Pagina-afbeeldingen
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common spermathecal duct of the male genitalia; synonym: alambicu

female. lorum).-Wirth and Blanton, 1959, p. 334 (redescribed; Panama distribution; illus.).

Culicoides alambiculorum Macfie, 1948, p. 81 (female; Mexico; fig. wing).

Culicoid is Barb 1947 Wing length 0.87 mm. ulicoides pamamensis Barbosa, 1947, p. 22 (male, female; Panama; fig. pal- Head: Eyes narrowly separated,

pus, male genitalia).-Wirth, 1955, p. bare. Antenna (fig. 24, a) with 114 (notes: Guatemala; fig. palpus, lengths of flagellar segments in pro

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Culicoides panamensis
Barbosa

(Figs. 4, 24, and 30)

Female.

a.

FIGURE 24–Culicoides panamensis: a, Female antenna; b, female wing; c, thoracic pattern; d, tibial comb; e, spermathecae; f, female palpus; g, male parameres; h, male genitalia, parameres removed.

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portion of 16–10–10–11—11—11—11— 12–18–18–19–20–28; AR 1.12; sensory pattern 3,11–15. Palpal segments (fig. 24, f) with lengths in proportion of 7–12–30–10–10; PR 2.0; third segment greatly swollen, with a deep, large pit opening through a small pore. Proboscis moderately long, P/H ratio 0.75; mandible with 10 nearly vestigial teeth. Thorax: Dark brown; mesonotum (fig. 24, c) grayish-brown pruinose with three dark-brown longitudinal bands. Legs dark brown; fore femur and midfemur with subapical and all tibiae with subbasal, narrow pale rings; tibial comb (fig. 24, d) with four spines, the one nearest the spur longest. Wing (fig. 24, by 30, c): Pattern as figured; 2RC dark to tip; pale spot over r-m crossvein small; poststigmatic pale spot in cell R5 extending slightly caudad behind 2RC; distal pale spot in cell R5 rounded, not meeting wing margin; vein M1 with small pale spot straddling it near its base, sometimes this spot reduced to anterior portion lying on anterior side of vein; cell M1 with one pale spot in distal portion not reaching wing margin; pale spot straddling midportion of vein M2; cell M2 with pale area in base forming pale spots behind medial fork and in front of mediocubital fork, and one pale spot in distal portion of cell at wing margin; cell M4 with large pale spot across midportion; anal cell with pale area at base and one pale spot in distal portion; apices of veins M1, M2, M3+4, and Cu1 dark. Macrotrichia long and abundant, extending nearly

to base of wing; CR 0.55. Halter pale. Abdomen: Brownish. Spermathecae (fig. 24, e) two plus rudimentary third and sclerotized ring; functional ones retort shaped, unequal, measuring 0.048 by 0.046 mm. and 0.035 by 0.028 mm., the necks oblique and relatively long. Male Genitalia (fig. 24, h).Ninth sternum with broad, shallow, caudomedian excavation, ventral membrane not spiculate; ninth tergum long and tapering with long, stout, slightly flaring, apicolateral processes. Basistyle with ventral root slender and simple, dorsal root short and stout; dististyle short with stout base and hooked tip. Aedeagus stocky, with basal arch extending to only a fourth of total length; basal arms nearly straight; distal portion tapering to moderately slender, simple process with truncated tip. Parameres (fig. 24, g) separate, small and slender; each with large laterally directed basal knob, base of straight portion of stem bulbously swollen, gradually narrowed to simple, filiform, ventrally bent tip. Distribution.—Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama (fig. 4). Type.—Holotype, male, Barro Colorado Island, C.Z., from flowers of Heliconia mariae (USNM 54360). West Indian Records.CAYMAN ISLANDS: Grand Cayman, June 1970, J. E. Davies, 1 female. CUBA: Guantanamo Bay, 21 February 1962, E. R. Turner, light trap, 1 female.

JAMAICA: Askenish, near Dolphin Head, Hanover Parish, 20 June 1970, E. G. Farnworth, light trap, 1 female; Hardwar Gap, Inst. Jamaica cabin, Portland Parish, 20 February 1969, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 1 male, 7 females; 2 mi. w. Manchioneal, Green Hills, Portland Parish, 24 November 1968, R. E. Woodruff, light trap, 10 females. Discussion.—This species has a wing pattern similar to that of its relative, C. jamaicensis, but it has only one pale spot in the distal portion of the anal cell and the pale spot typically straddling the base of vein M1 has present only the portion lying on the anterior side of the vein; the retort-shaped spermathecae are quite distinctive. Larval Habitat. — Wirth and Blanton (1959) reported a rearing by J. Zetek in Panama from flowers of Heliconia mariae Hooker-F., the beefsteak Heliconia. Biting Habits.-Wirth (1955) reported this species feeding on horses and mules in Guatemala.

Culicoides paraensis

(Goeldi) (Figs. 25 and 30)

Haematomyidium paraenses Goeldi, 1905, p. 137 (female; Brazil; fig. female, wing).

Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi).-Lutz, 1913, p. 55 (male, female; Brazil; fig. wing; combination).-Floch and Abonnenc, 1942, p. 4 (French Guiana; illus. wing).-Barretto, 1944, p. 92 (male; Brazil; fig. wing, genitalia),—Ortiz, 1951a, p. 574 (redescribed; Venezuela; illus) –Tucker, 1952, p. 349 (Barbados). Fox, 1955a, p. 250 (synonymy).-Wirth and Blanton, 1959, p. 440 (redescribed; Panama; illus.).

Culicoides undecimpunctatus Kieffer, 1917, p. 307 (female; Argentina).

Female.—Wing length 0.78 mm. Head: Eyes broadly separated, bare. Antenna (fig. 25, a) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 15–11–12–14–14–14–14– 15–15–16–16–16–25; AR 0.77; sensory pattern 3,8–10. Palpal segments (fig. 25, f) with lengths in proportion of 8–17–20–7–10; PR 2.1; third segment slightly swollen with small, deep sensory pit. Proboscis moderately long, P/H ratio 0.82; mandible with 14 teeth. Thorax: Dark brown; mesonotum (fig. 25, c) with dark grayish pollinosity, three somewhat prominent, longitudinal vittae anteriorly, the lateral ones widening at sutural level. Legs dark brown; fore femur and midfemur with subapical, all tibiae with subbasal, and hind tibia with apical, narrow, pale rings; tibial comb (fig. 25, d) with four spines, the second from the spur longest. Wing (fig. 25, b): Pattern as figured; 2RC dark; pale spot over r-m crossvein narrow, extending to costal margin; cell R5 with four small round pale spots, the two poststigmatic pale spots well separated, the posterior one located slightly proximad of the other, the third spot larger and located subapically in cell, the fourth small and located at extreme apex; cell M1 with three small pale spots; cell M2 with pale spot at basal arculus, a pale spot lying behind medial fork and one in front of mediocubital fork, and one spot in distal part of cell, lying at wing margin; cell M4 with small round pale spot near wing margin; anal cell with one pale spot in distal portion; apices of veins M1, M2, M3+4, and Cu1 dark. Macrotrichia sparse on distal half of wing, a few in base of cell M2

and in anal cell; CR 0.59; 2RC with

distinct lumen. Halter pale, base of knob brownish. Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (fig. 25, e) two with rudimentary third and sclerotized ring; ones ovoid with long slender necks; unequal, measuring 0.057 by 0.037 mm. and 0.048 by 0.029 mm. Male Genitalia (fig. 25, h).Ninth sternum with broad, shallow, caudomedian excavation, ventral membrane not spiculate; ninth tergum long and tapering with short, pointed, widely separated, apicolateral processes. Basistyle with ventral root “foot-shaped,” ankle slender and posterior heel well developed, dorsal root slender; dististyle slender and curved with bent tip. Aedeagus V-shaped, basal arch extending to two-thirds of total length, basal arms nearly straight; distal portion with simple rounded tip. Parameres (fig. 25, g) separate; each with large basal knob; stem slender, bent at some distance from base, midportion straight with a well-developed ventral lobe, distal portion abruptly bent and tapered to a fine point with lateral fringe of fine spines. Distribution.—Widely distributed in Eastern United States, Mexico, Central America, South America south to Argentina and Bolivia; West Indies (Grenada). Types.—Syntypes, Belém, Pará, |Brazil, E. Goeldi (according to Goeldi (1905, p. 139), syntypes were deposited in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London). West Indian Records. GRENADA: Boulogne Estate, 8 ecember 1968, P. Bacon, biting man on cocoa propagating station, 50 females; Greenville, 14 December 1941, E. M. McCallan, biting man, 14 females. Discussion. — C. paraensis is nearly identical to C. debilipalpis,

FIGURE 25–Culicoides paraensis: a, Female antenna; b, female wing; c, thoracic pattern; d, tibial comb; e, spermathecae; f, female palpus; g, male parameres;

functional

h, male genitalia, parameres removed.

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except for the presence of the additional pale spots near the wing margin in the apices of cells R5 and M1, the pale spot present anterior to the mediocubital fork, and small differences in the proportions of the third palpal segment and the shape of the sensory pit. The two species share the tree hole habitat and much of the same geographic range. Larval Habitat.—Snow et al. (1957) and Smith (1965) found this species breeding in tree hole debris in Florida and Tennessee, Breeland (1960) reared it from tree hole debris in Panama, and Williams (1964) reared it from rotting cacao pods and a rotting calabash in Trinidad. Biting Habits.-This species was reported biting man in Panama (Woke, 1954; Wirth and Blanton, 1959), Guatemala (Wirth, 1955), Brazil (Lutz, 1913; Forattini, 1957), and Argentina (Romafia and Wygodzinsky, 1950). Snow et al. (1957, 1958) and Hair and Turner (1968) reported it as a troublesome, biting pest of man in the Southeastern United States. It is a forest species with daytime biting habits.

Culicoides phlebotomus (Williston)

(Figs. 5 and 26)

Ceratopogon phlebotomus Williston, 1896, p. 281 (female; Saint Vincent; fig. wing, palpus).

Culicoides phlebotomus (Williston).Kieffer, 1906, p. 55 (combination).Hoffman, 1925, p. 285 (female; Puerto Rico; fig. wing).-Painter, 1927, p. 258 (Honduras; biology).-Ciferri, 1929,

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