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22 August 1948, I. Fox, light trap, 1 male, 1 female (Fox, 1949) Amelia, Juana Diaz, 4–10 May 1949, I. Fox, light trap, 3 males, 3 females; Guanico, 22 June 1952, F. S. Blanton, light trap, 18 females; Losey Field, 23 June 1952, Blanton, light trap, 1 female; Salinas, 20 June 1952, Blanton, light trap, 2 females. Discussion.—C. jamaicensis belongs to the C. copiosus group of the subgenus Drymodesmyia, which was revised by Wirth and Hubert (1960). This group consists of small species with hairy wings, the wing pattern usually characterized by pale spots straddling the midportions of veins M1 and M2, and the female palpus with the third segment greatly swollen and bearing a deep sensory pit usually opening by a smaller pore. The species within this group are most readily distinguished by details of the wing pattern in cell R5 and the anal cell and by the shape of the spermathecae. Larval Habitat.—Most of the species of Dry modesmyia breed in rotting stems of various species of cacti in Mexico and the Southwestern United States, where the most speciation has occurred. C. jamaicensis is atypical in its habits, not having been found in cacti. Hoffman (1925) reported that it was reared from a rotting calabash (fruit of Crescentia cujete L.) in Panama. Wirth and Hubert (1960) reported a rearing from the stem of decaying papaya in Mexico, and Williams (1964) reared it from a decaying calabash in Trinidad. Biting Habits.-Unknown.
Culicoides loughnani Edwards
(Figs. 4, 22, and 30)
Culicoides loughmani Edwards, 1922, p. 165 (female; Jamaica; fig. wing) —Beck, 1952, p. 104 (male; Florida),—Foote and Pratt, 1954, p. 26 (redescribed; distribution; illus.):-Jones and Wirth, 1958, p. 89 (Texas).-Wirth and Hubert, 1960, p. 649 (redescribed; distribution; illus.).-Jones, 1962, p. 721 (Texas; in cacti).-Dyce, 1969, p. 644 (redescribed; Australia; biology, in cacti).
Female.—Wing length 1.21 mm. Head: Eyes (fig. 22, d) moderately separated, bare. Antenna (fig. 22, a) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 20–14– 16–16–17–17–17–17–27–29–30–32–38; AR 1.17; sensory pattern 3–15. Palpal segments (fig. 22, c) with lengths in proportion of 10–24–46– 12–13; PR 2.4; third segment moderately swollen to tip, with deep sensory pit tapering to slightly smaller pore. Proboscis moderately long, P/H ratio 0.98; mandible with 16 teeth. Thorax: Dark brown, almost blackish; mesonotum with three dark longitudinal vittae separated by narrow whitish lines. Legs (fig. 22, f) pale; knee spots and tip of hind tibia prominently blackish; narrow pale rings subapically on all femora and subbasally on all tibiae, femora slightly infuscated in broad median portions; tibial comb with four spines, second from spur longest. Wing (fig. 22, b, 30, e): Pattern as figured; two very dark anterior spots, one over 2RC and second at middle of anterior margin of cell R5; pale markings extensive and interconnected; veins M1, M2, and M3+4 all pale margined nearly to bases, apex of vein Cu1 dark; distal pale spot in cell R5 double, broadly extending to anterior wing margin; pale spot in distal portion of cell M2 reaching wing margin but distal pale spot in cell M1 not; distal pale spot in anal cell double due to fusion of two spots, continuous with pale area at base of cell. Macrotrichia long and numerous, extending to base of wing; CR 0.55; 2RC short and broad, with distinct lumen. Halter pale. Abdomen: Pale yellowish above. Spermathecae (fig. 22, e) two plus rudimentary third and sclerotized ring; elongate saclike, slightly unequal, measuring 0.076 by 0.032 mm.
and 0.069 by 0.021 mm., openings to ducts wide, necks not present. Male Genitalia (fig. 22, h).Ninth sternum without caudomedian excavation, ventral membrane not spiculate; ninth tergum with apicolateral processes long and slender, tapering to pointed tips. Basistyle with ventral root slender, dorsal root longer and blunt; dististyle nearly straight basally, tapering to slender, slightly hooked tip. Aedeagus with basal arch extending to 0.4 of total length, basal arms short and straight; distal portion stout, gradually tapering to broad, truncated tip. Parameres (fig. 22, g) separate; each with short, stout, basolateral arm; stem swollen for a short distance at base, tapering in straight midportion, twisted lateroventrally
FIGURE 22–Culicoides loughmani: a, Female antenna; b, female wing; c, female palpus; d, femake eye separation; e, spermathecae; f, hind femur and tibia; g, male parameres; h, male genitalia, parameres removed.
distad with slender, simple tip. Distribution.—Bahamas, Cuba, Florida, Jamaica, Texas; Australia (introduced accidentally) (fig. 4). Types.—Two syntype females, Kingston, Jamaica, Major W. F. M. Loughnan (British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London). West Indian Records. BAHAMAS: Great Harbour Cay, Airport Well, 22 December 1968, G. M. Stokes, light trap, 1 female. CUBA: Guantanamo Bay, 21 February 1962, E. R. Turner, light trap, 1 female; same, September 1964, U.S. Navy, light trap, 1 male, 1 female; same, 8–19 February 1965, U.S. Navy, light trap, 3 males, 1 female. JAMAICA: Kingston, W. F. M. Loughnan, 2 females (Edwards, 1922, syntypes).-No locality, December 1933, Dr. Kumm, 1 female (Fox, 1946).-Hardwar Gap, Hollywell Forest Camp, Portland Parish, 16 June 1970, E. G. Farnworth, light trap, 1 female; Milk River Bath, Clarendon Parish, 19 November 1968, R. E. Woodruff, light trap, 1 female; Palisadoes, 15 June 1963, E. F. Legner, emerged from decaying barrel cactus, 6 males. Discussion.—This species is easily recognized by the very extensive pale markings on the wings and legs and by the characteristic elongate, Saclike spermathecae. The Saint Croix record published by Wirth and Hubert (1960) was in error; the specimen in the USNM is a male of C. jamaicensis Edwards. Larval Habitat.—Jones (1962) reared C. loughnani from rotting cacti in Texas. Dyce (1969) reared
this species from rotting stems of Opuntia in Australia and concluded that it was introduced into that country from the Americas with cacti infected with rot organisms during the program for biological control of the prickly pear. Biting Habits.-Edwards (1922) reported that according to Major Loughnan this species was common in Jamaica, biting all through the afternoon, being most active toward sunset. Dyce (1969) failed to get reared females to feed on the arm of man in the laboratory.
Culicoides melleus (Coquillett)
(Figs. 5, 23, and 30)
Ceratopogon melleus Coquillett, 1901, p. 604 (female; Florida).
Culicoides melleus (Coquillett).-Kieffer, 1906, p. 54 (combination).-Hoffman, 1925, p. 278 (female; Maryland) Wirth, 1952b, p. 94 (larva, pupa; Florida; illus.):-Foote and Pratt, 1954, p. 27 (redescribed; distribution; illus.). —Jamnback et al., 1958, p. 64 (New York; biology and control; illus.; larva, pupa).-Jamnback and Wall 1959, p. 85 (New York; larval habits). —Jones, 1961b, p. 735 (pupa; illus.):Jamnback, 1965, p. 79 (redescribed, all stages; New York; illus.):-Linley, 1969, p. 709 (habits; Florida) –Linley and Adams, 1971, p. 427 (spermatophore formation).
Female.—Wing length 1.05 mm.
Head: Eyes (fig. 23, d) narrowly separated, bare. Antenna (fig. 23, a) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 25–20–20–20–20–20– 20–20–30–30–33–38–50; AR 1.10; sensory pattern 3,10–14. Palpal segments (fig. 23, c) with lengths in proportion of 12–25–44–18–15; PR 2.7; third segment short and only slightly swollen, palpal pit absent, sensilla scattered on surface of segment. Proboscis short, P/H ratio 0.63; mandible with 12 teeth. Thorax: Uniformly pale yellowish, in dry specimens with pale grayish pollinosity. Legs (fig. 23, f) pale straw yellowish; tibial comb with four spines, second from spur longest. Wing (fig. 23, by 30, j): Pale yellowish gray, without markings. Macrotrichia moderately numerous, well distributed, extending nearly to base of anal cell; CR 0.60; 2RC short with narrow lumen. Halter pale. Abdomen: Pale yellowish. Spermathecae (fig. 23, e) two plus rudi
mentary third, sclerotized ring absent; spermathecae highly sclerotized, dark brown, short ovoid with short slender necks; subequal, each measuring 0.065 by 0.050 mm. Male Genitalia (fig. 23, h).Ninth sternum narrow, with moderately broad and deep caudomedian excavation, ventral membrane not spiculate; ninth tergum short, subapically narrowed, apicolateral processes greatly enlarged, divergent, protruding caudolaterad as a pair of prominent, bluntly rounded, digitiform lobes, the caudal margin between them transverse. Basistyle with ventral and dorsal roots short, simple, and pointed; dististyle swollen at extreme base, abruptly
FIGURE 23.−Culicoides melleus: a, Female antenna; b, female wing; c, female palpus; d, female eye separation; e, spermathecae; f, hind femur and tibia; g, male parameres; h, male genitalia, parameres removed.
narrowed at midlength and markedly curving to slender, pointed tip. Aedeagus with basal arch extending to two-thirds of total length, basal arms slender, nearly straight; distal portion broad and stout, broader than long, with truncated tip bent ventrally. Parameres (fig. 23, g) separate, short and stout; each with large basal knob bearing a distinct anterior process, stem stout, nearly straight, parallel sided, tip slightly expanded and abruptly bent ventrolaterad in a short, sharp point. Distribution.—Bahamas, United States (Atlantic and Gulf coasts from Maine to Louisiana) (fig. 5). Type.—Holotype, female, Lake Worth, Fla., Mrs. A. T. Slosson (USNM 5474). West Indian Records.BAHAMAS: Abaco I., Marsh Harbour, 13 April 1968, G. M. Stokes, light trap, 10 females; Andros I., October 1967, Stokes, light trap, 5 females; Andros I., Driggs Hill near South Bight, 27 April 1953, Hayden and Giovannoli, 1 female (AMNH); Grand Cay, 22 January 1969, Stokes, light trap, 1 female; Great Harbour Cay, 22 December 1968, Stokes, light trap, 4 males; North Bimini, Alice Town, 4 February 1968, Stokes, light trap, 2 females; North Bimini, April, December 1968, Stokes, light trap, 1 male, 32 females; North Bimini, Paradise Point, 30 November 1968, Stokes, light trap, 2 females; Rum Cay near Port Nelson, 16 March 1953, Hayden, 1 female (AMNH); South Bimini, June 1951, M. Cazier, C. and P. Vaurie, 2 females (AMNH).
Discussion.—This species takes its name from its uniformly honeycolored appearance, which resembles no other West Indian species. C. floridensis is a similarly pale yellow, unmarked species but can be distinguished by its shinier mesonotum, slender body, almost complete lack of macrotrichia on the wings, pale spermathecae, slender palpus with a definite round pit, and less massive development of the male genitalia. Larval Habitat.—Jamnback and Wall (1959) and Jamnback (1965) found C. melleus on Long Island, N.Y., breeding in intertidal sand, usually on beaches in bays or inlets where the larvae were not exposed to prolonged or heavy wave action. Goulding et al. (1953) reported this same habitat in Florida. Biting Habits.-C. melleus is a serious biting pest of man on sandy beaches from New England to Florida and the Bahamas (Beck, 1952; Goulding et al., 1953; Foote and Pratt, 1954; Jamnback et al., 1958; Jamnback, 1965; and Wall and Doane, 1965). Biological Notes.—Linley (1969) reported that in Florida C. melleus is autogenous. This species mates Soon after emergence from the pupa, without the need for flight or swarm formation. Wirth (personal observation, 1951) observed mating pairs of C. melleus running around on algaecovered rocks at the mouth of the Boynton Canal near Lake Worth, Fla. Linley and Adams (1971) found that the male of C. melleus transfers sperm by means of a spermatophore that lies held in his genitalia, with a long neck protruding into the