R. E. Woodruff, light trap, 1 female. PUERTO RICO: Carolina, Guyanilla, I. Fox, reared, tree hole (Wirth and Blanton, 1956b).-Mameyes, I. Fox, reared, tree hole (Fox, 1949).-Mayaguez (Fox and Maldonado, 1953).--San Juan, Fort Buchanan, Fort Bundy, Henry Barracks (Fox and Kohler, 1950). SAINT CROIX: No locality, August 1935, H. A. Beatty, 6 females (Wirth and Blanton, 1956b).

SAINT LUCIA: Barre de l'Isle, Government Teak Nursery, 14 July 1964, R. Martinez, biting man 3:15 PM, 1 female; Saint Lucia Beach Hotel, 27 October 1967, J. B. Davies, at light, 2 males, 1 female; Wilon Estate near Micoud, 28 July 1964, Martinez, biting man 5 PM, 1 female.

Discussion.—The separation of C. hoffmani from the very similar allopatric species, C. debilipalpis and C. eadsi, was discussed by Wirth and Blanton (1971). C. debilipalpis, which occurs in the Southeastern United States from Maryland to Florida and Louisiana, in Central America and South America from Honduras to Trinidad, Brazil, and Argentina, has the third palpal segment longer and more slender with a small, deeper sensory pit. In addition, the wing of C. debilipalpis is hairier and the poststigmatic pale spots are more obliquely oriented, the spermathecae are more unequal in size, the male aedeagus has a slender, simple tip, and the parameres have a distinct ventral lobe. C. eadsi occurs from Texas to Mexico and is distinguished by a third palpal segment resembling that of C. debilipalpis, wing pattern like that of C. hoffmani, male aedeagus like that of C. hoffmani, but parameres with a distinct ventral lobe like those of C. debilipalpis. The distribution of these closely related species is shown in figure 6.

Larval . Habitat.—Linley and Kettle (1964) described the tree hole habitat where they found larvae of C. hoffmani. The tree holes contained plant debris of a coarse crumblike

texture and sometimes a layer of standing water on top. Larvae could be seen swimming near the surface and adhering to the walls of the hole just below the waterline. These authors described the larvae and pupae. The larvae are easily recognized by the presence of strongly developed perianal bristles on the caudal end. Larvae of C. borinquemi, which occurred in one of the same tree holes, could be distinguished from C. hoffmani by the lack of perianal bristles. The respiratory horn of the pupa bears coarse scales in midportion. It has seven to 11 distal and three to four lateral papillae. It is much longer and more slender than the respiratory horn of C. borinquemi. Larvae of C. hoffmani feed on protozoa and rotifers (Linley, 1965a). Biting Habits.-C. hoffmani was collected while biting man in Trinidad (holotype) and on Saint Lucia and Antigua. It was taken once in a chicken-baited trap in Jamaica.

Culicoides insignis Lutz

(Figs. 20 and 30)

Culicoides insignis Lutz, 1913, p. 50 (male, female, pupa; Brazil; fig. wing).Costa Lima, 1937, p. 415 (fig. palpus). —Floch and Abonnenc, 1942, p. 1 (French Guiana; fig. wing, palpus).Barbosa, 1947, p. 20 (notes on genitalia of male in Lutz collection; fig. male genitalia from Brazil).-Fox, 1948, p. 25 (notes on female characters).-Barbosa, 1952, p. 16 (Brazil; notes on Lutz collection).-Wirth and Blanton, 1956a, p. 319 (redescribed; Lutz syntypes restudied; male lectotype designated; synonyms: inamollae, painteri; distribution; illus.):Wirth and Blanton, 1959, p. 285 (redescribed; Panama distribution;

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illus.).-Fox and Garcia-Moll, 1961, p. Culicoides inamollae Fox and Hoffman,

120 (Puerto Rico).-Williams, 1964, 1944, p. 110 (male, female; Puerto p. 463 (larval habitat; Trinidad) — Rico; fig. wing).-Fox, 1948, p. 25 Linley, 1965a, p. 57 (pupa; Jamaica; (distribution; fig. palpus, male geniillus.). talia).-Fox and Kohler, 1950, p. 342

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FIGURE 20–Culicoides insignis: a, Female antenna; b, male antenna; c, female palpus; d, male palpus; e, female wing; f, male wing; g, female head; h, female mandible; i, femur and tibia, left to right, of hind, middle, and fore legs; j, tibial comb; k, tarsi, top to bottom, of fore, middle, and hind legs; l, fifth tarsomere and claws, left to right of fore, middle, and hind legs; m, spermathecae; m, female abdomen; o, male genitalia, parameres removed; p, male parameres.

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