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Abbey to John Doubleday, a Quaker, and brought (by marriage) the estate of Middleton, near Leeds, into the family. Dying without progeny, as two elder brothers had done before him, he left Middleton to the next heir-his brother Charles Brandling (2), who had married Margaret, daughter of John Grey, of Howick, ancestor of Earl Grey. Ralph Brandling (2) the only son of Charles Brandling (2) inherited Felling, Gosforth, and Middleton, and transmitted them to his second son, Charles Brandling number three.

A considerable interval of abstinence from public affairs on the part of the Brandling family had occurred since Sir Francis held high office in the county of Northumberland. Charles Brandling the third was destined to end it. He was united on the 1st September, 1756, to Elizabeth, heiress of John Thompson, of Shotton, and shortly afterwards, finding the old seat of the Brandlings at Felling inadequate to his ideas of a family residence, he erected Gosforth House, and took up his permanent abode there. During twenty years, surrendering most of his time to local business, and making himself useful and popular in town and county, he prepared himself for more responsible duties. In 1784, having a couple of years earlier filled the office of High Sheriff of Northumberland, he was elected with Sir Matthew White Ridley to represent Newcastle in Parliament. Opposition to his return had been threatened by Stoney Bowes, the profligate husband of Lady Strathmore, who had represented the town in the previous Parliament, but it did not reach the polling booth. Such was the influence of the united names of Ridley and Brandling in Newcastle, that for many years no one ventured upon a hostile candidature. When Mr. Brandling retired, at the close of 1797, the seat was taken, as a matter of course, by his son, Charles John, born February 4, 1769.

Charles John Brandling entered public life with every possible advantage in his favour. The family influence was far-reaching; the family relationships were widespreading. Four of his sisters were married-Eleanor to William Ord, of Fenham; Margaret to Rowland Burdon, of Castle Eden, the builder of Wearmouth Bridge; Elizabeth to Ralph William Grey, of Backworth; Sarah to Matthew Bell, of Woolsington. He himself had been united, four years previous to his election, to a daughter of the ancient house of Hawksworth, of Hawksworth in Yorkshire. His wealth, too, if not profuse, was abundant. Improved methods of cultivating the soil and a growing demand for mineral fuel were increasing the revenues of his inheritance; and Gosforth and Felling were taking their place among the most profitable estates upon Tyneside. Riches, county influence, and the unbounded confidence of a powerful borough constituency form admirable stepping stones to a useful and prosperous career. Possessing all these, young Mr. Brandling became the rising hope of the Tory party in this district;

justifying their expectations, he was returned unopposed to three successive Parliaments-those of 1802, 1806, and 1807. It does not appear that he made any great figure

Chas Ja Brandling.

in the House; but he kept his party well together in Newcastle, and became a recognised leader of Conservative thought and feeling in Southern Northumberland.

At the dissolution in 1812, when he had been fifteen years M.P. for Newcastle, Mr. Brandling withdrew from Parliament. Not that he was tired of political life, for he continued to inspire the local adherents of his party, and to guide them by his counsel as before. But other and equally important matters demanded his attention. All over the North of England men's minds were occupied by the growing power of steam-perplexed by problems, and sustained by possibilities, of applying that subtle and potent agent to purposes of locomotion, both by land and water. At the Yorkshire collieries of the Brandlings John Blenkinsopp was already, as we have seen, working his patent "iron horse"; nearer home George Stephenson and William Hedley were experimenting in the same direction. It was evident that with every fresh application of steam to engineering more coal would be required, and Mr. Brandling found it necessary to curtail his Parliamentary course in order to watch over his great mining enterprises, and prepare for their extension and development.

George Stephenson lived at this time, and for many years afterwards, at the village of West Moor, adjoining the eastern entrance to Gosforth House. Mr. Brandling was a watchful observer of his proceedings, and became one of his earliest friends and supporters. A disastrous explosion at Mr. Brandling's Felling Colliery, in 1812, led to the invention of the safety lamp, and when the rival claims of Sir Humphrey Davy and George Stephen

son to the honour of that invention were being discussed, Mr. Brandling took the side of his humble neighbour. A sum of £2,000 had been presented to Sir Humphrey, and one hundred guineas to Stephenson-a distinction which gave the friends of the latter offence. Mr. Brandling was consulted, and advised Stephenson to publish a statement of the facts upon which his claim was founded. The latter, with the aid of his son Robert, drew up a narrative, and when it was finished, after many corrections, and fairly copied out, father and son, Dr. Smiles tells us, set out to put the joint production before Mr. Brandling at Gosforth House. Glancing over the letter, Mr. Brandling said, "George, this will never do." "It is all true, sir," was the reply. "That may be, but it is badly written," and, taking up his pen, the squire revised the letter and fitted it for publication in the local newspapers. He took the chair at a public meeting which followed, and when a subscription for Stephenson, amounting to £1,000, had been raised-towards which he and his various partners contributed 275 guineas-he presided and made the presentation. The Newcastle Chronicle, reporting the proceedings, adds :-"The cheerful and convivial spirit displayed by the chairman soon infused itself into the company, and rendered this meeting, from its commencement till its close, a scene of festivity and good-humour seldom witnessed."

The "convivial spirit displayed by the chairman" was a characteristic of the English gentleman in those roystering days of the Prince Regent. People dined together, not wisely perhaps, but well and often; and there were public gatherings and patriotic demonstratrations, which always meant unlimited health-drinking and song-singing-the "feast of reason and the flow of soul." In this way every year, by organizations called Pitt Clubs, "the immortal memory of William Pitt " was revered. Of the Northumberland and Newcastle Pitt Club, started in 1813, Mr. Brandling was a founder and the first President.

The martial ardour that found expression at these convivial clubs was consolidated shortly after their formation by commercial depression and general discontent. Riot and tumult broke out all over the country, and the moneyed classes feared a general insurrection. To allay these fears and prepare for eventualities in the North of England, there was formed in December, 1819, under Mr. Brandling's command, "The Northumberland and Newcastle Volunteer Cavalry," to which was attached a troop of dismounted yeomanry raised in Newcastle. Before, however, the movement could be made effective the death of George III. involved a dissolution of Parliament, and Mr. Brandling's military aspirations were engrossed in political warfare. At the previous general election (1818) Mr. Thomas Wentworth Beaumont had been returned, in succession to his father, as the colleague of Sir C. M. L. Monck, in the representation of the county, and

1889.

his conduct in Parliament had given his Conservative supporters good ground for dissatisfaction, for, as explained in the sketch of that ardent politician (Monthly Chronicle, vol. ii., p. 194), Mr. Beaumont, instead of supporting the Conservative Government, voted frequently with the Whigs. It was determined, therefore, that a candidate whose views and votes could be trusted should be brought out to oppose him. No one was considered so capable of overcoming the territorial influence of the Beaumont family as Mr. Brandling, and he was induced to come out of his retirement and fight for his principles and his party. Preparations were made for a severe contes but the call to battle had barely become audible when Sir Charles Monck declined to renew his candidature, and Mr. Brandling was returned to Parliament as the colleague of the man whom he had intended to exclude.

On the 13th of December, 1823, the Town Moor of Newcastle was the scene of an interesting event. The Volunteer Cavalry assembled there at an extraordinary parade, and with admiring ladies and civilian friends massed around, Major Sir Charles Loraine, presented "the lieutenant-colonel commanding, Charles John Brandling, M.P.," with a copy of "the celebrated Warwick vase, found in Herculaneum," weighing "upwards of three hundred ounces," and, adds the chronicler, with visions of conviviality flitting through his brain, capable of holding "about eight quarts"! This was almost his last public appearance. In little more than two years afterwards, within three days of his fiftyseventh birthday, he was summoned to a higher court than the High Court of Parliament, and a few days later his remains were buried at Gosforth.

He

Summarising Mr. Brandling's political and social life, the editor of the Newcastle Magazine for June, 1826, states that, although he never made any pretensions to literary power, his conversation was that of a man of cultivated taste, and of an enlarged and well-informed mind. was remarkably quick in his perception of genius in the fine arts, and equally eager to patronise it. To William Nicholson he gave commissions to paint groups of old servants, portraits of friends, and pictures of favourite animals. He purchased Henry Perlee Parker's painting of celebrated characters in Newcastle, and employed him to paint a companion picture of a merrymaking in the servants' hall at Gosforth House, introducing portraits of the domestics. In private life, his hospitality and his urbane and generous disposition were proverbial. "His manly and candid manner, his courteous behaviour to his friends and acquaintances, and his affable demeanour to all ranks were such as it would be difficult to parallel amongst men of similar wealth and connexions. His was the unostentatious and expansive and all-embracing hospitality of an ancient English Baron. He carried you back to the welcome and the cheer of feudal times, without reminding you of their servility."

Mr. Brandling left three brothers, the eldest of whom, the Rev. Ralph Henry, succeeded to the property. To this clerical representative of the Brandlings came the misfortune of seeing the estates, which his family had held for 300 years, pass into the hands of strangers. He outlived his younger brother, Robert William, projector of the Brandling Junction Railway, chairman of the coal trade, and one of the receivers of Greenwich Hospital; outlived also his brother John, Sheriff of Newcastle in 1828-29, and Mayor in 1832-33; and died in Newcastle on the 26th of August, 1853, at the venerable age of 81 years -"the last of the long roll of Brandlings" of Gosforth and Felling.

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HOLLERFORD is a hamlet in the township of Humshaugh and parish of Simonburn thirteen minutes' ride by rail N.W. from Hexham, on the Waverley Route to Edinburgh. It stands on the west side of the North Tyne, in the midst of lovely scenery. The village itself has nothing particular about it, but it is much frequented by anglers, and the inn, which is a conspicuous object in our engraving, is one of the most comforable in Northumberland. Moreover, Chollerford is a capital starting point for tourists bent on surveying the Roman Wall, and particularly the neighbouring station of Ciluruum, or Walwick Chesters, the proprietor of which, Mr. John Clayton, has unearthed a "rowth" of Roman antiquities such as is scarcely to be met with anywhere else.

The modern name Chollerford is a mere modification of the ancient British appellative of the place-Coill-uirin, "wood and water," corrupted by the Romans into Cilurnum-and with the Anglian "ford" added. In long-past, pre-historic times, sun and moon worship must have been prevalent here, for the Romans, whose usual practice it was to incorporate in their theology and place in their pantheon the gods whom they found worshipped in the lands they conquered, raised altars at Cilurnum to the Moon goddess, known to the Britons as Comh-bhanteinne, Latinized Coventina, "the lady companion of the God of Fire," the Sun.

As the Tyne is subject to sudden floods, which come down almost like a wall of water, with little or no warning, when there has been heavy rain up among the fells, the fords and stepping-stones by which it could ordinarily be crossed must have been always unsafe; and so the provident Romans would lose no time in setting about the building of a bridge, by which to keep open their communications east and west in all seasons and weathers. It had long been known that the vestiges of a Roman bridge were to be seen in the river opposite to Cilurnum, and within a short distance south of the modern village;

but the land abutment on the eastern side, which is by far the most striking feature of the work, was not discovered till the year 1860. Successive beds of sand and gravel had for ages encumbered it; and at the time of its discovery a fir plantation grew upon this deposit, which had the fallacious appearance of a moraine, or glacierdebris heap. The river, too, which runs very rapidly, and is subject, as already observed, to great floods, forsaking for some distance at this place its ancient bed, had left the abutment dry, completely submerging the corresponding work on the opposite side. Dr. Bruce tells us that it was at the suggestion of Mr. William Coulson, of Corbridge, that Mr. Clayton engaged in the explorations which revealed to archæologists this fine specimen of the engineering skill of the Romans. Alexander Gordon, in his "Itinerarium Septentrionale," published in 1726, describes the bridge as he saw it in the beginning of last century; and a plan of the whole structure, and a bird's-eye view of the eastern abutment, is given in Dr. Bruce's great work on the Roman Wall. There were three water piers, the foundations of two of which are still easily discerned when the water is low; and the third, lying under the east bank of the stream, was some time ago partly exposed; but to prevent the river from encroaching upon the erections immediately behind it, it was found necessary to restore the bank to its original

state.

Agricola is believed to have first formed the adjoining station, and also to have thrown some sort of bridge across the Tyne; but the works were certainly reconstructed or partly repaired by the Emperor Lucius Septimus Severus and his undutiful sons, in the beginning of the third century. The Notitia place the prefect of the second wing (ala) of the Astures at Cilurnum; and these "Sons of Somebody" (hidalgos) from the skirts of the bleak snow-clad Vinnian Mountains, in Northern Spain, would find here, though in a latitude twelve degrees nearer the Pole, a climate milder than their native air, and scenery unsurpassed for beauty by any to be found in their native valleys. That it was an important station plainly appears from the number of Roman roads that converged upon it, and the great variety of inscribed stones, altars, votive tablets, &c., dug up on its site. Some have conjectured that it was here the Emperor Alexander Severus was murdered by the mutinous soldiers in the year 235, and that Elfwald, King of Northumbria, called by Simeon of Durham "a pious and upright king," was slain in A.D. 788; the locality, at any rate, was near the Wall," and Elfwald was buried at Hexham.

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During the troublous times that succeeded the fall of the Roman Empire, the bridge over the Tyne at Cilurnum must have been destroyed; and, when better days at length dawned on Nortumberland, another bridge on another site was erected. In the reign of Richard II., Bishop Skirlaw granted a release from penance, for thir

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