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submission to the powers in being, he was pardoned, and his sequestration taken off, but be carefully avoided meddling in politics afterwards. He was summoned before the council Jan. 2, 1661, and reprimanded, because he forgot to pray for the king ;* and being ejected with his brethren in 1662, he retired into the country; but upon the indulgence in 1671, he had a new meeting-house erected for him in Jewin-street, where he preached to a crouded audience. He was one of the merchants' lecturers at Pinner's-hall. And when the indulgence was revoked, he continued preaching as he could till this year; but September 2, 1684, being at a private fast with some of his brethren, the soldiers broke in, and carried Mr. Jenkyn before two aldermen, who treated him very rudely, and, upon his refusing the Oxford oath, committed him to Newgate; while he was there, he petitioned the king for a release, his physicians declaring, that his life was in danger from his close confinement; but no security would be accepted. So that he soon declined in his health, and died in Newgate in the seventy-third year of his age, Jan. 19, 1684-5,having been a prisoner four month and one week. A little before his death he said, a man might be as effectually murdered in Newgate as at Tyburn. He was buried by his friends in Bunhill-fields with great honor, many eminent persons, and some scores of coaches, attending his funeral.
This was the usage the dissenters met with from the church of England at this time, which has hardly a parallel in the christian world: remarkable are the words of the earl of Castlemain, a Roman catholic, on this occasion, ""Twas never known, (says he) that Rome persecuted, as the bishops do, those who adhere to the same faith with themselves; and established an inquisition against the professors of the strictest piety among themselves; and, however the prelates complain of the bloody persecution of Queen Mary, it is manifest that their persecution exceeds it, for under her there were not more than two or three bundred put to death, whereas, under their persecution, above treble that number have been rifled, destroyed, and ruined in their estates, lives, and liberties, being (as is most remarkable) men for the most part of the same spirit with those protestants who suffered under the prelates in Queen Mary's time." * Kennet's Chron. p, 601. + Peirce, p. 259.
This year died Mr. Benjamin Woodbridge, M. A. the ejected minister of Newbury. He was bred up in Magdalen-hall, Oxford; from thence he went to New-England, and was the first graduate of the college there. On his return to England, he succeeded Dr. Twisse at Newbury, where he had a mighty reputation as a scholar, a preacher, a casuist, and a christian. He was a great instrument of reducing the whole town to sobriety, and to family as well as public religion. Upon the restoration, he was made one of the king's chaplains in ordinary, and preached once before him. He was one of the commissioners at the Savoy, and very desirous of an accommodation with the church party. He was offered a canonry of Windsor, but refused it, and afterwards suffered many ways for his non-conformity, though he was generally respected and beloved by all who were judges of real worth. He had a sound judgment, and was a fine preacher, having a commanding voice and aspect. His temper was cheerful, and his behavior obliging; he was exemplary for his moderation, and of considerable learning. When the five-mile act took place, he removed from Newbury to a small distance, where he preached as he had opportunity.* He was liberal to the poor, and in all respects a good and great man. He died at Inglefield, November 1, 1684, in a good old age, after he had been a minister in those parts almost forty years.
The sufferings of the presbyterians in Scotland run parallel with those of England, during the whole course of this reign, but the people were not quite so tame and submissive:† the same or greater acts of severity, than those which were made against the non-conformists in England, were enacted in Scotland. Episcopacy was restored May 8, 1662, and the covenant declared to be an unlawful oath. All persons in office were to sign a declaration of the unlatefulness of taking up arms against the king, or any commissioned by him, on any pretence whatsoever. The English act against conventicles was copied, and passed almost in the same terms in Scotland. The bishops were some of the worst of men, and hated by the people as they * Calamy, vol. ii. p. 956. Palmer's Non. Mem, vol. i. p. 229. † Vol. i. p. 206–211.
deserved, for their deportment was unbecoming their function, (says bishop Burnet;*) some did not live within their dioceses, and those who did, seemed to take no care of them they shewed no zeal against vice; the most eminently vicious in the country were their peculiar confidents; nor had they any concern to keep their clergy to their duty, but were themselves guilty of levity, and great sensuality. The people were generally of the presbyterian persuasion, and stood firm by each other. In many places they were fierce and untractable, and generally forsook the churches; the whole country complained of the new episcopal clergy, as immoral, stupid, ignorant, and greedy of gain; and treated them with an aversion that sometimes proceeded to violence. Many were brought before the council, and ecclesiastical commission, for not coming to church; but the proofs were generally defective, for the people would not give evidence one against another. However, great numbers were cast into prison, and ill used; some were fined; and the younger sort whipt publicly about the streets; so that great numbers transported their families to Ulster in Ireland, where they were well received. . The government observed no measures with this people; they exacted exorbitant fines for their not coming to church, and quartered soldiers upon them till they were ruined. The truth is, (says Burnett) the whole face of the govern ment looked more like the proceedings of an inquisition, than of legal courts. At length in the year 1666, Sir James Turner being sent into the West, to levy fines at discretion, the people rose up in arms, and published a manifesto, that they did not take arms against the king, but only that they might be delivered from the tyranny of the bishops, and that presbytery and the covenant might be set up, and their old ministers restored. Turner and all his soldiers were made prisoners, but marching out of their own country, they were dispersed by the king's forces, about forty being killed, and one hundred and thirty taken; many of whom were hanged before their own doors, and died with great firmness and joy. Mr. Maccail their minister underwent the torture, and died with great constancy; his last words. were, Farewell sun, moon and stars; farewell kindred and * Page 317. † P. 207. # P. 309, 310. § Burnet, vol. i. p. 348.
friends, world and time, and this weak and frail body; and welcome eternity, welcome angels and saints, welcome Savior of the world, and God the judge of all! which he spoke in such a manner as struck all who heard him. The commander of the king's forces killed some in cold blood, and threatened to spit others and roast them alive.
When the indulgence was published in England the Scots had the benefit of it, but when it was taken away, the persecution revived, with inexpressible severity, under the administration of duke Lauderdale. Conventicles abounded in all parts of the country; the presbyterian ministers preached in their own houses, to numbers of people that stood without doors to hear them; and when they were dispersed by the magistrates, they retreated into the fields with their ministers to hear the word of God; and to prevent being disturbed, carried arms sufficient for their defence. Upon which a very severe act was passed against house conventicles and field conventicles, declaring them treasonable; and the landlords in whose grounds they were held, were to be severely fined, unless they discovered the persons present. But still this did not terrify the people, who met together in defiance of the law.* Writs were issued against many who were called Cameronians, who were outlawed, and therefore left their houses, and travelled about the country, till at length they collected into a body, and declared that the king had forfeited the crown of that kingdom by renouncing the covenant; but the duke of Monmouth, being sent to disperse them, routed them at Bothwell bridge, killing four hundred, and taking twelve bundred prisoners; two ministers were hanged, and two hundred banished to the plantations, who were all lost at sea.† Cameron their preacher fell in battle, but Hackston and Cargil, the two other preachers, died with invincible courage; as did all the rest, who were offered their lives if they would say, God bless the king! Hackston had both his hands cut off, which he suffered with a constancy and rapture that was truly amazing. When both his hands were cut off, he asked whether they would cut off his feet too? And notwithstanding all his loss of blood, after he was hanged, and his heart taken out
Burnet, vol. ii. p. 64, 155, 182, 266, 268, 269. † P. 223, 4.
of his body, it was alive upon the hangman's knife.
At length, (says bishop Burnet*) things came tot hat extremity, that the people saw they must come to church or be undone; but they came in so aukward a manner, that it was visible they did not come to serve God, but to save their substance, for they were talking or sleeping during the whole service. This introduced a sort of atheism among the younger people. But the inquisition was so terrible, that numbers fled from their native country, and settled in the plantations. These methods of conversion were subversive of christianity, and a reproach to a protestant church and nation; but oppression and tyranny had overspread the English dominions; the hearts of all good men failed them for fear, and for looking after those things that were coming on the land; the clouds were gathering thick over their heads, and there was no other defence against an inundation of popery and slavery, but the thin security of the king's life.
To return to England: when the king had made way for a popish successor, by introducing an arbitrary and tyrannical government, his majesty began to think himself neglected, all the court being made to the rising sun; upon which he was heard to say in some passion, that if he lived a month longer he would find a way to make himself easy for the remainder of his life. This was interpreted as a design to change hands, by sending abroad the duke of York, and recalling the duke of Monmouth; which struck terror into the popish party, and is thought to have hastened his death, for he was seized with a kind of apoplexy Feb. 2, and died on the Friday following, Feb. 6, 1684-5, in the fifty-fourth year of his age, not without violent suspicion of poison, either by snuff, or an infusion in broth, as bishop Burnet and others of undoubted credit have assured us, the body not being suffered to be thoroughly examined.‡
King CHARLES II. was a gentleman of wit and good nature, till his temper was soured in the latter part of his life by his popish counsellors. His court was a scene of
P. 341. † Welwood's Mem. p. 123, 6th edit. Burnet, vol. ii. p. 460. S Charles the IT." as a gentleman," says Dr. Warner, "was liked by every body, but beloved by no-body; and as a prince, though he might be respected for his station, yet his death could not be lamented by a Vol. V.