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14. Hypothetical Sentences,—Protasis and Apodosis, 15. Complex Sentences for Analysis, with Notation,
16. Analysis into Simple and Complex Clauses, 17. Analysis into Clauses, with Notation,
20. Compound Sentences for Analysis, with Notation, 21. Miscellaneous Sentences for Analysis,
For Junior Classes, the author would suggest the omission of 22 22-36, and of Exercises 4, 5, and 6, at least during the first perusal.
CHAPTER I.-THE SENTENCE, AND ITS PARTS.
§ 1. A sentence is a combination of words to express a complete thought; as, Leaves fall; The Queen reigns; Suit the action to the word.
The sentence may assume different forms, according as the thought is expressed,
1. Affirmatively; as, The wine is good.
2. Negatively; as, Man shall not live by bread alone.
3. Imperatively; as, Quit yourselves like men.
4. Interrogatively; as, Whither has she fled?
5. Exclamatorily; as, What a piece of work is man!
But in every case,
2. A complete thought implies a notion of doing or being in connexion with a notion of some thing which does or is.
3. In expressing a complete thought, the doing or being is asserted of the thing named; as, Boys play (doing); are merry (being).
4. The part of the sentence which asserts the doing or being is called the predicate. The part of the sentence which names the thing about which the assertion is made, is called the subject; as,
5. The predicate and the subject are the essential terms of every sentence; that is, there can be no sentence without them.
The subject is sometimes omitted; but only when it names the person addressed; as, Go (you); Come; Present arms.
6. The division of a sentence into its terms is called analysis.
7. The part of speech which is used to assert is the verb: hence,
Every Predicate must contain a Verb.
8. The part of speech which is used to name things spoken about is the noun: hence,
Every Subject must contain a Noun, or words equivalent to a Noun.
"Or words equivalent to a Noun," because other parts of speech than the Noun are used to indicate the person or thing spoken about; e. g., the Pronoun, the Adjective used elliptically, the Infinitive, or the Gerund in -ing. But when so used, they are performing the function of the Noun, and are therefore said to be equivalent to it.
9. The predicate may consist of more than the grammatical verb, and the subject may be more than the grammatical nominative to the verb; e. g., in the sentence,
"Every mountain now hath found a tongue"-Byron,
the predicate is not only the verb hath found, but that verb with its adjuncts now and a tongue; and the subject is not only the nominative mountain, but that noun with its adjunct
Subject, Every mountain
Predicate, now hath found a tongue.
10. In analyzing a sentence,
I. Find the Verb; the verb and the words combined with it in making the assertion (its adjuncts) form the predicate.
II. Find the Nominative to the Verb; the nominative and
its adjuncts form the subject.
11. Examples of the most general kind of Analysis:
Analyze the following sentences, i.e., divide each of them into two terms, the Subject and the Predicate:
1. He sang the bold anthem.-Campbell.
6. One of the bastions was laid in ruins.-Macaulay.
7. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day.-Gray.
8. Our revels now are ended.-Shakespeare.
9. There came to the beach a poor exile of Erin.-Campbell.
11. Echo the mountains round.-Thomson.
12. Not to know me argues yourself unknown.—Milton.
12. The word or words conjoined with the nominative in forming the subject,-i.e., the adjuncts of the noun,-are called attributes, because they qualify, or attribute some
quality to, the thing named, e. g., in the subject, "Holy and heavenly thoughts," holy and heavenly are attributes to thoughts; in "the better part of valour," better and of valour are attributes to part.
The corresponding part of speech is the Adjective. But the attribute is not always a single adjective; it may be a phrase, as (part) of valour; (History) of England.
13. The subdivisions now reached may be thus expressed:
Attribute adjective or equivalent.
14. Examples of analysis with division of subject:
Analyze the following sentences, dividing the Subject into Nominative and Attribute :—
1. The humble boon was soon obtained.-Scott.
2. The haughty elements alone dispute our sovereignty.-Motherwell. 3. Not a drum was heard.-Wolfe.
4. The language of signals was hardly intelligible.—Macaulay.
5. The most audacious to climb were instantly precipitated.-Gibbon. C. Flashed all their sabres bare.-Tennyson.
7. The sentinel on Whitehall gate looked forth into the night.— Macaulay.
8. Burned Marmion's swarthy cheek like fire.-Scott.