77. THE ORIGIN OF TRADE. Since the ground of trade cannot be deduced from havens, or native commodities (as may well be concluded from the survey of Holland, which has the least and the worst; and of Ireland, which has the most and the best, of both) it were not amiss to consider, from what other source it may be more naturally and certainly derived: for if we talk of industry, we are still as much to seek, what it is that makes people industrious in one country and idle in another. I conceive the true original and grounds of trade to be, great multitude of people crowded into small compass of land, whereby all things necessary to life become dear, and all men, who have possessions, are induced to parsimony; but those, who have none, are forced to industry and labour or else to want. Bodies that are vigorous fall to labour; such as are not supply that defect by some sort of inventions or ingenuity. These customs arise first from necessity, but increase by imitation, and grow in time to be habitual in a country; and wherever they are so, if it lies upon the sea, they naturally break out into trade, both because, whatever they want of their own, that is necessary to so many men's lives, must be supplied from abroad; and because, by the multitude of people and smallness of country, land grows so dear, that the improvement of money, that way, is inconsiderable, and so turns to sea where the greatness of the profit makes amends for the venture.


78. OF THE CONJUNCTION OF BODY AND SOUL. And now that I have gone through the six parts that I proposed, and shewn that sense and perception can never be the product of any kind of matter and motion; it remains therefore, that it must necessarily proceed from some incorporeal substance within us. And though we cannot conceive the manner of the soul's action and passion; nor what hold it can lay on the body, when it voluntarily moves it: yet we are as certain that it doth so, as of any mathematical truth whatsoever; or at least of such as are proved from the impossibility or absurdity of the contrary, which notwithstanding are allowed for infallible demonstrations. Why one motion of the body begets an idea of pleasure in the mind, and another of pain, and others of the other senses; why such a disposition of the body in

duceth sleep, another disturbs all the operations of the soul and occasions a lethargy or frenzy; this knowledge exceeds our narrow faculties and is out of the reach of our discovery. I discern some excellent final causes of such a vital conjunction of body and soul; but the instrumental I know not, nor what invisible bands and fetters unite them together.


79. INDIA. Fro Æthiop men gon to Ynde, be manye dyverse Contreyes. And men clepen the highe Ynde Emlak. And Ynde is devyded in 3 principalle parties: that is, the more, that is a full hoat Contree; and Ynde the lesse, that is a full atempree Contrey, that strechethe to the Lond of Mede; and the 3 part, toward the Septentrion, is full cold, so that for pure cold and contynuelle Frost, the Watre becomethe Cristalle. And upon tho Roches of Cristalle growen the gode Dyamandes. And ther bene sume of the gretnesse of a Bene, and sume als grete as an Haselle Note. I schall speke a litille more of the Dyamandes, to the ende that theye that knowen hem not, be not disceyved.—Fro this Lond men gon to another Yle, that is clept Silla: and it is well a 800 myles aboute. In that Lond is fulle mochelle waste, for it is fulle of wylde Bestes, of Serpentes and of Cokadrilles. Theise Cokadrilles ben a maner of long Serpente, zalowe and rayed aboven, and han 4 Feet and schorte Thyes and grete Nayles as Clees or Talouns: and there ben sume that han 5 Fadme in length, and sume of 6 and a halfendal. And in the nyght thei dwellen in the Watir, and on the day, upon the Lond. Theise Serpentes slen men, and thei eten hem wepynge: and whan thei eten, thei meven the over Jowe, and noughte the nether Jowe; and thei have no Tonge. In that Contree is the See that men clepen the Gravely See, that is alle Gravelle and Sond, with outen ony drope of Watre: and it ebbethe and flowethe in grete Wawes, as other Sees don: and it is never stille ne in pes, in no maner cesoun. And no man may passe that See be Navye, ne be no maner of craft: and therfore may no man knowe, what Lond is bezond that See. And many other marveylles ben there; that it were to combrous and to long to putten it in scripture of Bokes. SIR J. MANDEVILLE

80. COMEDY-PROGRESS OF BAD TASTE IN. We are not to forget, that a play is, or ought to be, a very short compo

sition; that if one passion or disposition is to be wrought up with tolerable success, I believe it is as much as can in any reason be expected. If there be scenes of distress, and scenes of humour, they must either be in a double or single plot. If there be a double plot, there are in fact two. If they be in chequered scenes of serious and comic, you are obliged continually to break both the thread of the story and the continuity of the passion; if in the same scene, it is needless to observe how absurd the mixture must be, and how little adapted to answer the genuine end of any passion. It is odd to observe the progress of bad taste; for this mixed passion being universally proscribed in the regions of tragedy, it has taken refuge and shelter in comedy, where it seems firmly established, though no reason can be assigned why we may not laugh in the one as well as weep in the other. The true reason of this mixture is to be sought for in the manners, which are prevalent amongst a people; it has become very fashionable to affect delicacy, tenderness of heart and fine feeling, and to shun all imputation of rusticity. Much mirth is very foreign to this character; they have introduced therefore a sort of neutral writing.

81. GOODNESS, HOW TO BE DISCERNED. And of discerning goodness there are but these two ways: the one, the knowledge of the causes whereby it is made such; the other, the observation of signs and tokens. Signs and tokens to know good by are of sundry kinds; some more certain and some less. The most certain token of evident goodness is, if the general persuasion of all men do so account it. In which case, surmises and slight probabilities will not serve. Things casual do vary, and that which a man doth but chance to think well of cannot still have the like hap. Yet some necessary cause there must be, whensoever the judgments of all men generally or for the most part run one and the same way, especially in matters of natural discourse: for of things necessarily and naturally done there is no more affirmed but this: "They keep either always or for the most part one tenure.'


82. SUCCESS OF THE ROYALISTS AGAINST THE EARL OF STAMFORD, A.D. 1643. In this manner the fight began, the king's forces pressing with their utmost vigour those four

ways up the hill, and the enemy as obstinately defending their ground. The fight continued with very doubtful success till towards three of the clock in the afternoon; when word was brought to the chief officers of the Cornish, that their ammunition was spent to less than four barrels of powder; which (concealing the defect from the soldiers) they resolved could be only supplied with courage: and therefore, by messengers to one another, they agreed to advance with their full bodies, without making any more shot, till they reached the top of the hill, and so might be upon even ground with the enemy; wherein the officers' courage and resolution was so well seconded by the soldiers, that they began to get ground in all places; and the enemy, in wonder of the men, who outfaced their shot with their swords, to quit their posts.


83. BRIBERY. It is by bribing, not so often by being bribed, that wicked politicians bring ruin on mankind. Avarice is a rival to the pursuits of many; it finds a multitude of checks and many opposers in every walk of life; but the objects of ambition are for the few; and every person who aims at indirect profit, and therefore wants other protection than innocence and law, instead of its rival becomes its instrument. There is a natural allegiance and fealty due to this domineering paramount evil from all the vassal vices which acknowledge its superiority and readily militate under its banners; and it is under that discipline alone that avarice is able to spread itself to any considerable extent, or to render itself a general public mischief.


84. SCIENCE OF MANUFACTURES, ITS EFFECT ON THE MASTERS AND WORKMEN RESPECTIVELY. In proportion as the principle of the division of labour is more extensively applied, the workman becomes more weak, more narrowminded and more dependent. The art advances, the artisan recedes. On the other hand, in proportion as it becomes more manifest that the productions of manufactures are by so much the cheaper and better as the manufacture is larger and the amount of capital employed more considerable, wealthy and educated men come forward to embark in manufactures which were heretofore abandoned to poor or ignorant handicraftsmen. The magnitude of the efforts required,

and the importance of the results to be obtained, attract them. Thus at the very time at which the science of manufactures lowers the class of workmen, it raises the class of masters. Whereas the workman concentrates his faculties more and more upon the study of a single detail, the master surveys a more extensive whole, and the mind of the latter is enlarged in proportion as that of the former is narrowed. In a short time the one will require nothing but physical strength without intelligence; the other stands in need of science, and almost of genius, to ensure success. This man resembles more and more the administrator of a vast empire, —that man, a brute.


I must confess

85. CHARACTER OF THE TRUE POET. there is hardly anywhere to be found a more insipid race of mortals, than those whom we moderns are contented to call poets for having attained the chiming faculty of a language with an injudicious random use of wit and fancy. But for the man, who truly and in a just sense deserves the name of poet and who as a real master or architect in the kind can describe both men and manners, and give to an action its just body and proportions, he will be found if I mistake not a very different creature. Such a poet is indeed a second maker: a just Prometheus under Jove. Like that sovereign artist or universal plastic Nature, he forms a whole coherent and proportioned in itself with due subjection and subordinacy of constituent parts. He notes the boundaries of the passions and knows their exact tones and measures by which he justly represents them, marks the sublime of sentiments and action, and distinguishes the beautiful from the deformed, the amiable from the odious. The moral artist, who can thus imitate the Creator and is thus knowing in the inward form and structure of his fellowcreature, will hardly I presume be found 'unknowing in himself or at a loss in those numbers which make the harmony of a mind. For knavery is mere dissonance and disproportion. And though villains may have strong tones and natural capacities of action, 'tis impossible that true judgment and ingenuity should reside where harmony and honesty have no being.


APPLICATION TO GOOD ENDS. As when a carver makes an image, he shapes only that part whereupon he

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