of Hades, he could see, and hear, and hold conversa-.

tion with Abraham, &c. But in these, and other things, _ is, that Hades is an intermediate place of punished the literal sense is abandoned, and the part only

; and that the which speaks of bis torment, ts literally interpreted. ccording to their own account, this place is to $1 But we have a right to ask why this is done? Who

gave any map the privilege to cull out a circumstance

from this parable, and consider it a literal fact, and ight here close my remarks on this parable, as the body of the parabie? Let us be informed, upon bearing on the subject of our investigation. But scriptural and rational principles, why this man was

not tormented in his body in Hades, and why all that

is said is not to be as literally understood as this one

shall submit for candid consideration the following 2d, That whatever place Hades is, in which the servations:

rich man is here represented as in torment, it is very Ist, Let it be noticed, that the rich man is net i evident that Abraham and Lazarus were also in resented as in Gehenna, but in Hades

. It is confte Hades. Though spoken of as at some distance from ed by Dr. Campbell and others, that Gehere each other, yet they were within sight and hearing, Hades, is the place of endless misery for the wie and could converse together. The one is not repreand that the punishment of Gehenna does not

sented as in heaven and the other in hell. No; they place till after the resurrection of the dead: yes are represented as in the same place and on a level is contended, that Hades, the place in which the it with each other. Every one knows, how very differman is here said to be, is to be destroyed. It is rent this representation is from the common ideas enevident then, that whoever contends for this perto tertained about the place of punishment, and the being actually in a place of torment

, inust allows place of happiness in our day. Do you ever hear it is not to be of endless duration. But

, I ask the Christians speak as if both” righteous and wicked who advocate the torment to be a reality, first to prin were in the same place after death? The very rethe tormented in Hades to be not a parabole ya

verse of this is the case. But, person son, before they draw the conclusion thai the torta 3d, If people will interpret a part of this parable is not a parabolic torment. The first must be proper literally

, to suit their own religious opinions, we inbefore the last can be admitted ; for a person es sist, that they go through with a literal interpretation. exist before he can be tormented in any place. Ha bf it is maintained, that Hades was to this man a person mentioned is a real being and the tormen's place of torment, they must allow, that literal fire was complains of a reality, and not a fictitious or perto the cause of it

. This we believe some are consistent representation, we have a right to demand why ere enough to maintain. They must also admit

, that his thing in this account, is not considered a narrative body was tormented in Hades, and that he believed facts, and not a parable ? à drop of water would give some case to his torment

. But letting such persons have this parable albe It must be granted, that while tormented in the flames own way, on their own principles, it does not pro endless misery. All that they can possibly draw in etween death and the resurrection; estroyed. Supposing then that I should grant al hey desire, they must allow, that this parable de at say a word about a place of endless misery.! view all the other parts as mere fiction, to fill



oceed to observe,

from the Old Testament, where a prophet of the Lord, was ever sent to any people to warn them against eternal misery in a place called hell? Yea, I go lurther, and ask, if any man can produce a single instance where a false prophet ever endeavoured to make gain to himself, by the doctrine of eternal misery? I do not find that either true or false prophets did so under that dispensation, or that this doctrine was known and believed by a single individual. As men were not threatened with such a punishment, so none were ever congratulated as being saved from it. As it was never held up to deter men from sin while ignorant of God, so it was never urged on believers to stimulate them to gratitude and obedience. Is it possible then, that this doctrine could be believed, yet all remain silent on the subject? If no revelation was given about it, how could men avoid such a punishment? If a revelation was given, how is it accounted for, that it is not mentioned by one of the Old Testament writers! If it is mentioned by any of them under any other name than Sheol, I am ig. norant of it; nor is this even pretended by those who believe the doctrine. I am fully aware, that there are two or three passages commonly quoted. For example, Dan. xii. 2. is perhaps the most plausible that can be adduced:-"and many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. All I shall say of this text here, is, that were 1 fully convinced that the doctrine of eternal misery was true, I never could quote this passage in support of it. To assign my reasons here, would be aside from the present investigation.

5th, Another fact deserving our notice, is, that the living in speaking of their dead friends, never speak as if they were to be separated from them after death, but always as associated with them. This appears

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to have been the case, whether the persons were good or bad. An instance to the contrary, cannot be produced, where a person ever expressed himself, as if he expected after death to be separated, and separated from his friends forever. But it is well known, that persons in our day, not only expect to be separated from many of their friends forever, but even say, that they shall give their hearty amen to their everlasting condemnation. Yea, it is even said, that the happiness of those in heaven is to be greatly enhanced, by their looking down on those in eternal torments, in seeing the smoke of it ascend forever and ever. This was once the current popular divinity, and though not yet altogether out of use, yet I am bappy to say, the more thinking and sober-minded. reject it.

But, it may be asked, is it true, that persons under the Old Testament expected to be associated with their deceased friends after death? I do not recollect. a single instance to the contrary, and shall here, in proof of the assertion, refer to Jabn's Biblical Archæology, p. 234.

To this it may probably be objected, that'associa.. tion with their friends after death, only referred to their bodies mingling in the dust together, and had no reference to their spirits after death. Admitting this to be true, permit me to ask, can any proof be adduced, that their spirits were separated from each other after death? As I am unable to adduce any proof, I request those who say that they were so separated, to produce evidence of this from the Old Testament. I shall give it all due consideration. At any rate, if the Old Testament is silent on the subject it ill becomes us to assert that such was the case. Its very silence is to me an indication that no such idea was entertained in those days. If it was, it is somewbat surprising that no person ventured to express ita

And if it is not expressed by any of the Old Testament writers, how is it known that such an idea was entertained by them.

One thing we think must be admitted by all who have read the Old Testament with attention. It is this: good people in those days, do not appear to have had the fears and anxieties of mind which haunt men's minds now, about their children, their relations, their neighbours, and a great part of mankind, as all going to a place of endless misery. You may read the Old Testament, until your eyes grow dim with age, before you find any ihing like this there. How is this silence to be accounted for, if the doctrine of endless misery was known and believed? If by Sheol they understood the same as men do now by the word hell, is it possible, that good people in those days could feel so easy on such a subject i Whatever the ideas they attached to this word we think it is certain, they did not mean by it a place of endless misery:

The question is likely then to be asked, seeing that he Sheol.or bell does not mean a place of eternal mis. ery,--what does it mean? What is the idea the Old Testament writers affixed to this word? From the remarks already made; we think something has been gaid in answer to this question.-By Sheol, seems evidently to be meant, what Job calls, chap. XXX. 33,The house appointed for all the living." And it is the same to which Solomon alludes, when he says, Eccles, . nii. 20.--"all go to one place.” The question still returns, What place is this? What place it is, may

be learned further from the following passages. In 2 Sam. xii. 23. where David is speaking of his dead child, he says, “I shall go to him, but he shall not return to me.” This, it may be said, only provokes the question--, where was his child? In heaven, most people would answer, and some have quoted this text to prove the salvation of all infants. Nothing more,


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conceive, is meant, nor could be rationally inferred from this text than this, that his child was in the state of the dead or in Sheol, and David, impressed with a sense of his own mortality intimates, that he would soon follow him to the same place. So Jacob speaks of himself in a similar way in reference to his son Joseph. But further, we find in 1 Sam. xxviii. 19. Samuel ihus speaks to Saul, “tomorrow shalt thou and thy sons be with me.” Where was this? It may be asked,When Saul desired the woman to bring up Samuel, was it from heaven he expected him to come? Surely not ; for in this case Samuel would have been brought down, not up. Was it then from bell, the place of eternal misery, he expected him to come? This cannot be admitted, for neither Saul, nor any one else, ever thought that Samuel was there. From what place then did Saul wish the woman to bring Samuel? I answer, from Sheol, the same place to which Jacob said he would go down mourning to Joseph. The same place in which the Saviour's soul was not left. If Saul and his sons went to hell, a place of endless misery, it is certain Samuel was ibere before him. And it is equally certain, that if Samuel was in heaven, Saul and his sons were there soon after with him. But what appears simply to be meant is this,-Samuel was in Sheol, or the state of the dead, and the issue of the battle proved, that Saul and his sons were with Samuel, and with all the dead who had gone before them. As to the woman's have ing power to bring Samuel from Sheol, we do not believe any such thing. We believe that she was an impostor, but this is not the place for assigning our reasons, or entering further into this part of the history of Saul. We have merely referred to it as show.

ing what were the popular opinions in those days on 1 the subject before us.

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