of London' (Camden Society, 1852), p. xv, says: "The corpse of the holy Maid of Kent was interred in their cemetery, as were several of the Northern rebels." But when reference is made to the text, we find (p. 37) that the holy maid was buried "at the Gray freeres," no mention being made of the actual spot, while it was (p. 41) only the "quarters" of the Northern rebels (with the exception of Sir Thomas Percy) that were "burryd at the Gray Freeres in the clowster on the North syde in the pamet [pavement ]." No mention in either case is made of a cemetery or graveyard; but the question arises whether the graveyard of the parish of Christ Church, Newgate, which was the Gray Friars' church under another name, may not have been identical with the graveyard of the Friary. The burial registers of Christ Church begin in 1540, so interments must have taken place before the foundation of the church in 1546. According to Mrs. Basil Holmes (London Burial Grounds,' 1896, p. 316), this graveyard was situated on the site of the western end of the church of the Gray Friars. MR. ABRAHAMS may be able to say how far this topographical indication agrees with his observations. Another burial-place in the immediate vicinity was that belonging to the church of St. Nicholas Shambles. Stow (Survey,' Thoms's edition, p. 118) records that this church was pulled down, and that "in place whereof, and of the churchyard, many fair houses are now built in a court with a wall, in the midst whereof the church stood." But this was more to the south, near Newgate Street. On the whole, I am inclined to believe that the remains which have been recently discovered belonged to those persons who, like the Northern rebels, were buried in the cloisters of the Friary, which were situated close to the southern boundary of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. W. F. PRIDEAUX.


MR. ALECK ABRAHAMS might possibly receive help in his investigations by the perusal of an article on Grey Friars which appeared in The Builder of 10 October, 1885. Thence I extract the following paragraph :"A faithful copy plan lies before us dated 1540. Grey Friars Church Yard is marked thereon as without the City Wall and Ditch, being situated westwards of The Walke,' leading through a gateway in the London Wall to St. Bartholomew's." JOHN T. PAGE.

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. PHILIPPINA: PHILOPŒNA (10th S. iii. 406, 471).—In 1881, when journeying from San Francisco to New York vid Panama, we had on board a young lady who had spent the

greater part of her eighteen years in Japan. She was American by birth, and had an Irish name. She played the game with great success, and invariably used three syllables— no doubt the Fillipeen of Bartlett. DUн Ан Соo.


ST. PAULINUS AND THE SWALE (10th S. iv. 168).-Northern historians appear to have no doubt that Paulinus laved converts in the Yorkshire Swale. The Venerable Bede, than whom I suppose there can be no better authority, says that certain things happened in the province of the Deiri, where he was often with the king, and "baptized in the river Swale, which runs by the village of Cataract," a place identified with Catterick (bk. ii. ch. xiv.). The learned Edward Churton accepts this statement in his 'Early English Church' (p. 54); and Canon Raine, who I think never wrote uncritically, refers both to Bede and Churton in Fasti Eboracenses' (p. 43), and states of Paulinus: "In the province of Deira, where a great portion of his time was passed, he would generally be baptizing at Catterick or Tanfield (Donafield), in the Swale and Yore."

In default of contemporary parish registers it is difficult to quote any trustworthy authority for the number of the converts and for the year and the time of year of their adST. SWITHIN. mission to the Church.

[ocr errors]


Yorkshire Swale in which Paulinus, There can be no question that it was the his converts, and he thus immersed them Apostle of the North of England," baptized fonts could not be made in the early infancy as yet, oratories or because, as Bede says, of the Church in those parts." It is recorded by Bede that "in the province of Deiri also (the whole tract of country between the Tyne, the Ribble, and the Humber), "where he was wont often to be with the King (Edwyn), Paulinus baptized in the river Swale, which runs by the village Cataract.' That Dewsbury was one of the places where multitudes flocked to him to receive baptism is attested by the inscription, formerly extant, to that effect on the Dewsbury Cross.

As to the Kentish converts and St. Augustine, Dr. Whitaker, in his History of Whalley,' observes that Augustine seems to have been to the monks what the Theban Hercules was to the Greeks, an object of fond and thoughtless devotion, on whom they were anxious to accumulate the exploits, and to divert the honours, of his brethren. Thus, precisely in another instance nearly akin to the present, they have adorned him with

[ocr errors]

JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

trophies not his own. "In one Christmas for you hang de piccaninny?" Why the Day," says a fragment quoted by Camden 'piccaninny was usually adopted as a sign (Gibson's ed., vol. i. p. 88), "Austin baptized by such dealers I cannot say. above ten thousand men, and consecrated the river Swale." "Yet," says Whitaker, "the whole story, with concomitant circumstances, is related of Paulinus by Bede, whose authority is incontestable " (vol. i. bk. ii. ch. i. p. 69). J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL.

PARISH RECORDS NEGLECTED (10th S. iv. 186).-My experience confirms this; but, sad as neglect is, destruction is worse. Manor court rolls are constantly being sent to the Some solicitors cannot read the old deeds, waste-paper merchant to be reduced to pulp. and they think it safer to have them de

This was the river Swayle in Yorkshire. See Bede's 'Ecclesiastical History,' bk. ii. ch. xiv. In the translation by the Rev. L. Gidley (Parker & Co.) a foot-note identifies the village as Catterick Bridge, near Rich-stroyed. The Local Record Committee would mond, the site of the Roman station Cataractonium. Paulinus was then Archbishop

of York.

The Swayle in Kent is not a river, but an estuary dividing the Isle of Sheppey from the mainland. ARTHUR HUSSEY.

Tankerton-on-Sea, Kent.

[MR. J. RADCLIFFE refers to Bohn's edition of Bede, p. 98.]

"PICCANINNY : "" ITS ORIGIN (10th S. iv. 27, 128). Spanish pequeño, Portuguese pequeno, and Italian piccino, though not necessarily of Celtic origin, may be urverwandt, i.e., originally akin, or cognate with Cymric or Welsh bychan, bechan, bach, old Irish becc, modern Irish beag, Gaelic beag, Manx beg, Breton bie'han, i.e., little, small. According to Diez-Scheler's Comparative Dictionary of the Romance Languages' (1878, fourth edition), Italian piccino or piccolo (as well as the Spanish and Portuguese cognate) are derived from picco, pointed, and from Latin punctulum, a little point.

[ocr errors]

As to piccaninny, a negro child, it may be compared with Cymric bachgen, pl. bechgyn (from bach + dim. term. cen=cyn, can), a little boy (cf. Silvan Evans's Welsh-English Dictionary,' Carmarthen, 1888). H. KREBS.

This word is an English corruption in spelling. The original phrase was pequeña niña little child. Any one familiar with the Spanish colloquial habit of dropping the last syllable when a word ends with a vowel will know at once how the English made the word. The word picayune was derived in the same way, pequeño uno a little one (coin).

New York.


[ocr errors][merged small]

them the private muniments of the lord of
not face this question because they considered
the manor, not remembering that copyholders
might have an interest in the rolls; in fact,
of Wimbledon that the rolls be moved from
a presentment was once made by the homage
Wandsworth Church to Putney because of
holders have an interest in the rolls.
damp. This, I think, shows that the copy-


[blocks in formation]

DICKENS OR WILKIE COLLINS? (10th S. iii. 207, 278.)-The following is taken from Richard Herne Shepherd's 'Bibliography of Dickens,' 1880, p. 33 :-

Printed in Household Words, October, 1857 (vol. xvi. "The Lazy Tour of Two Idle Apprentices.' pp. 313, 337, 361, 385, 409). To the first of these papers Dickens contributed all up to the top of the second column of page 316; to the second, all up to the white line in the second column of page 340; to the third, all except the reflections of Mr. Idle (363-5); and the whole of the fourth part. All the rest was by Mr. Wilkie Collins.'-Forster."


AN EARLY LATIN-ENGLISH-BASQUE DICTIONARY (10th S. iv. 143).-DR. ABBOTT is incorrect in stating that this stupid dictionary, the discovery of which he announced to me some six months ago, was "the first attempt to construct a Basque dictionary of any kind." Even if he can prove that it was written before that of Pouvreau, which also comes chiefly from Leiçarraga's New Testament, and ought to be published without delay, he has overlooked the valuable glos


sary of Leiçarraga himself, and the dictionary of Rafael Micoleta or Nicoleta, which belonged to Sir T. Browne and his son-in-law Owen Brigstocke, and is kept in the British Museum. Of this there are three editions, printed at Gerona, Barcelona, and Sevilla respectively. Its date is Bilbao, 1653. An improved reprint is much to be desired. Moreover, there is mention on p. 161 of the "Bibliographie de la Langue Basque,' by J. Vinson, of a Baskish-Castilian-French-Latin dictionary by J. D'Etcheberri, medical doctor of Sara, which Don M. de Larramendi had seen before 1745, and which M. Vinson thought may have been one that was also seen by Pouvreau about 1660. This manuscript belongs to the Franciscans of Zarauz in Guipuscoa, where it was found last May by my friend Don Julio de Urquijo é Ibarra, of St. Jean de Luz, who describes it in an offprint of seven pages published in May, 1905, at San Sebastián, and appears to take it for granted that it was written after the time of Edward Lhwyd. Further criticism will perhaps decide whether M. Vinson's conjecture as to the origin of this dictionary, which Don Julio de Urquijo wishes to publish, was well founded. In compiling my work on Leiçarraga's verb I have noted many infallible proofs of his knowledge of the Greek text of the New Testament.


KING JOHN POISONED BY A TOAD (10th S. iv. 168). An early authority for this story is the Chronicle of St. Albans,' printed by Caxton in 1502. It is quoted in a paper on Shadows on the Past History of Sleaford,' by the Rev. Edward Trollope, M.A., F.S.A., afterwards Bishop of Nottingham, which was published in Associated Architectural Societies' Reports,' &c., vol. vii. p. 92. King John, being at Swineshead Abbey after his disaster in the Wash, had threatened to increase the price of bread, which seemed already high enough to a patriotic religious, who resolved to make an end of him :

"The Monke that stode before the Kynge was for this worde full sory in his herte, and thought rather hee would hymselfe suffre deth yf he might ordeyne some manere of remedye. And anone the Monke went unto his Abbot and was shriven of him and tolde the Abbot all that the Kynge had sayd; and prayed his Abbot for to assoyle him, for he would give the Kynge such a drynke that all Englonde should be glad thereof and joyfull. Then yede the Monke into a gardeyne, and founde a grete tode therein, and toke her up and put her in a cuppe and prycked the tode through with a broche many times tyll that the venym came out of evry syde in the cuppe. And he toke the cuppe and filled it with good ale, and brought it before the Kynge knelynge, sayinge: Sir,' sayd hee, Wassayll, for

[ocr errors]

never the dayes of all your lyfe dronke ye of so good a cuppe. Begyn, Monke,' sayd the Kynge. And the Monke dranke a grete draught, and so set downe the cuppe. The Monke anone ryght went in to the farmerye and there dyed anone, on whoas soule God have mercy Amen. And fyve Monkes synge for his soule specially, and shall whyle the Abbaye standeth. The Kynge rose up anone full evyll at ease and commaunded to remove the table, and axed after the Monke, and men tolde him that he was dede, for his wombe was broken in sundre. Whan the Kynge herde this, he commaunded for to trusse, but it was for naught, for his belly began to swelle for the drynke that he had dronke, and withen two dayes hee deyed, on the morowe after Saynt Lukis day." ST. SWITHIN.

The earliest account of King John's death by poison is apparently that by Peter de Langtoft (thirteenth century), who writes: "En le abbaye de Swinesheved home l'enpusonait." (They poisoned him in the abbey of Swineshead.) According to Caxton's Chronicle' (which "differs but little from the Chronicle of Brute"), the king was poisoned by a monk, "whose wombe broke in sunder." The story is repeated by Grafton, and by Fox in his 'Book of Martyrs' (where we find an elaborate engraving on this theme), and by Shakespeare in his 'King John,' Act V. sc. vi. :

Hub The king, I fear, is poisoned by a monk...... Bas. How did he take it? Who did taste to him? Hub. A monk, I tell you; a resolved villain, Whose bowels suddenly burst out. Shakespeare, I think, read the account in Grafton. H. R. D. ANDERS.

Before the end of the century in which King John died it was generally believed that he was poisoned by a monk of Swineshead (Wikes); and there is a legend that, as he intended to violate a nun, the sister of the abbot, a monk gave him three poisoned pears while he sat at table talking wildly about the scarcity of food which he intended to bring upon the country (Hemingburgh, i. 252; also in Higden and other later writers). See "Dict. Nat. Biog..' s.v. John.'

6, Elgin Court, W.

[ocr errors]


ENGLAND," "ENGLISH": THEIR PRONUNCIATION (10th S. iii. 322, 393, 453, 492; iv. 73, 156).-On the date upon which the last reference appeared there was issued in Paris the current number of La Jeunesse Moderne, which gave the French view of the subject. In its 'Cours d'Anglais 'it instructed its young readers that the pronunciation of "England was "Innglannd and of "Englishman Innglichmann." It may be added that the pronunciations "Hi aute tou oueurk" and "Hi choud oueurk were at the same time

[ocr errors]


[blocks in formation]


The Life of Charles Lamb. By E. V. Lucas. 2 vols. (Methuen & Co.)

THAT Mr. Lucas's exemplary edition of Lamb, to the merits of which we have rendered frequent homage, was to include or be supplemented by a life of the great humourist, has long been known. With commendable expedition, considering the amount of labour involved, the task has been executed, and an ample, and indeed exhaustive, biography is now within reach of the public. For the manner in which Mr. Lucas's work has been accomplished we have nothing but praise. His book is one with which no scholar or lover of literature will dispense. It is the amplest, the most satisfactory, and the most indispensable narrative of Lamb's life that has appeared; and to those even -few as these must now be who recall the appearance of Talfourd's two volumes, and have framed thereon conceptions as to what is an ideal biography, it brings an enhancement of delight as of knowledge. Sad every life of Lamb must necessarily be, and this, as the most exact and ample, is naturally the saddest. It preserves, however, the charm of previous works. Like will to like. The eminently lovable nature of Lamb himself has attracted men of kindred qualities, and there are few writers who have found biographers so sympathetic and so appreciative as Talfourd, Barry Cornwall, Alfred Ainger. Mr. Percy Fitzgerald, and now finally Mr. Lucas. What, however constitutes the principal charm of the memoirs of Lamb is that the humourist is his own biographer. No other writer is so outspokenly autobiographical; and though Lamb's revelations are not always to be accepted literally, this reservation affects their trustworthiness rather than their charm. There is no other English man of letters-except it be Johnsonof whom we know so much as of Lamb, and what we learn concerning the younger writer has the advantage of being obtained chiefly at first hand. Too much has been made of the "gentleness" of Charles Lamb. To reconcile ourselves to the constant use of the term we have to recall that it was similarly applied to Shakespeare by so good a judge even as Milton. We are disposed, with Mr. Augustine Birrell, to " grow sick" of the iteration of such phrases as poor Charles Lamb!" 'gentle Charles Lamb.' Charles Lanib earned his own living, paid his own way; was the helper, not the helped; a man who was beholden to no one, who always came with gifts in his hand; a shrewd man, capable of advice, strong in council.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Poor Lamb! indeed. Poor Coleridge! robbed of his will. Poor Wordsworth! devoured by his own ego. Poor Southey! writing his tomes and deeming These comhimself a classic. Poor Carlyle !......" ments, equally just and well spoken, are quoted by Mr. Lucas (vol. i. p. 311). Besides, Lamb was not invariably gentle, and it must at times have required all the affection and indulgence of his friends to pardon utterances that were emphatically rude, and barely escaped the charge of being savage. Carlyle's utterances concerning Lamb (quoted vol. i. p. 240), though discreditable and disgraceful to Carlyle, and requiring more indulgence than has to be accorded to Lamb himself, had some underlying element of truth, since Lamb was indeed at times "ill-mannered to a degree.' Those whose studies of Lamb have become remote will learn with regret how strong a sway his habits of drunkenness came to exercise over him, and may possibly realize for the first time how frequent were the attacks of insanity to which his sister was subject. These things are responsible for the feeling of sadness which the perusal of Mr. Lucas's volumes conveys. It must not, however, be asserted that sadness is the prevalent impression. There is no more of such than is almost inevitable when a human career is traced-or tracked, rather-to the close. We agree with Mr. Lucas in holding that Lamb's retirement from the India Office might with advantage have been deferred. A man less fitted than Lamb for a life virtually solitary in the country cannot be found. He did not even want, with Charles Morris, the sweet shady side of Pall Mall." He was as fond of Fleet Street as was Dr. Johnson, and it is touching to find, when he started from Enfield or Edmonton for a walk, how he invariably turned Londonwards. Scenery, of course, impressed him, but there are few signs of delight in country objects, scenes, or sounds. It is difficult to feel very keen interest in Lamb's shadowy love affairs, though Mr. Lucas has hunted out all there is to be learnt. Lamb's devotion to his sister is doubtless responsible in part for his determination not to marry. Had she, instead of outliving him, died while he was still young, his knowledge of his own mental infirmities and his sense of justice would presumably have kept him from matrimony-to which, indeed, he seems to have been nowise prone.

[ocr errors]


Over Lamb's style Milton seems, next to Shakespeare, to have exercised most influence. There are scores of quotations, such as in the description of James White and the chimney-sweeper, universal host would set up a shout that tore the concave," which is, of course, almost word for word from 'Paradise Lost,' book i. ll. 541-2. In supposing that Lamb had a share greater than is generally acknowledged in Burnett's Specimens ' Mr. Lucas is probably right. Barron Field was not the editor of the Heywood executed for the Shakespeare Society. He is responsible for the first two volumes only. Mr. Lucas attempts to answer the question why Lamb holds his place in literature and our hearts. He gives some capital reasons, but there are more to be advanced. Space fails us to go on with our comment, though we have not touched on half the matters marked for notice. The volumes are worthy in all respects, and may be read with unending delight. An especially attractive feature is found in the illustrations. These consist largely of portraits, and supply for us admirable presentments of the Lamb circle


which included all that was best and most representative in English letters. Spots consecrated to Lamb are, of course, depicted, but it is in the likenesses of Lamb himself, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Hazlitt, Leigh Hunt, and others of that distinguished coterie that the chief attraction is found. Mr. Lucas's 'Life' is excellent in all respects, and, with his edition of the works, constitutes one of the most delightful of literary possessions.

The Poetical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Thomas Hutchinson, M.A. (Frowde.)

To the handsome and authoritative series of "Oxford Poets" has been added Mr. Hutchinson's fine and complete edition of Shelley, to the merits of which we drew attention on its first appearance in a more costly form less than a year ago (see 10th S. ii. 539). In the arrangement and nature of the contents of the two volumes no change is traceable except the substitution in the later of a portrait by Miss Curran, made in Rome in 1819, for the more familiar likeness in the Bodleian, and the absence therefrom of the facsimiles of Prometheus Unbound.' Mrs. Shelley's prefaces reappear; the disposition of the contents is in all respects the same, and the various readings and conjectures of editors and commentators are once more found. A better and more trustworthy edition is not to be anticipated or hoped, and the volume, so far as the poetry of Shelley is concerned, is authoritative and final. It takes its place with the Tennyson and the Mrs. Browning of the same publisher in a series the extension of which we contemplate with unmixed delight.

WE have received a further series of views, picturesque and industrial, on the Missouri Pacific Railway and Mountain Resorts. They are very striking and beautiful, and show what unlimited possibilities are to be found between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains.

WE hear with deep regret of the death of George William Marshall, LL.D., D.L., J.P., F.S.A.. of Sarnesfield Court, Weobley, Rouge Croix Pursuivant of Arms from 1887, and subsequently York Herald. The son of George Marshall, of Ward End House, Warwick, Dr. Marshall was born 19 April, 1839, and educated at Peterhouse College, Cambridge. He was a barrister of the Middle Temple, and a recognized authority on genealogy and kindred subjects, and was naturally a contributor to our columns.

MESSRS. JAMES MACLEHOSE & SONS, publishers to the University of Glasgow (to whom are owing the splendid reprints of Hakluyt, Coryat, and Purchas), promise a work which, though later in date, must be regarded as supplementary. This consists of the History of Japan,' by Engelbert Kaempfer, translated by J. G. Scheuchzer, F.R.S., Physician to the annual embassy sent by the Dutch East India Company to the Emperor of Japan. Kaempfer, a devoted naturalist, made precious collections which, with his MSS., passed after his death into the hands of Sir Hans Sloane, under whose care in 1727 the English translation of a work subsequently rendered into French and German first saw the light in two volumes folio. This English edition is now of great rarity and value. It is, or was, the chief authority on things Japanese, and will appear in three volumes, uniform with the Purchas, in a strictly limited edition, and with proofs of the full

page engravings. Nothing can be more opportune than the reappearance of this work, which will furnish further proof of the spirit and enterprise of the great Glasgow publishing house. Other MSS. of Kaempfer are in existence in England. One of the results of the promised publication may possibly be a reconsideration of the value of these. Scheuchzer, the translator, was the librarian to Sir Hans Sloane, an M.D. of Cambridge, and an F.R.S.

[ocr errors]

AMONG promised publications of the Clarendon Press are the facsimile reproduction of Shakespeare's works not included in the First Folio, with an Introduction by Mr. Sidney Lee; Dr. Skeat's 'Primer of Classical and English Philology'; Mr. Spingarn's Critical Essays of the Seventeenth Century, 3 vols.; Dr. Birkbeck Hill's edition of Johnson's Lives of the Poets,' 3 vols.; the concluding volumes (xiii.-xvi.) of Mrs. Paget Toynbee's edition of 'Horace Walpole's Letters; The Plays and Poems of Robert Greene,' edited by Mr. Churton Collins, 2 vols.; Blake's 'Lyrical Poems, edited by Mr. John Sampson; and the second volume of the Minor Carolinian Poets,' edited by Mr. Saintsbury.

[ocr errors]

To the "Oxford Poets" series are to be added Shakespeare. large type, with illustrations from the Boydell Gallery, and the works of Cowper and Browning.


Mr. James Coleman, of Tottenham, has a fresh catalogue of early court and rent rolls, deeds, and charters. Some of the deeds relate to the Angell, Nevill, Jennings, Poulet, Dorset, Warwycke, and other families. Under London many curious documents, ranging from 1605 to 1842. Under America are some original grants of land. There are also deeds of appointments with the signatures of George III., George IV., and Queen



Mr. John Davies, of Lampeter, has bestowed ten years' labour in collecting books relating to Wales,. and the entire collection now exceeds a thousand. We have received the first list, numbering over three hundred, most of the books being in the Welsh language.

Mr. Bertram Dobell has much of interest in his new catalogue. Under Shakespeare, the Clarendon Press reproduction in facsimile of the First Folio, with introduction by Sidney Lee, is priced 77. 12s. Dramatic items include a collection of early PlayBills, 61. 6s.; Rainoldes's Overthrow of StagePlayes,' 1629, 21. 2s.; Galerie Théâtrale,' 3 vols. folio. Paris, 27. 15s.; Mrs. Oldfield's Memoirs,' by W. Egerton, illustrated by the insertion of fifty-two scarce old portraits, 1731, 21. 12s. 6d.; and Doran's Their Majesties' Servants,' extended to 3 vols. by the addition of 376 scarce portraits, play-bills, autograph letters, &c., 1897. 41. 48. Other items include Maitland's 'London,' 1739, extra-illustrated, 27. 2s.; a very scarce collection of Tracts on Witchcraft, 1712-36, 17. 15s.: Pamphlets on the Woollen Trade, 1719-53, 27. 17s. 6d. ; and first editions of Mortimer Collins's works, including Miranda,' containing letters from Blackmore, Austin Dobson, and others, 17. 15s. Under Dancing is a rare book, 'The Lilliputian Dancing School; or, an improvement on the Mimes, Pantomimes, Scaramouches, and JackPuddings of all Nations,' with very curious plates, 17. 1s. Some of the books in the catalogue are from the library of Thomas Hutchinson.

« VorigeDoorgaan »