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DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
W. T. JACKMAN
Early tramroads for mines and quarries
Surrey Iron Railway for general merchandise
Tramroads regarded as auxiliary to canals
Effectiveness of traction by rail over that by road
Development of steam as a motive power
Stockton and Darlington Railway .
Organization of goods and passenger trade on that line
Discussion of relative importance of canals and railways
Reasons for and prospective advantages of railways
Claims made in favour of the canals
Nature of the opposition to railways
Early advocates in favour of railways
Various plans for formation and operation of railways
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Modern railway era began with Liverpool and Manchester line
Success of this line was immediate
Later financial history of the company
Public were greatly stirred by possibilities of railways
Liverpool and Birmingham Railway
Railway panic of 1835–7 showed need of systematization
working agreement is possible
Mania brought vast amounts of amalgamation
Leading systems of railway completed by 1850
Obvious advantages from amalgamation
Formation of Railway Clearing House .
Benefits conferred by railways
Some reasons why many railways were unprofitable
Amalgamation of railways differed from that of canals or roads
Railway fares slightly lower than those of stage coaches
Railway had also advantages of greater comfort and speed
Examples of results of competition of railway with coach and waggon
Almost immediate decrease of coaching and posting along lines of road adjacent
to and parallel with the railways .
Effect upon coaching and carrying establishments
revenues of some trusts .
Examples of reduction of trust revenues by railways .
Description of the various carrying systems on railways
Railways working to exclude private carriers from their lines
Pros and cons of the carrying question
Means used to drive the carriers off the railway lines
Canals had to lower rates under railway competition
Decreased revenues of canals shown in decreased prices of shares
Working agreements formed between railways and canals after competition
had reduced their revenues and profits .
Act of 1845 to enable canals to compete with railways
This worked to benefit the railways instead
Great movement in 1844–6 to amalgamate canals with railways
Traffic Act of 1854 passed to protect the public.
Additional amalgamation and working agreements
When canals merged with railways their rates usually increased
Railway policy to take the trade from canals
Reasons for failure of canals to successfully compete with railways
Plans devised to enable canals to keep their trade