Control Unit, Grand Cayman, Cay- School of Public Health in San Juan,
man Islands, West Indies; David J. American Museum of Natural His-
Lewis of the Medical Research tory in New York, University of
Council, British Museum (Natural Florida and Florida State Collection
History), London, England; John of Arthropods in Gainesville, and the
R. Linley, Entomological Research University of the West Indies in St.
Center, Florida Department of Augustine, Trinidad.
Health, Vero Beach; J. Maldonado- We have adapted many of the il-
Capriles, University of Puerto Rico, lustrations from our earlier publica-
Mayaguez; Glenn M. Stokes of New

tions. They have been drawn by the Orleans, La.; Roger W. Williams,

artists of the 406th Medical LaboraColumbia University School of Pub

tory, U.S. Army, in Tokyo, Japan, lic Health, New York; and the staff

and by Thomas M. Evans, Linda of the American Museum of Natural

Heath, and Niphan RatanaworabHistory (AMNH) in New York.

han of our staff. Original drawings Holdings at this museum include ex

for this bulletin were prepared by tensive material from the Bahamas,

Gloria Gordon of our staff and the mainly from the Van Voast-AMNH

senior author. The wing photographs Bahamas Expedition of 1953. Our West Indian Culicoides col

were made by Sally Craig of the lections, unless otherwise specified,

Walter Reed Army Institute of Rehave been deposited in the U.S. Na- search, Washington, D.C., and Jack tional Museum, Washington, D.C.

Scott of the Smithsonian Institution. Whenever possible we have depos

To all these persons we extend our ited duplicate material in the collec

thanks. tions of the British Museum (Natu

This investigation was supported ral History) in London, Institute of in part by U.S. Army Medical DeJamaica in Kingston, University of partment Contract No. DA-49–193– Puerto Rico in Mayaguez and the MD-2177.



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The West Indian Sandflies

of the Genus Culicoides
(Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

By Willis W. WIRTH, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Northeastern Region, Agri

cultural Research Service, and FRANKLIN S. BLANTON, Department of Entomology, University of Florida

The first species of Culicoides re- until Edwards

Edwards (1922) described ported from the West Indies was de- Culicoides loughnani and a variety scribed from the beaches of northern jamaicensis from Jamaica. Hoffman Cuba in 1851 by Felipe Poey, “the (1925) reviewed the North Amerifather of Cuban Zoology," as can, Central American, and West InOecacta furens (fig. 1). Poey noted dian Culicoides and described C. the abundance and bloodsucking at

trinidadensis. tacks of "el jejen” on the Cuban In 1942 Fox began a concentrated coasts and speculated that it must study of the Caribbean Culicoides be breeding in the mangroves or resulting in a long series of papers marshes along the seashore.

(Fox, 1942, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, In the English speaking islands of 1952a, 1952b, 1955a, 1955b; Fox and the Antilles these pests are known as Hoffman, 1944; Fox and Kohler, "sandflies.” Williston (1896) 1 de- 1950; Fox and Maldonado, 1953; scribed three species of Culicoides Fox and Garcia-Moll, 1961; and from Saint Vincent as Ceratopogon

Kohler and Fox, 1951). maculithorax, C. decor, and C. phle- Beck (1951) began her study of botomus. H. H. Smith, who collected Florida Culicoides with the descripmaterial for Williston, added the tion of a new species, C. floridensis, note on C. phlebotomus: “This is the which also occurs in the Bahamas. common ‘sand-fly' about the south- In a far-sighted and effective reern end of the island.”

sponse to the difficult sandfly pest Coquillett (1901) described Cera- problem at resort hotel and beach topogon melleus from Florida; this areas on the north coast, the Jabloodsucking species is also a pest in

maican Government established a the Bahamas. Little was added to Sandfly Research and Control Laboþur records of West Indian sandflies ratory under the Ministry of Health

at Montego Bay in 1959. Since then The year in italic after the authors'

this laboratory has contributed imbames indicates the reference in Litera- mensely to our knowledge of the biJure Cited, p. 86.

ology and control of West Indian


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FIGURE 1.-Culicoides furens: Lateral view of female, left wing and right legs removed,

with parts labeled (cx, coxa; em, epimeron; es, episternum; m, meron; pn, pronotum; pp, propleuron; px, precoxale; tr, trochanter).

sandflies, beginning with the work of D. S. Kettle and later that of J. R. Linley and John B. Davies (see Literature Cited for their contributions). A similar laboratory has been established on Grand Cayman Island and staffed by M. E. C. Giglioli and John E. Davies.

The Bahamian Government was never able to establish a coordinated

laboratory such as these, but in the early 1930's it enlisted the help of J. G. Myers, a government entomologist, from Trinidad. Since 1950 it has relied heavily on the assistance of private entomologists from the United States, two of whom should be mentioned for their important work on the biology and control of Bahamas sandflies-Edwin A. Sea

brook of the Palm Beach County, mainland in its biogeography, we Fla., Mosquito Abatement District, have included its only known Culiand Glenn M. Stokes of New Or- coides species in our review because leans, La.

it has been neglected in other reSetting the geographic limits of ports. The Bermuda Islands share the West Indies is slightly arbitrary some Culicoides species with the and controversial depending on the Southeastern United States and only purposes of the study. Geological, one with the West Indies. We are exbiological, and political considera- cluding them from our study and we tions result in different limits. For refer the reader instead to the rethe purpose of this study, we have ports of Williams (1956, 1957) and excluded Trinidad and Tobago from Wirth and Williams (1957). the West Indies because these islands Regrettably our coverage of the have a sandfly fauna essentially the West Indies has been extremely unsame as the adjacent Venezuelan even, and today we know practically mainland and because a review of nothing of the Culicoides of the imtheir sandfly species is being re- portant islands of Cuba and Hisported elsewhere. We will refer oc- paniola and most of the islands of casionally to Trinidad as "West In- the Lesser Antilles except Dominica. dian” when a few Antillean species Perhaps one of the major accomare found there but not on the South plishments of this bulletin will be to American mainland. Although the point out these gaps in our knowlDutch island of Aruba falls within edge and to provide a tool for filling the same category as Trinidad in be- them in when field work can be done ing closely related to the Venezuelan in these neglected areas.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE Our knowledge of the biology and 1952; Hopkins and Nicholas, 1952; biting habits of Culicoides is still so Mirsa et al., 1952; and Duke, 1954, fragmentary that we have scarcely 1956). These species may also transany indication of their importance mit certain groups of viruses such as as vectors of pathogenic organisms, bluetongue of sheep and cattle (du but their role is probably minor as Toit, 1944; Price and Hardy, 1954; compared with that of mosquitoes, Foster et al., 1963; Bowne et al., fleas, lice, and ticks. However, Culi- 1964, 1966); horsesickness (du Toit, coides may have an important role 1944); buttonwillow virus (Reeves in the transmission of some diseases, et al., 1970); malarialike protozoa mainly as vectors of filarial worms including Haemoproteus of birds (Sharp, 1927, 1928; Steward, 1933; (Fallis and Wood, 1957; Fallis and Buckley, 1933, 1934, 1938; Dampf, Bennett, 1960, 1961); Leucocytozoon 1936; Henrard and Peel, 1949; Ro- of chickens (Akiba, 1960); and Hemaña and Wygodzinsky, 1950; patocystis of monkeys (Garnham et Chardrome and Peel, 1951; Hopkins, al., 1961).

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