trap, 10 males, 10 females; same, 24 January 1965, Wirth, at mango flowers, 3 males; Layou River mouth, January–February 1965, Wirth, at light, 1 male, 2 females; Pont Casse, June 1964, Flint, light trap, 1 female; Sylvania, 23 January 1965, Wirth, light trap, 1 female. GRENADA: Balthazar, 7 August 1963, O. S. Flint, 4 females. JAMAICA: No locality (Barbosa, 1947).-Annottto Bay, St. Mary Parish, 25 February 1969, W. W. Wirth, swept from marsh, 1 female; Askenish, near Dolphin Head, Hanover Parish, 20 June 1970, E. G. Farnworth, light trap, 50 females; Gordon Town, St. Andrew Parish, 1 February 1937, Chapin and Blackwelder, 1 female; Negril, Westmoreland Parish, 22 June 1970, Farnworth, light trap, 100 specimens; Negril, Crystal Waters, 20 November 1968, R. E. Woodruff, light trap, 10 males, 10 females; Runaway Bay, St. Ann Parish, February 1969, Wirth, light trap, 5 males, 10 females; Trinity Ville, St. Thomas Parish, 28 February 1937, Chapin and Blackwelder, 5 females; Twickenham Park, St. Catherine Parish, 28 April 1970, Farnworth, light trap, 500 specimens; Worthy Park Estate, St. Catherine Parish, 17 November 1968, Woodruff, light trap, 300 specimens; same, MarchJune 1970, Farnworth, 500 speciII]611S. PUERTO RICO: Henry Barracks (Fox, 1952a).-Isla Verde Int. Airport (Fox and Garcia-Moll, 1961). —Ramey Field, July 1958, L. T. Sanders, 2 females.

SAINT LUCIA: Castries, Fairview, 14 April 1959, R. Darsie, light trap, 7 males, 5 females; Cul de Sac Road at MP 9, 29 July 1963, Flint and Cadet, 1 male.

Discussion.—Its small size, short costa, poorly marked bluish-black mesonotum, characteristic antennal sensory pattern, bare wing without marginal pale spots, and short, bilobed ninth tergum without apicolateral processes characterize C. pusillus as a member of the subgenus Avaritia. C. pusilloides Wirth and Blanton from Central America is similar but can be distinguished by its more distinct wing pattern with marginal pale spots, its pale distal portion of 2RC, its antennal sensory pattern, 3,12–15, its only weakly bilobed male ninth tergum, and its much shorter male aedeagus with convex lateral margins.

Larval Habitat.—Williams (1964) reared C. pusillus from a wide variety of habitats in Trinidad, including a bamboo internode, banana stalks and bracts, rotting cacao pods, the edge of a drainage ditch, macerated coconut fiber animal bedding, horse and cow manure, bracts of Heliconia, and a rotting calabash.

Biting Habits.-This species was taken several times biting man in Trinidad (Adamson, 1989; Aitken, in litt.).

Culicoides trilineatus Fox

(Figs. 6 and 28)

Culicoides trilineatus Fox, 1946, p. 250 (female; Saint Thomas; biting man; fig. mesonotum, wing).-Fox, 1949, p. 30 (male, female; Puerto Rico; reared, tree hole; illus.):-Wirth and Blanton,

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1956b, p. 189 (redescribed; illus.; distribution).-Forattini, 1957, p. 389 (redescribed; illus.; distribution). Female.—Wing length 0.97 mm. Head: Eyes narrowly separated, bare. Antenna (fig. 28, a) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 19–15–15–17–17–15–15– 15–17–18–19—20—33; AR 0.86; sensory pattern 3,6–10. Palpal segments (fig. 28, c) with lengths in proportion of 13–24–30–10–12; PR 2.6; third segment moderately swollen toward tip, with moderately Small, round, moderately deep sensory pit. Proboscis moderately long,

P/H ratio 0.83; mandible with 18 teeth.

Thorax: Dark brown; mesonotum (fig. 28, f) grayish brown with three prominent dark-brown longitudinal lines connected posteriorly by a transverse line just in front of prescutellar depression, and dark brown along sides. Legs brown; fore knees and midknees dark with narrow pale rings on each side of joint; hind tibia with pale band at base and apex; tibial comb (fig. 28, d) with four spines, the second from the spur longest.

FIGURE 28–Culicoides trilineatus: a, Female antenna; b, female wing; c, female palpus; d, tibial comb; e, spermathecae; f, thoracic pattern; g, male parameres; h, male genitalia, parameres removed.


Wing (fig. 28, b): Pattern as figured; 2RC dark to tip; pale spot over r-m crossvein small, extending to costal margin; cell R5 with three pale spots, two small poststigmatic spots, sometimes coalesced, the posterior one located slightly proximad of anterior one, distal spot small and transverse; cell M1 with two small pale spots, the proximal one sometimes scarcely discernible; cell M2 with pale spot at basal arculus, a pale spot behind medial fork, no pale spot lying ahead of mediocubital fork, and a small pale spot in distal part of cell; cell M4 with large round pale spot near posterior margin; anal cell with one pale spot in distal portion. Macrotrichia long, coarse, and abundant, extending to base of wing in cell M2 and anal cell; CR 0.57; 2RC with narrow lumen. Halter deeply infuscated.

Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (fig. 28, e) two plus rudimentary third and sclerotized ring; functional ones ovoid with long, slender necks; subequal, each measuring 0.056 by 0.039 mm.

Male Genitalia (fig. 28, h).Ninth sternum with broad, deep, caudomedian excavation, ventral membrane not spiculate; ninth tergum long and tapering, with moderately long, pointed, apicolateral processes, margin between them transverse. Basistyle with ventral root “foot-shaped,” the anterior toe stout, dorsal root slender; dististyle long and slender, slightly curved, with bent, pointed tip. Aedeagus with rounded basal arch extending to 0.4 of total length, basal arms slender and curved; distal portion long and

slender, distally parallel sided, apex deeply bifid into two sharp, slender, appressed points. Parameres (fig. 28, g) separate; each with inconspicuous basal knob, basal portion only slightly swollen, curved gently toward midportion and tapering to slender, simple, filamentous tips bent abruptly ventral. Distribution.—Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Puerto Rico, Saint Croix, Saint Lucia (fig. 6), Saint Thomas. Types.—Holotype, female, paratype, female, Red Hook, Saint Thomas, 11 September 1937, biting in afternoon (University of Puerto Rico collection). West Indian Records.BARBADOS: No locality, No. 861, A. J. Jennings (Wirth and Blanton, 1956b). DOMINICA: Clarke Hall Estate, April–June 1964, O. S. Flint, light trap, 2 males, 8 females; same, JulySeptember 1964, T. J. Spilman, light trap, 8 males, 25 females; same, October 1964, P. J. Spangler, light trap, 1 male, 3 females; same, January–March 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 5 males, 5 females; Pont Casse, 15 June 1964, Flint, at light, 1 female. GRENADA: Balthazar, 7 August 1963, O. S. Flint, 1 female. PUERTO RICO: Henry Barracks (Fox, 1952a); Isla Verde Int. Airport (Fox and Garcia-Moll, 1961); Luquillo, reared from tree hole debris (Fox, 1949; Wolcott, 1951). SAINT CROIX: No locality, May–August 1935, June 1938, H. A. Beatty, 33 females; Diamond School, September 1938, Beatty, 4 females; Salt River, September 1938, Beatty, 15 females; Tagus Pond, May 1936, June 1938, Beatty, 11 females; “Valley of jungles and stream,” 1 mile from Seacoast, May 1935, Beatty, 1 female (Wirth and Blanton, 1956b). SAINT LUCIA: Gros Islet, Yacht Club light, 26 October 1967, J. B. Davies, 1 female. SAINT THOMAS: Red Hook (Fox, 1946, types). Discussion.—C. trilineatus belongs to the C. debilipalpis group. It can be readily distinguished from other species in the group by its coarsely hairy wings with reduced wing spots, its distinctive mesonotal pattern, its antennal sensory pattern 3,6–10, and its characteristic male aedeagus and parameres. Larval Habitat.—Fox (1949) reported this species breeding in tree hole debris in Puerto Rico. Biting Habits.-C. trilineatus has been recorded once biting man on Saint Thomas in the afternoon.

Culicoides trinidadensis Hoffman

(Figs. 3 and 29)

Culicoides trinidadensis Hoffman, 1925, p. 286 (female; Trinidad; fig. wing).Fox, 1946, p. 256 (Trinidad) —Fox, 1948, p. 23 (fig. palpus) –Wirth and Blanton, 1956a, p. 324 (redescribed; distribution; illus.; synonyms: oliveri, diminutus).-Forattini, 1957, p. 231 (redescribed; illus.)-Wirth and Blanton, 1959, p. 297 (redescribed; Panama distribution; illus.).

Culicoides oliver; Fox and Hoffman, 1944, p. 108 (Haiti; male, female; fig. male genitalia).

Culicoides wokei Barbosa, 1947, p. 28 (preoccupied by C. woke; Fox; that por

tion of type series collected by Woke; male, female; Panama; fig. palpus, male genitalia). Culicoides diminutus Barbosa, 1951, p. 163 (new name for wokei Barbosa).

Female.—Wing length 1.12 mm. Head: Eyes contiguous, bare. Antenna (fig. 29, a) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 23 — 15 – 15 – 15 – 15 – 15 – 15 – 16 — 27–29–32–33–43; AR 1.22; sensory pattern 3,5,7,9,11–15. Palpal segments (fig. 29, f) with lengths in proportion of 10–27–45–15–18; PR 3.4; third segment without Sensory pit, sensilla scattered on surface. Proboscis long, P/H ratio 1.08; mandible with 17 teeth. Thorax: Dull brown; mesonotum (fig. 29, c) without prominent pattern. Legs dark brown; a trace of pale spots on fore knees and midknees; pale bands at base and apex of hind tibia; tibial comb (fig. 29, d) with five spines, second from spur longest. Wing (fig. 29, b): Pattern as figured; 2RC with apex in a pale spot, vein R4+5 not darkened past dark area over base of cell; wing grayish brown with pattern of small, dull, grayish-white spots; crossvein r-m dark on anterior end; cell M1 with only one pale spot distal to pale spot straddling vein M2. Macrotrichia sparse, covering distal half of wing; CR 0.66; 2RC with distinct lumen. Halter infuscated. Abdomen: Blackish, cerci paler. Spermathecae (fig. 29, e) two plus rudimentary third and sclerotized ring; functional ones subspherical with short necks; subequal, each measuring 0.058 by 0.046 mm.

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Frgure 29–Culicoides trinidadensis: a, Female antenna; b, female wing; c, thoracic pattern; d, tibial comb; e, spermathecae; f, female palpus; g, male parameres; h, male genitalia, parameres removed.

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