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Male Genitalia (fig. 29, h).Ninth sternum with narrow, moderately deep, caudomedian excavation; ninth tergum with distinct caudomedian cleft and small, submedian, apicolateral processes. Aedeagus stout, basal arch extending to only a fifth of total length; distal portion with a pair of characteristic subapical projections extending ventrolaterad, in ventral view resembling a fleur-delis. Parameres (fig. 29, g) fused on basal halves in a basal plate twice as broad as long, apices short and slender, without fringing hairs. Distribution.—Bahamas, Colombia, Cuba, Haiti, Nicaragua, Panama, Trinidad (fig. 3). Types.—Holotype, female, of trinidadensis, Caronia River, Port of Spain, Trinidad, 14 June 1906, F. W. Urich (USNM 27272). Holotype, female, of oliveri, Mariana, Haiti, 7 December 1925 (University of Puerto Rico collection). Lectotype, male, of wokei, designated by Wirth and Blanton (1956a), Balboa, C.Z., 29 July 1942, P. A. Woke No. 1027 (USNM 59363). West Indian Records.BAHAMAS: Abaco I., April 1968, G. M. Stokes, light trap, 3 females; Andros I., Driggs Hill near South Bight, 27 April 1953, Hayden and Giovannoli, 4 females (AMNH) (Wirth and Blanton, 1956a).-Cat I., Bennetts Harbour, 24 March 1953, L. Giovannoli, 2 females (AMNH); Grand Cay, 22 January 1969, Stokes, light trap, 2 females; Great Harbour Cay, 22 December 1968, Stokes, light trap, 1 male, 5 females.

CUBA: Guantanamo Bay, February–April 1970, J. E. Tisdale, light trap, 5 females.

HAITI: Mariana, 7 December 1925, “biting viciously in sun,” 1 female (Fox and Hoffman, 1944, holotype of oliveri; Wirth and Blanton, 1956a).

Discussion.—This species greatly resembles the Brazilian species, C. maruim Lutz, with its unmarked mesonotum wing pattern with dark r-m crossvein, undarkened vein R4 +5 and only one distal pale spot in cell M1, dark halter, and third palpal segment with scattered sensilla. C. maruim is paler with a more yellowish wing, lacks the sensoria on antennal segments 3, 7, and 9, the male aedeagus lacks the fleur-de-lislike apex, and the parameres are fused only a short distance at bases and taper more gradually to stouter, bare apices.

Larval Habitat.—Woke (1954) reared C. trinidadensis from a tidal salt marsh near mangroves in Panama. Breeland (1960) reared it in Panama from a coral sand mangrove habitat inundated frequently by high tidewater.

Biting Habits.-This species was reported as a biting pest in Trinidad by Myers (1935), but Adamson (1939) and Aitken (1957) believed that this record probably should be referred to C. diabolicus, C. fori, or C. insignis. Woke (1954) reported it biting man in Panama, and the Haitian types of C. oliveri were taken biting man viciously in the sun.

FIGURE 30–Culicoides spp., female wings: a, C. barbosai; b, borinqueni; c, panamensis; d, jamaicensis; e, loughnani; f, pusillus; g, furens; h, paraensis; i, arubae; j, melleus; k, floridensis; l, insignis.

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LITERATURE CITED

ADAMSON, A. M. 1939. OBSERVATIONS on BITING SANDFLIES (CERATOPOGONIDAE) IN TRINIDAD, B.W.I. Trop. Agr. 16: 79–81. AITKEN, T. H. G. 1957. PESTIFEROUs TRINIDAD SANDFLIES. Trinidad Field Nat. Club Jour. 1957, pp. 23– 26. AKIBA, K. 1960. STUDIES ON THE LEUCOCYTozoon FOUND IN THE CHICKEN, IN JAPAN. II. ON THE TRANSMISSION of L. CAULLERYI by CULICOIDEs ARAKAwar. Jap. Wet. Sci. Jour. 22:309–317. AMosova, I. S. 1959. [on THE GONOTROPHIC RELATIONSHIPs witHIN THE GENUs CULICOIDEs (DIPTERA, HELEIDAE).] Ent. Obozr., Moskva. 38: 774–789. [In Russian.] ATCHLEY, W. R. 1967. THE CULIcoidEs of NEw MExico (DIPTERA: CERATOPOGONIDAE). Kans. Univ. Sci. Bul. 46: 937–1022.

1970. A BIOSYSTEMATIC STUDY OF THE SUBGENUs SELFIA of CULICOLDEs (DIPTERA: CERATOPOGONIDAE). Kans. Univ. Sci. Bul. 49: 181—336. BARBOSA, F. A. S. 1947. CULICOIDEs (DIPTERA: HELEIDAE) DA REGIAo NEOTROPICA. Pernambuco Soc. Biol. An. 7: 3–30, 9 plates.

1951. A CHANGE of SPECIFIC NAME IN THE GENUs CULICOIDEs (DIPTERA, HELEIDAE). Wash. Ent. Soc. Proc. 53: 163.

1952. Novos subsidios PARA o con HECIMENTo Dos CULICOIDEs NEOTROPICOs (DIPTERA: HELEIDAE). Imprensa Indus. Recife, 21 pp., 10 plates. BARRETTo, M. P. 1944. SoBRE o GENERo “culicoidEs” LATREILLE, 1809, Com A DESCRICAO DE TREs ESPECIES (DIPTERA, CERATOPOGONIDAE). São Paulo Univ., Faculd. de Med. An. 20: 89–105, 4 plates.

BEATTY, H. A. 1944. THE INSECTs of ST. CROIx, v.I. Puerto Rico Univ. Jour. Agr. 28: 114–172. BECK, E. C. 1951. A NEw CULIcordEs FROM FLORIDA (DIPTERA, CERATOPoGoRNIDAE). Fla. Ent. 34: 135–136.

1952. NOTES ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF CULICOIDES IN FLORIDA (DIPTERA, CERATOPOGONIDAE). Fla. Ent. 35: 101–107.

1956. A NEW SPECIES OF CULICOIDES FROM FLORIDA WITH ADDITIONAL DISTRIBUTION DATA FOR THE GENUs (DIPTERA: HELEIDAE). Fla. Ent. 39: 133–138.

1958. A PopULATION STUDY OF THE CULICOIDEs of FLORIDA (DIPTERA: HELEIDAE). Mosquito News 18: 6–11. BELKIN, J. N. 1962. Mosquitoes of THE souTH PACIFIC (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE). 2 v. Calif. Univ. Press, Berkeley.

BIDLINGMAYER, W. L. 1961. FIELD ACTIVITY STUDIES of ADULT CULICOIDEs FURENs. Ent. Soc. Amer. Ann. 54: 149–156. BLANTON, F. S., GRAHAM. O. H., and KEENAN, C. M. 1955. NOTES ON CULICOIDEs FURENs (PoEY) AT Fort Kobbe, CANAL zoNE. Mosquito News 15: 13–18. Bowne, J. G., LUEDKE, A. J., Foster, N. M., and Joch IM, M. M. 1966. CURRENT ASPECTS OF BLUETONGUE IN CATTLE. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. Jour. 148: 1177–1180. LUEDKE, A. J., JochIM, M. M., and FostFR, N. M. 1964. CURRENT STATUS OF BLUETONGUE IN SHEEP. Amer. Wet. Med. Assoc. Jour. 144: 759–764. BRAM, R. A. 1967. CLASSIFICATION OF CULEx SUBGENUs Culex IN THE NEw world (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE). U.S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 120: 1–222. BREELAND, S. G. 1960. OBSERVATIONS ON THE BREEDING HABITATs of some CULICOIDES AND OTHER HELEIDAE IN THE PANAMA CANAL zoNE. Mosquito News 20: 161–167. — and SMITH, J. P. 1962. OBSERVATIONS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF FLIGHT RANGES IN THE CONTROL OF CULICOIDES IN THE PANAMA CANAL zoNE. Mosquito News 22: 147–154. BRUCE, W. G., and BLAKESLEE, E. B. 1948. CONTROL OF SALT-MARSH SAND FLIES AND MOSQUITOES WITH INSECTICIDEs. Mosquito News 8:26–27. BUCKLEY, J. J. C. 1933. A NOTE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF FILARIA OZZARDI IN CULICOIDES FURENS POEY. Jour. Helminthol. 11: 257–258.

1934. ON THE DEVELOPMENT IN CULICOIDEs FURENs PoEY, of FILARIA (MANSONELLA) ozzARDI MANson, 1897. Jour. Helminthol. 12: 99–118.

1938. ON CULICOIDEs As A VECTOR of on CHOCERA GIBSONI (CLELAND AND JoHNSoN, 1910). Jour. Helminthol. 16:121–158. CARPENTER, S. J. 1951. STUDIES of CULICoIDES IN THE PANAMA CANAL zoNE (DIPTERA, HELEIDAE). Mosquito News 11: 202–208. CARTER, H. F., INGRAM, A., and MACFIE, J. W. S. 1920. OBSERVATIONS ON THE CERATOPOGONINE MIDGES OF THE GOLD COAST WITH DESCRIPTIONs of NEw SPECIES. I–II. Ann. Trop. Med. and Parasitol. 14: 187—274, 5 plates. CHACE, F. A., JR., and Hobbs, H. H., JR. 1969. THE FRESHWATER AND TERRESTRIAL DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS OF THE WEST INDIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE To Dom INICA. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bul. 292: 1–258, 5 plates. CHARDROME, M., and PEEL, E. 1951. RECHERCHES SUR LA REPARTITION DES FILAIRS DANS LA REGION DE COQUILHATVILLE ET LA TRANSIMISSION DE DIPETALONEMA STREPTOCERCA PAR CULICOIDES GRAHAMI AUSTEN. Belge. Inst. Roy. Colon., Sect. Sci. Nat. et Med. Collect, 4” Bruxelles, Mem. 19:3–83. CIFERRI, R. 1929. SUR UN GRUBYELLA PARASITE DE SIMULIDES, GRUBYELLA OCHOTERENAI N. SP. Ann. de Parasitol. Humaine et Compar. 7: 511–523.

CoCKERELL, T. D. A. 1894. A suppleMENTARY NOTE To MR. JoHNson's LIST of JAMAICA DIPTERA. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc. 46: 419–420. CoQUILLETT, D. W. 1901. NEw DIPTERA IN THE U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. U.S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 23: 593– 618. CoSTA LIMA, A. DA. 1937. CHAVE DAs Especies DE CULIcoidEs DA REGIAo NEOTROPICA (DIPTERA: CERATOPoGoNIDAE). Inst. Oswaldo Cruz Mem. 32:411–422. CURRAN, R. F., and Gould ING, R. L., JR. 1950. THE PROBLEMS AND METHODS INVOLVED IN SAMPLING SALT-MARSH SANDFLY PopULATIONs. Fla. Anti-Mosquito Assoc. Ann. Meeting Proc. 21: 113–117. DAMPF, A. 1936. Los CERATopogoNIDos o JEJENEs (INSECTA, DIPTERA, FAM. CERATOPOGONIDAE), CoMo TRANSMISOREs DE FILARIAs. Mex. Rev. Med. 16: 227—233. DAVIES, J. B. 1964. RESEARCH AND THE sandfLY PROBLEM IN JAMAICA. Jamaica Sci. Res. Council Inform. Bul. 5: 33–39.

1967. THE DISTRIBUTION OF SANDFLIES (CULICOIDES SPP.) BREEDING IN A TIDAL MANGROVE SWAMP IN JAMAICA AND THE EFFECT OF TIDES ON THE EMERGENCE OF C. FURENs (PoEY) AND C. BARBosAI wirTH AND BLANTon. West Indian Med. Jour. 41: 39–50.

1969. EFFECT OF FELLING MANGROVES ON EMERGENCE OF CULICOIDES SPP. IN JAMAICA. Mosquito News 29: 566–571. Downes, J. A. 1955. observations on THE swarm ING FLIGHT AND MATING of CULICOIDEs (DIPTERA: CERATOPoGoRNIDAE). Roy. Ent. Soc., London, Proc. 106: 213–236, 2 plates.

1958. Assembly AND MATING IN THE BITING NEMATOCERA. 10th Internatl. Ent. Cong. Proc. 2: 425–434. DUKE, B. O. L. 1954. THE UPTAKE OF THE MICROFILARIAE OF ACANTHOCHEILONEMA STREPTOCERCA BY CULIcoidEs GRAHAMI AND THEIR suBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT. Ann. Trop. Med. and Parasitol. 48: 416–420.

1956. THE INTAKE OF THE MICROFILARIAE OF ACANTHOCHEILONEMA PERSTANS BY CULICOIDES GRAHAMI AND C. INORNATIPENNIS AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT. Ann. Trop. Med. and Parasitol. 50: 32–38. DU ToIT, R. M. 1944. THE TRANSMISSION OF BLUE TONGUE AND HORSE SICKNESS BY CULICOIDES. Onderstepoort Jour. Vet. Res. 19:7–16. DYCE, A. L. 1969. BITING MIDGEs (DIPTERA: CERATOPOGONIDAE) REARED FROM ROTTING CACTUS IN AUSTRALIA. Mosquito News 29: 644–649. — and MURRAY, M. D. 1967. AUTOGENY IN CULICOIDEs wari NGI LEE AND REYE AND CULICOIDES MACKERRASI LEE AND REYE (DIPTERA: CERATOPOGONIDAE) FROM AUSTRALIA witH NOTES ON BREEDING PLACES AND BEHAVIOR. Austral. Ent. Soc. Jour. 6: 119–126. EARDLEY, A. J. 1954. TECTONIC RELATIONs of North AND souTH AMERICA. Amer. Assoc. Petrol.

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