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them that are regenerate, c whereby the flesh lusteth always contrary to the spirit. d And although there is no condemnation for them that are regenerate, and do believe, e yet the apostle doth confess, that concupiscence and lust is truly and properly sin.f
Of Free Will.
The condition of man after the fall of Adam is such, that he cannot turn or prepare himself, by his own natural strength and good works, to faith and calling upon God;g wherefore we have no power to do good works pleasing and acceptable to God, h without the grace of God by Christ, both preventing us, that we may have a good will, and working so effectually in us, as that it determineth our will to that which is good, i and also working with us when we have that will unto good. k
Of the Justification of Man before God.
We are justified, that is, we are accounted righteous before God, and have remission of sins, not for, nor by our own works or deservings, m but freely by his
c Prov. 20.9. Rom. 7. 17, 20, 23, 85. d Gal. 5. 17. e Rom. 8., 1, 13. John 3. g Eph. 2. 1, 5. 1 Cor. 2. 14. Eph. 2. 8, 9, 10. John 6. 44, 65. Rom. 8. 8. 11. 19. 20. Ezek. 36. 26, 27. Jer. 31. 32, 33, with Heb. 10. 11. Phil. 2. 12, 13. 19, 20. 1 Cor. 4. 7. k Heb. 13, 21. Phil. 8. 1, 6. Heb. 12. 22. 1 Pet. 5. 10. Kings 8, 57, 58. Gal. 2. 16. Gal. 3. 10, 11.
Rom. 4. 5, 6, 7,
Psal. 32. 1, 2. m Rom. 3. 20.
13. f Rom. 8. 17, 20. Heb. 11. 6. i Ezek. John 6. 45. Eph. 1. 1 Thess. 5. 23, 24. 1 Phil. 3. 9.
Rom. 5. 1. 2 Cor. 5. 18, 19.
Rom. 15. 13. 1 Pet.
n Rom. 3. 24. Tit. 3.7. o Rom. 3. 24, 25. Rom. 5.9, 17, 18, 19, Rom. 3. 25, 26. Rom. 4. 6. 24. 2 Cor. 5. 21. q Rom. 3. 22, 25, 26, 28. Gal. 2. 16. Isa. 28. 16, with Rom. 9. 33, and 1 Pet. 2. 6. Phil. 3. 9. r2 Tim. 1. 13. Rom. 5. 1, 2, 8, 11. 1. 8. Psal. 68. 20, 21. Exod. 34. 6. 7. Luke 13. 3. 5. 4 Gal. 5.6. James 2. 17, 18, 22. u Tit. 2. 14. Tit. 3. 7. 8. Rom: 4. 4-9. Dan. 9. 18, 19. e Neb. 13. 22. Psal. 143. 2. Rev. 8. 3. 4.
y 1 Pet. 2. 5. Heb. 13. 16. 20. 21. Col. 1. 10. Phil. 4. 18. 2. 18, 19. John 15. 4, 5. 1 John 2. 3, 5. Matt. 12. 32.
Eph. 2. 8, 9, 18.
To Rom. 3. 20. 21. Exod. 28. 38.z James 2. 16. 1 John 1.4. a James
God, b for as much as they spring not of faith in Jesus Christ:c neither do they make men meet to receive grace, or (as the school authors say) deserve grace of congruity; yea, rather, for that they are not done as God hath willed and commanded them to be done, they are sinful. d
Of Works of Supererogation, Voluntary works, besides over and above God's commandments, which they call works of supererogation, cannot be taught f without arrogancy and impiety;g for by them men do declare, that they do not only render unto God as much as they are bound to do; but that they do more for his sake than of bounden duty is required; where as Christ saith plainly, When ye have done all those things that are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants, we have done that which was our duty to do. h
Of Christ alone without Sin. Christ in the truth of our nature was made like unto us in all things, sin only excepted, i from which he was clearly void both in his flesh and in his spirit: k he came to be the lamb without spot, who by sacrifice of himself m once
Articles of the Church of England. for as much as they spring not of faith in Jesus Christ, neither do they make men meet to receive grace,or (as the school authors say) deserve grace of congruity; yea rather, for that they are not done as GOD hath willed and commanded them to be done, we doubt not but they have the nature of sin.
Of Works of Supererogation. Voluntary works, besides over and above God's commandments, which they call works of supererogation, cannot be taught without arrogancy and impiety. For by them men do declare, that they do not only render unto God, as much as they are bound to do, but that they do more for his sake than of bounden duty is required; whereas Christ saith plainly. When ye have done all that are commanded to you, say, We are unprofitable servants.
Of Christ alone without Sin,
Christ in the truth of our nature was made like unto us in all things (sin only except) from which he was clearly void, both in his flesh and in his spirit. He came to be a Lamb without spot, who by sacrifice of himself once made, should
Tit. 1. 15, 16. Matt. 7. 18. Rom. 8. 8. Prov. 15. 8, 26. Prov. 21. 27. Rom. 3. 12. c Heb. 11 5.6. Gal. 5. 6. d 2 Tim. 1. 9. John 1. 13. Rom. 8. 7, 8. Hag. 2. 14. Isa. 58. 1-5. Isa. 66. 2, 3.1 f Matt. 5. 48. Mark 12. 30, 31. Phil. 4. 8, 9. g Job 9. 2. 3, 20, 21. Psal. 143. 2. Prov, 20.9. Phil. 3. 8-15. h Luke 17. 10, with ver. 7. 8. 9.
Heb. 2. 17, with Heb. 5. 15. k Luke 1. 35, with Acts 3. 14. John 14. 30. 2 Cof 1 Pet. 1. 19. m Eph. 5. 2.
made, n should take away the sins of the world; o and sin (as St. John saith) was not in him. p But all we the rest, although baptized and regenerate, yet offend in many things; and if we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. q
Articles of the Church of England.
CHARLES HERLE, prolocutor.
N. B. The Assembly proceeded no farther in the revisał.
Agreed upon by the Assembly of Divines at Westminster; examined and approved, Anno 1645, by the General ASSEMBLY of the CHURCH of SCOTLAND; and ratified by Act of Parliament the same year.
IN the beginning of the blessed reformation, our wise and pious ancestors took care to set forth an order for redress of many things, which they then, by the word, disovered to be vain, erroneous, superstitious, and idolatrous, in the public worship of God. This occasioned many godly and learned men to rejoice much in the book of Common-Prayer, at that time set forth; because the mass, and the rest of the Latin service, being removed, the public worship was celebrated in our own tongue: many of the common people also received benefit by hearing the scriptures read in their own language, which formerly were unto them as a book that is sealed.
Howbeit, long and sad experience hath made it manifest, that the liturgy used in the church of England, (notwithstanding all the pains and religious intentions of the compilers of it) hath proved an offence, not only to many of the godly at home, but also to the reformed churches abroad. For not to speak of urging the reading of all the prayers, which very greatly increased the burden of it; the many unprofitable and burdensome ceremonies contained in it, have occasioned much mis
n Heb. 9, 26, 28. Heb. 10. 10, 12. ● John 1. 29. p 1 John 3. 6. q James 3. 2. 1 John 1.8; 10.
chief, as well by disquieting the consciences of many godly ministers and people, who could not yield unto them, as by depriving them of the ordinances of God, which they might not enjoy without conforming or subscribing to those ceremonies. Sundry good christians have been, by means thereof, kept from the Lord's table, and divers able and faithful ministers debarred from the exercise of their ministry, (to the endangering of many thousand souls, in a time of such searcity of faithful pastors) and spoiled of their livelihood, to the undoing of them and their families. Prelates and their faction have labored to raise the estimation of it to such an height, as if there were no other worship, or way of worship of God amongst us, but only the servicebook; to the great hindrance of the preaching of the word, and, (in some places, especially of late) to the justling of it out, as unnecessary; or (at best) as far inferior to the reading of common-prayer, which was made no better than an idol by many ignorant and superstitious people, who, pleasing themselves in their presence at that service, and their lip-labor in bearing a part in it, have thereby hardened themselves in their ignorance and carelessness of saving knowledge and true piety.
In the mean time, papists boasted, that the book was a compliance with them in a great part of their service; and so were not a little confirmed in their superstition and idolatry, expecting rather our return to them, than endeavoring the reformation of themselves in which expectation they were of late very much encouraged, when, upon the pretended warrantableness of imposing the former ceremonies, new ones were daily obtruded upon the church.
Add hereunto, (which was not foreseen, but since hath come to pass) that the liturgy hath been a great means, as on the one hand to make and increase an idle and unedifying ministry, which contented itself with set forms made to their hands by others, without putting forth themselves to exercise the gift of prayer, with which our Lord Jesus Christ pleaseth to furnish all his servants, whom he calls to that office: So on the other side it hath been (and ever would be, if continued) a matter of endless strife and contention in the church, and a snare both to many godly and faithful ministers, who have been persecuted and silenced upon that occasion, and to others of hopeful parts, many of which have been, and more still would be diverted from all thoughts of the ministry to other studies; especially in these later times, wherein God vouchsafeth to his people more and better meaus for the discovery of error and superstition, and for attaining of knowledge in the mysteries of godliness, and gifts in preaching and prayer.
Upon these, and many the like weighty considerations, in reference to the whole book in general, and because of divers particulars contained in it; not from any love to novelty, or intention to disparage our first reformers, (of whom we are persuaded, that, were they now alive, they would join with us in this work, and whom we acknowledge as excellent instruments, raised by God, to begin the purging