p. 520 (Dominican Republic).-Fox, Culicoides amazonius Macfie, 1935, p. 52

1942, p. 419 (pupa; Virgin Islands; (male, female; Brazil; fig. male geniillus.):-Ortiz and Mirsa, 1952, p. 275 talia). (redescribed; Venezuela; illus.)

Wirth and Blanton, 1953, p. 114 (re- Female.—Wing length 1.03 mm.

described; illus.; synonym: ama- Head: Eyes contiguous, bare. An

zonius) –Forattini, 1957, p. 455 (rede- tenna (fig. 26, a) with lengths of scribed; illus.) –Wirth and Blanton, y

1959, p. 469 (redescribed; Panama dis- flagellar segments in proportion tribution; illus.):-Fox and Garcia- of 16–11–11–12–12–11—11—11—16–18–

Moll, 1961, p. 120 (Puerto Rico). 20–21–38; AR 1.19; sensory pattern

FIGURE 26—Culicoides phlebotomus: a, Female antenna; b, female wing; c, thoracic pattern; d, tibial comb; e, spermathecae; f, female palpus; g, male parameres; h, male genitalia, parameres removed.


3,6–10. Palpal segments (fig. 26, f) with lengths in proportion of 13–24– 26–10–13; PR 2.2; third segment slightly swollen, short, with a large, irregular, open sensory area. Thorax: Dark brown with dense grayish pollen; mesonotum (fig. 26, c) densely grayish, blue-green pollinose, without prominent pattern. Legs yellowish brown, without distinctive bands; tibial comb (fig. 26, d) with seven spines, the one nearest the spur longest; fourth tarsomeres cordiform. Wing (fig. 26, b): Pattern as figured; color smoky brownish with distinct white spots; 2RC blackish, veins surrounding it greatly thickened, cell itself with narrow lumen; cell R5 with four pale spots, three forming a triangle in poststigmatic area, the distal fourth spot large and usually broadly attaining anterior wing margin; one pale spot in cell M1 located far from wing margin; pale spot present straddling midportion of vein M2; cell M2 with one distal pale spot located far from wing margin; cell M4 with small round pale spot in center of cell; anal cell with one pale spot in distal portion and a pale streak near base; cell M2 with pale spot lying behind medial fork and one lying in front of mediocubital fork; a pale spot lying just distad of basal arculus in cell M2, and one lying over base of mediocubital stem. Macrotrichia sparse on distal fourth of wing; CR 0.55. Halter pale. Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (fig. 26, e) two plus rudimentary third and sclerotized ring; functional ones ovoid with short necks;

unequal, measuring 0.058 by 0.043 mm. and 0.048 by 0.04.1 mm.

Male Genitalia (fig. 26, h).Ninth sternum with broad, moderately deep caudomedian excavation, ventral membrane not spiculate; ninth tergum broad, short, and tapering to small apicolateral processes. Basistyle with ventral root “foot-shaped,” with narrow ankle and heel nearly as long as the anterior toe, dorsal root slender; dististyle greatly curved from near base with slender pointed tip. Aedeagus with a stout transverse bridge bearing a posteroventral, curved, pointed hook from midportion; a long, nearly straight, dorsal, rodlike process passing dorsal side of midportion of basal bridge, the pointed anterior end extending well proximad of the bridge, the broad, rounded, flattened, posterior end only slightly longer than the anterior hook. Parameres (fig. 26, g) separate; each with large, laterally directed, basal knob, main body nearly straight with a small, pointed tubercle on mesal side near base; gradually tapered and distally curved ventrad in a filiform simple tip.

Distribution. — Widespread on coastal beaches in Neotropical Region from Mexico to Ecuador and Brazil, throughout West Indies (fig. 5).

Types.—Four female syntypes of C. phlebotomus, Saint Vincent (British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London). Syntypes of amazonius, 12 males, 82 females, Tutoia, Brazil, Dr. E. M. Lourie (also in British Museum).

West Indian Records.ANTIGUA: Halfmoon Bay, 30 September 1965, R. Martinez, biting man, 4 females; Jolly Beach Hotel, 2 November 1967, J. B. Davies, biting man, 2 females. DOMINICA: Cabrit Swamp, 23 February 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 3 females; Calibishie, 27 February 1965, Wirth, seashore, 1 female; Clarke Hall, January–February 1965, Wirth, light trap, 2 females; Grande Savane, 20 March 1965, Wirth, lagoon margin, 4 females; Layou River mouth, 6 February 1965, Wirth, reared, tidal lagoon, 20 males, 20 females; Macoucheri, 14 February 1965, Wirth, seashore, 1 female; Mero, 14 January 1965, Wirth, seashore, 4 females. JAMAICA: Negril, Westmoreland Parish, 20 November 1968, R. E. Woodruff, light trap, 1 male, 1 female; same, 22 June 1970, E. G. Farnworth, light trap, 1 female. PUERTO RICO: Fort Buchanan, May 1951, I. Fox, 1 female; Isla Verde Int. Airport, 1958–60 (Fox and Garcia-Moll, 1961).-Mameyes, 11 November 1922, G. N. Wolcott, biting man at beach (Hoffman, 1925).-Pt. Cangrejos, on beach (Wolcott, 1951).-Guanica, 22 June 1952, F. S. Blanton, light trap, 10 females; Las Palmas, 20 March 1970, G. M. Stokes, light trap, 1 female. SAINT CROIX: Cotton Valley, 8 September 1937, W. A. Hoffman and H. A. Beatty, several females, pupae (Fox, 1942; Fox, 1946). SAINT JOHN: No locality, November 1959, R. W. Williams,

emergence trap, 9 males, 6 females;

Caneel Bay Plantation, 7 September 1961, Williams, emergence trap, 1 female; Francis Bay, 25 March 1957, J. F. G. Clarke, at light, 1 male, 1 female; Lameshur Bay, 15–18 September 1961, Williams, emergence trap, 1 female; Trunk Bay, September-October 1961, Williams, light trap, 1 male, 2 females. SAINT LUCIA: Gros Islet, 27 October 1967, J. B. Davies, 1 male; Reduit Beach, 16 July 1964, R. Martinez, biting man, 2 females. SAINT WINCENT: No locality, type series (Williston, 1896). Discussion. — The cordiform fourth tarsomeres and the peculiar structure of the male aedeagus place C. phlebotomus in the subgenus Macfiella. The Panama species C. Wirth and Blanton is similar but can be distinguished by its mesonotal pattern of small brown punctiform dots. Larval Habitat.—Painter (1927) reared this species from wet low depressions behind a sandy beach in Honduras, receiving sea water by seepage at high tide. Williams (1964) reared it in Trinidad from the sandy margin of tidal streams, open to the Sun, with little or no vegetation. We reared it at Fort Kobbe, Panama, from the sandy margin of a lagoon just back of the beach, and the Dominiga specimens from Grande Savane and the Layou River mouth came from just such a habitat. Biting Habits.-Williston (1896) recorded the notes of H. H. Smith, who collected the type series on Saint Vincent: “This is the common 'sand-fly' about the southern end of the island, but is not very troublesome. Bites late in the afternoon, before sunset; sometimes during the heat of the day”. Wolcott (1951) noted that this species is called “las plagas o jején” in Puerto Rico. It was taken frequently biting man on the sand beaches in Trinidad. Adamson (1939) reported that in Trinidad on most sea beaches, including some of the best for bathing, this species bites viciously at almost any hour of the day except when sufficient wind makes it inactive.


Culicoides pusillus Lutz

(Figs. 27 and 30)

Culicoides pusillus Lutz, 1913, p. 52 (male, female; Brazil; fig. wing).-Macfie, 1938, p. 165 (Trinidad; fig. male genitalia).-Barbosa, 1947, p. 25 (Panama, Jamaica).-Ortiz and Mirsa, 1951, p. 603 (redescribed; Venezuela; illus.).Fox, 1952a, p. 888 (Puerto Rico).Wirth and Blanton, 1959, p. 292 (redescribed; Panama; illus.) –Fox and Garcia-Moll, 1961, p. 120 (Puerto Rico).

Female.—Wing length 0.64 mm. Head: Eyes contiguous, with long interfacetal hairs. Antenna (fig. 27, a) with flagellar segments in proportion of 11–6–6–7–7–7–7–7–11– 11–13–13–20; AR 1.18; sensory pattern 3,13–15. Palpal segments (fig. 27, f) with lengths in proportion of 5–17–19–8–8; PR 2.6; third segment slightly swollen, with small, deep sensory pit. Proboscis long, P/H ratio 1.08; mandible with 14 teeth. Thorax: Blackish; mesonotum (fig. 27, c) densely bluish to greenishgray pruinose, with two narrow, longitudinal, sublateral, black vittae. Legs pale brown; knee spots blacksh; fore femur and midfemur with

subapical, all tibiae with subbasal, and hind tibia with apical, broad, pale bands; tibial comb (fig. 27, d) with five spines, the one nearest the spur longest. Wing (fig. 27, by 30, f): Pattern as figured; large quadrate pale spots at anterior margin over r-m crossvein and past end of 2RC, remainder of wing without distinct pale spots, but obscurely paler between the veins. Macrotrichia absent; CR 0.53; 2RC short. Halter pale. Abdomen: Pale brown. Spermathecae (fig. 27, e) two, slightly ovoid, with short slender necks; subequal, each measuring 0.043 by 0.031 mm. Male Genitalia (fig. 27, h).Ninth sternum with broad, shallow, caudomedian excavation, ventral membrane not spiculate; ninth tergum short, with two broadly rounded, caudolateral lobes, apicolateral processes absent. Basistyle with dorsal and ventral roots short and slender, subequal; dististyle with enlarged, rounded tip. Aedeagus with main body triangular, basal arch low and rounded, extending to about a fourth of total length; distal portion slender with rounded apex, a distinct internal, basally projecting, sclerotized peg present. Parameres (fig. 27, g) separate; each with slender anterolateral arm, main body stout at very base, tapering and becoming slender distally, with simple filamentous tip curving ventrally. Distribution. — Widespread in Neotropical Region from Mexico to Brazil and Ecuador and throughout West Indies. Types.—Syntypes of both sexes, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Lutz collection (Instituteo Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). West Indian Records.ANTIGUA: No. 892, no other data, A. H. Jennings, 1 female. CAYMAN ISLANDS: Grand Cayman, Smith Road Swamp, 1 December 1969, J. E. Davies, light trap, 2 females. CUBA: Camaguey, 3 December 1957, J. U. McGuire, on grass, 3

females; Guantanamo, FebruaryApril 1970, J. E. Tisdale, light trap, 10 females. DOMINICA: Cabrit Swamp, 23 February 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 4 females; Clarke Hall Estate, 21–29 April 1964, O. S. Flint, light trap, 13 males, 20 females; same, August 1964, T. J. Spilman, light trap, 11 males, 15 females; same, January–March 1965, Wirth, light

FIGURE 27–Culicoides pusillus: a, Female antenna; b, female wing; c, thoracic pattern; d, tibial comb; e, spermathecae; f, female palpus; g, male parameres; h, male


genitalia, parameres removed.

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