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No. 1.

able life" was at once nasty and diverting " (Elwin and Courthope, vi. 84). Addison, who had been a habitué, withdrew in 1712 to Button's, a new house on the other side of the street. Child's in St Paul's Churchyard, had, from its proximity to Doctors' Commons, the Royal Society (then at Gresham College), and the College of Physicians, a large clientèle among the clergy and professional classes, mostly of the Tory party (cf. Nos. 556 and 609). St. James's was a fashionable Whig house at the south-west corner of St James's Street; and the Cocoa- Tree, in the same street, attracted the Tories. The Grecian, in Devereux Street in the Strand (originally carried on by a Greek who had come to England with an English merchant in 1652), was chiefly a lawyers' resort, but was frequented by the learned for the discussion of questions of philosophy and scholarship (cf. Nos. 49 and 403). Pope addresses his paper 'To the Learned Inquisitor Martinus Scriblerus: the Society of Free Thinkers Greeting' from the Grecian, and satirises the the second book of the Dunciad (11. 379, etc.). There is a pedantic symposia of the College Sophs and 'pert' Templars in companion sketch in the humorous advertisement in the 78th Tatler, which describes the 'seat of learning' in the Smyrna Coffee-house in Pall Mall. Jonathan's, in Change Alley, was the favourite Coffeehouse of the merchant and stock-jobbing class ('that General Mart of Stock-Jobbers,' Tatler, No. 38), just as Garraway's, in the same street, well-known for its wine sales, was the recognised rendezvous of their more fashionable customers (see later papers).

"the

The Post-Man newspaper-which, according to the 'Upholsterer,' wrote "like an angel" (Tatler, No. 232), and was best for everything," according to John Dunton (Life and Errors, 1705) was carried on by a M. Fonvive, described in the General Postscript (1709, No. 12), as "M. Hugonotius, Politicus GalloAnglus, a spiteful Commentator." It had some reputation for its foreign news and correspondence (cf. Tatler, No. 178). imputed the loss of the Upholsterer's' intellect to its 'Way of going on in the Words, and making no Progress in the Sense' (Tatler, No. 178); and Defoe criticised it in his Review of the Affairs of France. See Swift's Journal to Stella, 7th letter: also Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, iv. 61 etc., 84.

Steele

PAGE 6. The letters of correspondents became a feature of the Spectator. Addison states his editorial position in Nos. 16, 46, 428, and 442 (with 450), and in No. 271 pleasantly refers to the critical readers who, like Nick Doubt of the Tatler (No. 91), suspected the genuineness of these contributions. Steele was, as Johnson tells us, much beholden to outside 'copy' (Lives, ed. 1790, ii. 343, 365). Two volumes of Original and Genuine Letters sent to the Tatler and Spectator, were published in 1725 by Lillie, the perfumer, with Steele's name on the title-page.

No. 2, PAGE 7. Motto. Juvenal, Sat. vii. 167.

Johnson's statement (based on a paragraph by Budgell, which Addison is said to have revised) that the personages of the Spectator were not "merely ideal," but "known and conspicuous in various stations" (Lives, ii. 348), is probably responsible for the almost

morbid ingenuity of later editors in identifying the characters of No, 2. these papers. Sir Roger's original, as generally held, was Sir John Pakington, a Tory squire of Worcestershire (1671-1727). Captain Sentry and Will. Honeycomb are said to be portraits of Colonels Kempenfelt and Cleland. Will Nimble, like Tom Folio of the Tatler, has been traced (No. 108, note), and even the " perverse beautiful widow" has been claimed by History (No. 113, note). Theophrastus," says Budgell, "was the Spectator of the age he lived in. He drew the pictures of particular men; and while he was describing, for example, a miser, having some remarkable offender of this kind in his eye, he threw in a circumstance or two, which, tho' they might not possibly be proper examples of Avarice, served to make the Picture of the man Compleat" (Pref. to The Moral Characters of Theophrastus, 1714). The popular interpretation of this passage would appear to be somewhat forced; and the difficulty of finding biographical analogies, especially in the case of Sir John Pakington (see Dict. of Nat. Biog.), is a very serious argument against its justness. Steele anticipated this antiquarian ingenuity, and endeavoured to thwart it (see No. 262), just as Fielding later declared against the 'malicious applications' to his characters in Joseph Andrews (III. i.). The characters are general, as Addison hints in No. 34, and their literary kinship with Sir Jeoffrey Notch and the company of the Tatler is obvious. And if we consider that in the Spectator these personal types take the place of the interests associated in the Tatler with each Coffee-housethat the gossip of the Grecian is in the Spectator the wisdom of the Templar, and that of White's the opinions of Will. Honeycomb -we are still further at issue with the antiquaries. The literary intention of the Spectator is so manifest, that there is as little to be gained by speculating on the possible models as by individualising the earlier 'humours' of Jonson and Etheredge, or the later sketches of the Novel of Character.

In a tract of 1648 against a knight, Sir Hugh Caulverley, there is reference to a tune called Roger of Caulverley (Ashton's Social Life in the Reign of Queen Anne, ii. 268-9). It appears as Roger of Coverly in the Second Part of the Dancing Master (1696), and is referred to as a popular air in the Life of Robert Powel, the Puppet-Showman (see note on p. 320). It is called Roger de Caubly in the 34th Tatler. The tune was later associated with the country-dance, known since the days of the Spectator by that name. Country-dances became fashionable in France during the Regency (1715-23), under the name contre-danse, which has been erroneously supposed to be the original form of the word. See Budgell's references in No. 67; also No. 148.

Soho Square, originally King Square, built in 1681, was still a fashionable quarter for 'Lady Dainty' and her set (Tatler, No. 37). See Shadwell's Plays, passim.

- John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester (1648-1680). His verses on Nothing are referred to in No. 305, and his Imitations of Horace are quoted in No. 91. See the Advertisement in No. 87, A.

Sir George Etheredge (1635 ?-1693 ?), author of the Comical

No. 2,

Revenge or Love in a Tub (see Nos. 44 and 127), She Would if She Could (No. 51), and The Man of Mode or Sir Fopling Flutter (No. 65).

PAGE 7. A duel. See p. 316.

Bully Dawson is, on the authority of Oldys, received at second hand, the model of Captain Hackum, a 'Block-headed Bully,' in Shadwell's Squire of Alsatia (1688).

The Treatise On the Sublime, by Longinus, had been edited by Langbaine (1636), and Hudson (1710), and translated by Hall (1662), by Pulteney (1680), and anonymously (1690); but it was chiefly through the French editions and translations, too numerous to mention, and notably the commentaries and translations of Boileau (Englished in 1711) and Dacier, that Longinus affected critical theory and literary practice in England. At the time of this paper, Edmund Smith's translation, which Johnson praised so highly (Lives, ii. 242), was in MS., and Welsted was preparing his version for the press (1712). The reader will recall Swift's witty lines on the cult of Longinus in his Rhapsody On Poetry.

The Templar treats his father's wishes after the manner of Young Maggot in Shadwell's True Widow (I. ii.). PAGE 9. The Rose Tavern (cf. No. 36) was an actors' house in Brydges Street, close to Drury Lane Theatre. It is referred to by Swift in his Verses on the Death of Dr Swift, 1. 299, and frequently in Shadwell's plays (especially the Scowrers), as the scene of rowdy episodes; and it is probably the scene of the third plate of Hogarth's Rake's Progress.

Captain Sentry is said to be, as hinted above, a sketch of Colonel Kempenfelt, the father of the hero of the Royal George (see Steele's reference to Colonel Camperfelt in 544). Will. Honeycomb has been explained to be a Colonel Cleland, who seems to have had the amorous bent of his more notorious namesake, the 'biographer' of "Fanny Hill." See the Dict. of Nat. Biog., Pope's Works (passim), and Steele's Correspondence, ed. Nichols, p. 358. The last volume of the Spectator is dedicated to Will. Honeycomb.

No. 3, PAGE 12. Motto. Lucretius, iv. 962.

Addison's allegory refers to the financial crisis in party government after the Revolution. The Whigs, supported by 'Sir Andrew Freeport' and his friends, represented the monied interests; the Tories, with 'Sir Roger,' upheld the landed interests (cf. No. 174). It was the obvious policy of the former to maintain that Public Credit (as expressed by the Bank of England and the National Debt) would be imperilled if the Stuarts gained the ascendant. The 'young man of about twenty-two years of age,' menacing the Act of Settlement, is James, son of James II., whose probable policy of repudiation is signified by the spunge. The third person, whom the dreamer 'had never seen,' is the Elector of Hanover, who came to the throne in 1714. With him is associated the Whig 'Toleration' ('Moderation leading in Religion') which Locke had enunciated in 1689. Cf. the reference to the 'Figure of Moderation' in the 257th Tatler. The happy

!

change from Heaps of Paper' to 'Pyramids of Guineas' finds its No. 3,
historical original in Montagu's scheme for the restoration of
the currency. One of the characters in Steele's allegory in the
48th Tatler is Umbra, the Dæmon or Genius of Credit.' The
Tory hatred of 'commodious_gold' and 'blest paper credit'
has its full expression later in Pope's Third Epistle of the Moral
Essays. See also Pope's Imitations of Horace (Ep. I. i. 65-133),
his versified Satires of Donne, and Swift's Letter to Pope, 10th
Jan. 1721.

PAGE 14. Rehearsal. The reference is to the scene in the last act,
where an Eclipse, Luna, Orbis, and Sol are introduced.
PAGE 15. Ovid, Metam. iii. 491-3.

· Line 12. Homer, Odyssey, x. 19. PAGE 15. Motto. Horace, Sat. II. vi. 58. PAGE 16. Jesuit. See p. 293.

Numquam se minus otiosum esse, quam quum otiosus, nec minus solum, quam quum solus esset.-Cicero, De Officiis, III. i. (cf. Rogers's Human Life (Aldine ed. p. 130), and Byron's Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, III. xc.). A fair proportion of the many allusions to Cicero (which so embarrassed Simon Honeycomb) refer to the De Officiis. Cookman's 'Tully's Offices in English,' published by Buckley, reached a third edition in 1714. PAGE 18. Young thing. 'Blooming Beauty' in A.

PAGE 19.

The Tatler in its opening number had likewise announced its interest in feminine affairs. The Spectator's polite attention to the ladies prompted Swift to say, 'I will not meddle with the Spectator. Let him fair sex it to the world's end,' (Journal to Stella, 8th Feb. 1711-2). Compare Addison's further plea in No. 10, and Belvidera's letter in No. 205. Addison's delicate pleasantries on feminine foibles, in the Tatler and Spectator, so took the public fancy that they became the prevailing topics of the humorous and light literature of his time. Much of the Rape of the Lock, for example, is distinctly inspired by these witty sketches. (See No. 69 n.). The Tea-Table" represented the domestic and feminine interests in contrast to those associated with the 'Coffeehouse,' and references to this antithesis are numerous in the Spectator and contemporary literature ("Here no Chit-Chat, here no TeaTables are. -Shadwell's Squire of Alsatia, Epilogue). Steele wrote a short-lived paper called the Tea-Table (founded on 17th Dec. 1715), and another called Chit-Chat (6th March, 1716); and Allan Ramsay, in 1724, published his Tea-Table Miscellany. The TeaTable (36 Nos.) appeared in London in 1724.

PAGE 20. Motto. Horace, Ars Poet. 5.

-Addison's papers on the Opera and dramatic mise en scène generally emphasise the sentiments of the Tatler and anticipate the criticism of Pope (Dunciad, Bk. iii., and Epistle to Augustus). They may have a personal interest in connection with the disaster to Addison's opera of Rosamond in April 1706. See No. 18, in especial. The raillery of the Spectator recalls the jibes in SaintEvrémond's Les Opéras.

Nicolini. See Grimaldi, Nicolino, in B. I.

No. 4,

No. 5,

Kadis

No, 5. PAGE 20. VAddison illustrates his criticism of histrionic absurdities from the opera of Rinaldo (see below), in which we have fire-spitting dragons (I. v. vii.), a boat in an open sea (II. iii.), a 'real' waterfall (III. i.), and thunder and lightning (III. ii.). In his satire on the introduction of living birds, he is referring to the stage direction in I. vi., where' birds are heard to sing, and seen flying up and down among the trees,' during the Flute symphony Augelletti che cantate. See also No. 14, and the advertisement to No. 36. PAGE 21. Sir Martin Mar-all, or the Feigned Innocence, a popular comedy (first acted on 16th Aug. 1667), adapted by Dryden from the Duke of Newcastle's translation of Molière's L'Etourdi, and from Quinault's L'Amant Indiscret. The reference is to the first scene of the fifth act, where Sir Martin, after the conclusion of the serenade to Mrs. Millisent, sung and played by his man Warner in the next room, continues fumbling, and gazing on his mistress." Whereupon she says-"A pretty humoured song. But stay, methinks he plays and sings still, and yet we cannot hear him. Play louder, Sir Martin, that we may have the fruits on 't."

The opera of Rinaldo, Handel's first venture on the English stage, was produced at the Haymarket on 24th Feb. 1711, and ran for fifteen nights. The libretto, which is founded on a wellknown episode in Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata, was by Rossi, and was translated by Aaron Hill: hence "the two Poets of different Nations." See No. 14. Addison refers to, and quotes from, the English and Italian edition of the libretto published in 1711 by Thomas Howlatt.

PAGE 22. Hendel or Händel, the composer, incorrectly known as
Handel to later generations. Aaron Hill writes Hendel in his

preface to Rinaldo. In the original issue Addison had given
Handel the Italian title of Seignior, which he corrected in an
erratum in the following number.

Boileau, Sat. ix.

Tous les jours à la cour un sot de qualité
Peut juger de travers avec impunité;

A Malherbe, à Racan, préfèrer Théophile,

Et le clinquant du Tasse à tout l'or de Virgile.

See also L'Art Poétique, iii. 205, etc.; Réflexions sur Longin, ii. Addison makes a like comparison in Nos. 279 and 369.

PAGE 23.

Whittington and his Cat. Cf. No. 14, which informs us that Powell, the showman, had (probably on this hint from Addison) set up Whittington against Rinaldo and Armida; also Tatler No. 78.

Christopher Rich, manager of Drury Lane, the 'Kit Crotchet' of No. 258, and the 'Divito' of the Tatler (Nos. 12, 42, and 99). He was the father of 'Harlequin' Rich, the ‘immortal Rich' of the Dunciad (iii. 261). See B. I.

- London & Wise, a famous firm of gardeners (see B. I.), referred to at greater length in No. 477, and eulogised by Evelyn in the Advertisement to his translation of Quintinye's Compleat Gardner (1693). Their nursery at Brompton Park,

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