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ROGER ASCHAM: "SCHEDULE" (10th S. iv. 169, 216). With all due deference to MR. PLATT, Í cannot agree that "shedule is difficult to explain, and not to be recommended." It is the only pronunciation I have ever heard, and the only pronunciation given in Chambers's 'Twentieth Century Dictionary'; and if the "popular Latin scedula be found in the ecclesiastical Latin of to-day it would certainly be pronounced "shedula in Rome. The Roman, pronunciation of "Gloria in excelsis" is "Gloria in eggshelsis."

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TRANSLATED SURNAMES (10th S. iv. 205).— At the end of the eighteenth century, when the proceedings in Paris made Frenchmen and French names notorious in Great Britain, many Huguenots resident in London changed their names to the English equivalents, thus Lefevre, Smith; Le Noir, Black. To-day the children of aliens often assume less continental-sounding surnames; thus MacLow was a few years ago Michaelowski.


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less undertake the renovation, which only
needs a little dexterity. The tarnish is
removed by treating the daguerreotype with
a solution of about ten grains of cyanide of
potassium to the ounce of distilled water;
and a detailed description of the method
employed may be found in, e.g., The British
Journal of Photography, July, 1902, p. 585,
the best way of resealing (with Canada
balsam) being also described therein on
of the utmost importance, for the daguerreo-
p. 263. This latter operation, by the way, is
type is strictly anaerobic, and flourishes in
hermetic seclusion.

189). In the following lines, quoted by
Sainte-Beuve in his Causeries du Lundi,'
the pronunciation is Duma. The Dumas is
a river of the Isle of Bourbon :-
Sous la tranquille azur du plus doux des climats,
Une humble maisonnette aux bords de la Dumas, &c.
M. Lacaussade wrote the verses.


On reading MR. PLATT'S query, I at once asked two Parisian friends how they pronounce Dumas, Barras, and Genlis. The answer was given without hesitation, Duma, Barrasse, Genlisse. One of them added that he did not think it possible for any Frenchman to call the well-known author Dumasse. If Dumas had so pronounced his own name, the fact would surely be known. M. HAULTMONT.

iv. 148).-Quoting from Kent's Directory' HENRY SANDERSON, CLOCKMAKER (10th S. for 1781, Wood, in his interesting book entitled Curiosities of Clocks and Watches from the Earliest Times,' 1866, at pp. 346-8, gives a list of sixty-seven watch and clock makers, in which the name of Henry Sanderson, of 301, Strand, duly appears, but there are no further particulars of him. number given seems be very small for those following this useful craft only a century and a quarter ago.


FADED DAGUERREOTYPES (10th S. iv. 208).-What is sometimes spoken of as the "fading" of daguerreotypes is in reality a tarnishing of One of the craftsmen whose names are in their silver surfaces similar to that which this list would appear to have been somemay be observed on any silver-ware; but thing of a mechanical genius, and rather whereas the latter is amenable to the more than an ordinary watchmaker. This discipline of plate-powder and brush, the was Ralph Gout, of 6, Norman Street, Old daguerreotype can be easily ruined by a Street, and Mr. Wood says that one of his touch of the finger, and its restoration when watches was of more than usual merit, tarnished is best entrusted to skilled hands. for on it "time and measure were united"; Few professional portrait photographers while a gold watch now in South Kensington have now any practical acquaintance with Museum contains also the mechanism of a the process by which such pictures are pedometer, the latter being purchased for produced; but some of the larger photo- 201. 10s. Mr. Wood does not mention any graphic dealers, such as those in the Charing of the others as having been conspicuous for Cross Road and High Holborn, would doubt-special work.


In view of the greatly altered aspect of the Strand, it would be interesting to know in what part of that thoroughfare the house then numbered 301 was situated; whether the period comprised within the years 1778-81, given in the editorial note, was the whole time of Sanderson's business connexion therewith, or whether he removed in the latter year; or if his occupancy was ended by death or some other cause. The history of the Strand will have to be written some day, and such particulars will be very useful. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY.


I think the above personage is identical with the Henry Sanderson of the parish of St. Clement Danes, administration of whose goods was granted to his widow, Christian Sanderson, on 15 January, 1785. CHAS. H. CROUCH.

5, Grove Villas, Wanstead. BISHOPS' SIGNATURES: THEIR PUNCTUATION (10th S. iii. 487; iv. 55).-It appears to me that the fact of an archbishop using a period, colon, or semicolon to indicate that a word is abbreviated, is not in any way an authority for the customary or correct use. The illustrations MR. HOWARD COLLINS gives go back to 1877; now in 1600 Archbishop Whitgift wrote "Jo: Cantuar:" Previous to this date, when he used "Cant" for "Cantuariensis," he did not always use either a colon or period as a symbol of contraction. In Whitgift's Defense of the Answers to the Admonition,' printed in 1674, we find "Jo." with a period as the abbreviation sign. A hundred years afterwards Archbishop Sheldon signed Gilb. Cant." making the period serve the duty of a contraction mark. In a document preserved by the Warden of Whitgift's Hospital, Croydon, the benefactor mentioned therein was Mr. Edward Aylworth, and that gentleman in 1597 signed his name "Ed: Aylworth," using a colon as an abbreviation sign. ALFRED CHAS. JONAS.

Thornton Heath.

"NEWLANDS," CHALFONT ST. PETER (10th S. iv. 148, 213).-There appears to be no foundation for the statement that this was the seat of Abraham Newland. The titledeeds show that in 1659 Newland House was sold to Thomas Saunders, in whose family it remained until 1754, when it was sold to Henry Thomas Gott (afterwards knighted). Sir Henry Gott appears to have lived in the house until his death, which took place either in 1808 or 1809. In 1812 the house was sold by his representatives to Thomas Allen, in whose family it remained until a few years

ago. The house has been variously called Newland, Newland House, Great Newland, Newlands, and Newland Park.

MR. ABRAHAMS says that the house at Newlands is evidently of a much later date than 1807. I believe that Thomas Allen immediately on purchasing the house made the alterations and additions to which the house owes its present appearance. The story of its having belonged to Abraham Newland probably arises merely from the _similarity of name. H. A. HARBEN.

Newland Park, Chalfont St. Giles.

To MR. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN's interesting note relative to Abraham Newland may be added some remarks that occur in an article upon Highbury' in The Islington Gazette for 22 August :


"The houses in Highbury Place were built in 1779 by John Spiller, who lived and died at No. 39, next door to Abraham Newland. These houses were first let at from 341. to 361. per annum. It is said of Mr. Newland that, though quite a rich man-he left 200,000.- he lived in the most economical fashion. When he left the Bank offered a pension, but declined it. He, however, of England through declining health, he consented to accept a service of plate, valued at 1,000l.-as a tribute of respect for long and faithful service'-but did not live to receive it. By his will he left the interest on 60,000l. and cash (5,000l.) to his housekeeper. The remainder of his fortune was divided between his relatives, who were mostly in necessitous circumstances."


Fair Park, Exeter.



ENGLAND, DENMARK, AND RUSSIA (10th S. iv. 188).-The following passage from The Historie of Great Britaine under the Conqvests of the Romans, Saxons, Danes and Normans, &c.,' by John Speed, third edition, 1632, p. 411, will, I think, answer your correspondent's question :

"Another daughter of King Harold, not named by any Story-writer of our owne natio', is mentioned by Saxo Gramaticus, in his Danish history, to haue come into Denmark, with her two brethre'; to haue bin very honourably entertained by King haue bin as honourably placed in mariage with Swain the yonger, her kinsman, and afterwards to Gereslef, called in latin Iarislanes, and of the Danes Waldemar, King of the Russia's: & by him to haue had a daughter, that was ye mother of Waldemar, the first of that name King of Denmark, from whom all the Danish Kings for many ages after succeeded." RUVIGNY.

Galway Cottage, Chertsey.

GALLOWS OF ALABASTER (10th S. iv. 189).My friend Comm. Giacomo Boni, the director of the excavations at the Roman Forum, who is a Venetian, suggests that by the "marvel


lous fair pair of gallows......wrought with libraries in purchasing these annual printed many curious borders and works," Coryat, lists, even if they could be bought. The not being an antiquary, may have intended official objection to issuing the lists to to describe the two columns in the Piazzetta | libraries would be on the ground of conseat Venice, between which it was customary quent loss of revenue, for one shilling is to execute criminals, although, as he says, the charged for each name searched for, whether columns are not alabaster, but of red and a will is traced or not. If these books were grey Egyptian granite respectively. at a library any one might avoid these fees, which amount to several thousand pounds annually. Only recently the Clerk of the Calendars at Somerset House objected to a DANTE'S SONNET TO GUIDO CAVALCANTI gentleman searching the printed index of (10th S. iv. 207).-In Mr. W. M. Rossetti's two-wills (1398 to 1604) himself for fear that the volume edition of D. G. Rossetti's Collected Works,' 1888, vol. ii. p. 126, a translation of this sonnet is given. To the lines

The explanation appears to me to be a plausible one.


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And Lady Joan, and Lady Beatrice,
And her the thirtieth on my roll,

a foot-note is appended to the following
-effect: :-

"That is, his list of the sixty most beautiful ladies of Florence, referred to in the Vita Nuova,' among whom Lapo Gianni's lady, Lagia, would

seem to have stood thirtieth."

And compare with this the sonnet and note on p. 69 ante (the 'New Life').

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The probability is that Bice is an abbreviation of Beatrice. In What I Remember,' vol. ii. p. 368, by my friend T. A. Trollope, he gives the name Bice to his little girl :

"But the picture of child and nurse-how life-like none can tell but I was the picture of her baby Beatrice, and the description simply the reproduction of things seen.'

Bice was married to Mr. Charles Stuart
Wortley, and died 26 July, 1881.
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

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THE DUKE'S BAGNIO IN LONG ACRE (10th S. iv. 24, 115, 217). Before this subject is closed I would ask, What is known of Mr. Henry Amy, or Ayme, or Aimes, who is described as "the Surgeon at the Bagnio in Long Acre," and as a Surgeon in Long Acre who kept a bath," and who advertised it in The Tatler on 1 December, 1709? Was he a Huguenot? In which part of Long Acre was it situated? Who was the Duke after whom it took its name of "The Duke's Bagnio" in 1683 ? C. MASON.

list would give him at a glance more informa-
tion than the shilling entitled him to see.
This seems a little arbitrary, for at the Record
Office the printed index of these old wills can
be seen and examined at leisure, without fee
or difficulty. These printed lists of ancient
P.C.C. wills can, of course, be bought from
the British Record Society, and one hopes
that the index for later years will be printed
by the same society at no
very distant
time. The annual list of wills proved in
the various Probate Courts is officially
printed, and appears in five or six large
volumes eight or nine months after the close
of the year. Of this annual only some fifty
copies are printed; of these forty go to the
forty district registries, one to the Probate
Court, Dublin, and one to Edinburgh, leaving
a few copies at Somerset House for reference.
The cost of production must be very consider-
able, and the price would be proportionately
great. The present generation of officials are
unlikely to give copies away.

6, Beechfield Road, Catford, S.E.

So long as the Government charge a search fee, copies of the calendars cannot be placed in the libraries. When the Probate practice was taken over in 1858, it was promised that one index should be made and printed of all the wills in each of the old courts. Nothing has been done except the P.C.C. was printed back to 1850. The least the authorities could do would be to buy copies of the grand indexes to the P.C.C. wills of the British Record Society, and send a copy to each district registry. I understand that fees are not charged in America, and as they bear very hardly on the poor, I think they ought

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. [Is not the last question answered by MR. ELIOT to be abolished in England. HODGKIN at the first reference?]

INDEX OF PROBATES (10th S. iv. 188).-MR. LUMB's suggestion, if practical, would be a boon to genealogists and others; but the small proportion of people interested in the recent probates would hardly justify local


11, Brussels Road, New Wandsworth, S. W. 'VILLIKINS AND HIS DINAH' (10th S. iv. 188). -There are several published versions of this song. The latest is on p. 98 of 'Modern Street Ballads,' by John Ashton (London,

Chatto & Windus, 1888).

Another, with many "spoken" interpolations, appears, with the music, in "Davidson's Musical Miracles: 120 Comic Songs sung by Sam Cowell," no date, but published somewhere in the early sixties of last century. A third, and I think the most common, is in a quarto comic songbook, with music, published about the same time as Sam Cowell's, but upon which for the moment I cannot lay my hands. The favourite comic songs of forty-five to fifty years ago were 'Villikins,' Lord Lovel,' Billy Barlow," The Ratcatcher's Daughter,' and The Cork Leg.' These had a long run, especiallyVillikins,' Lord Lovel,' and 'The Ratcatcher's Daughter.' Within the last five years I have heard the two former given as recitations by an elderly K.C., who remembers their popularity. RICHARD WELFORD.



THOMAS À BECKET (10th S. iv. 147, 214).-It would vastly surprise me if I could be convinced that "the present family......claim descent from the martyr." In my opinion, THE RECTOR OF SOUTHWARK CATHEDRAL is utterly mistaken. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. RUSHBEARING (10th S. iv. 87, 216).-A wellillustrated work entitled Rush-Bearing,' written by Alfred Burton, was published in Manchester in 1891. It contains a complete history of the custom and its origin, and records where the rush-cart was annually dragged through the street, and also where the custom is still kept up, or was until recently. T. N. BRUSHFIELD, M.D.

Salterton, Devon.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT RECORDS (10th S. iii. 287, 337, 355).-A diary such as asked for will be found in the Justice's Note- Book of Capt. John Pickering, 1656-60.' See Thoresby Society, vol. xi. GERALD FOTHERGILL.

11, Brussels Road, New Wandsworth, S. W.



The Works of Thomas Nashe. Edited from the Original Texts by Ronald B. McKerrow.-Text. Vol. III. (A. H. Bullen.)

WITH the third volume, now issued, the text of Mr. McKerrow's admirable edition of Nashe is complete. A fourth volume, yet to appear, will be Occupied with a memoir, notes, and a glossary. Vol. iii. opens with Have with yov to SaffronWalden,' and contains Nashe's Lenten Stvffe' and Svmmer's Last Will and Testament,' together with Shorter Pieces' and Doubtful Works.' Saffron Walden was the birthplace of Gabriel Harvey, against whom, and his brothers Richard and John, Nashe's satire is constantly directed. Have with

such 66

yov to Saffron-Walden' probably contributed more than any other work of Nashe to the formal prohibition of the printing of his works and those of Gabriel large in Tudor literature, and brings on the stage Harvey. With the feud generally, though it looms many Elizabethan celebrities, we may not concern ourselves. Philologically, Nashe's tract is of extreme interest, and it is doubtful where, outside Urquhart's Rabelais, instances can be afforded of rakt vp invention "-to use Nashe's own words-as excrementall conceipts and stinking kennelare employed. For this reason we look with much interest for the forthcoming glossary and notes. That Nashe copied directly from Rabelais we will not say, and his knowledge of language unclean or however, to trace Rabelaisian influences. These vituperative may well have been a gift. We seem, are specially noticeable in 'Nashe's Lenten Stuffe, which is devoted to the praise of the red herring, and is a monstrously clever piece of extrathose vagance, owing something, doubtless, to praises of the ass, the flea, and so forth, which in Latin were a favourite amusement of Dutch humourists and grammarians. Nashe was born at In this work appears his allusion to his ill-starred Lowestoft, hence his familiarity with his subject. and unprinted play The Isle of Dogs,' which involved him in so much trouble, and which he here calls the "imperfit Embrion" of his idle hours. In it, too, appears the word "Honorificabilitudinitatibus," used in an abridged form by Shakespeare. Innumerable quaint words and allusions are to be found. Turban, a Turkish headgear, is spelt as "turbanto." A pleasing reference appears (p. 195) to Christopher Marlowe: Let me see, hath any bodie in Yarmouth heard of Leander and Hero of whom diuine Musaus sung, and a diuiner Muse than him, Kit Marlow?" Summer's Nashe's other works, but is necessarily included. Last Will and Testament' is more accessible than It is of no particular significance as a drama, but has some good lyrics. It is, however, too familiar to call for comment. Among the doubtful works appears the licentious Choise of Valentines,' which bears on it the name of Nashe, aud may well have been one of the indecencies he owns to have written for the delectation of his aristocratic patrons. It has been recently reprinted by Mr. Farmer.An Almond for a Parrat' has many signs of Nashe's style. In any case, we are in favour of liberal treatment in such matters, and would rather that a work curious in itself should be erroneously ascribed than that we did without it altogether. Much desirable bibliographical information is supplied in what is really an ideal edition. For the fourth volume we wait with some impatience. There are few writers who stand more in need of illustrative comment and of glossarial explanation than Nashe. Mr. McKerrow is rendering invaluable service. It is needless to state, in the case of a work issued by Mr. Bullen, that it is artistic and luxurious in all typographical and other respects, and is a thing to be treated with reverence and love.

Hakluytus Posthumus; or, Purchas His Pilgrimes. By Samuel Purchas, B.D. Vols. VII. and VIII. (Glasgow, MacLehose & Sons.)

Two further volumes of the great and spirited undertaking of Messrs. MacLehose have seen the light, and we are in the way, with what is given and promised, of speedily possessing a complete



library of adventure. Not wholly English are the discoveries recorded in vol. vii., which is mainly occupied with the explorations of the Portuguese, our great rivals, and often our predecessors, in travel. First in the volume comes The Voyage of Sir Francis Alvarez, a Portugall, made unto the Court of Prete Janni, the great Christian Emperour of Ethiopia.' Of this-which, greatly reduced as it is, occupies much over two hundred pages-we learn in vol. vi., in which the opening chapters appear, that the translation is anonymous, the book having been found "in Master Hackluyt's papers. Prete, otherwise Priest or Presbyter, John is so called in obedience to a vulgar error, according to which the title, assigned at a much earlier date to Prester John in Asia, was bestowed upon the Negus of Ethiopia. The English title of "Sir," conferred upon the celebrated priest and traveller Alvarez, we must suppose to have been bestowed in the same fashion as that in which it is assigned to clergymen, such as Sir Hugh Evans. Purchas apologizes for the dullness of the narration. It constitutes, however, a deeply interesting record, though there is nothing in it to flatter English vanity. The general title of Purchas describes his 'Pilgrimes' as depicting sea voyages and land travels by Englishmen and others. Francisco Alvarez appears to have received, like Herodotus, with some credulity the information given him by travellers and priests, especially concerning gold, with dreams of which early discoverers were always flattered. There were those, too, who assured him they had seen tritons and mermaids. The Nubians near Suaguen (Suakin) are said, through lack of bishops, to have fallen off from Christianity. A story as to the death of the King of Zeilei (vii. 341) seems to belong to the general domain of folklore. This is told in the record of Don John Bermudez, in which narratives concerning the phoenix and the griffons are treated with incredulity, which, though theological in basis, is not characteristic of the age. Under the name Abassia, Abyssinia is described, a curious account being given of the camelopard. At p. 420 the eighth book begins a history, by Robert, "whom some call the English man, of the First Crusade. The illustrations to vol. vii. consist of the maps of Hondius of Abyssinia, Asia, Asia Minor, the Holy Land, Sicily, Cyprus, Spain, Italy, and Germany.

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An eminently controversial account of the advance of the Papal Monarchy, which opens out vol. viii., is followed by large excerpts from the four books of George Sandys constituting A Relation of a Journey began A.D. 1610, descriptive of the Turkish Empire, Egypt, the Holy Land, and remote parts of Italy and islands adjoining. When introducing this well-known and valuable portion of his work, Purchas says, "I present men rather as Travellers, then as Scholers; and in the Historicall Stage produce them, telling what they haue seene; not what they can say." Sandys's style, especially when referring to the Hellespont and the fate of Ino or Leucothea, and Hero and Leander, is eminently poetical. Writing from Aleppo, Master William Biddulph describes coffee under the name of 29 66. Coffa," a blacke kinde of drinke made of a kind of Pulse like Pease called Coava, which being grownd in the Mill, and boiled in water, they drinke it as hot as they can suffer it." A Briefe Compendium of the Historie of Sir Anthony Sherley's Travels into Persia' has much interest. Among the maps of Hondius in this volume is one,


on p. 520, of Paradise, which is placed in Mesopotamia and Chaldea, with another of the Peregrinations of the Israelites in the Desert. A picture of a Turkish woman is also supplied. The book continues to be a mine of information and adventure.

Abraham Cowley: Poems, Miscellanies, The Mistresse, Pindarique Odes, Davideis, Verses. The Text edited by A. R. Waller, M.A. (Cambridge, University Press.)

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A FIFTH volume, consisting of the English poems of Abraham Cowley, has been added to the scholarly "Cambridge English and appetizing series of Classics.' The text of the new Cowley is that of the folio edition of 1668, published a year after the poet's death, containing, presumably, his latest correctious, and supplying for the first time the life (not now reprinted) by Thomas Sprat, subsequently Bishop of Rochester. It preserves, as do the earlier volumes, the old orthography, the use of capital letters and italics, and all the features of a seventeenth-century press, and is an edition to gladden the heart of the scholar. In the present volume are comprised the four parts which constituted the first folio of 1656 as well as the Verses written on Several Occasions,' of which two editions in 1663, one in small 8vo and another in 15mo (sic), followed the appearance of a surreptitious imprint in Dublin. A companion volume is promised, and will contain the Several Discourses by way of Essays in Verse and Prose' (perhaps the most generally prized of his works), Cowley's juvenile writings, and his English plays. Everything of the poet's, with the exception of his Latin works, which are not included in the scheme, will be supplied in the most convenient, attractive, and scholarly of shapes. To the present volume are affixed indexes of titles and of first lines, and notes comprising various readings from The Mistresse' of 1647, the first folio of the works of 1656, the second folio of 1668, and the Verses' of 1663. A revival of interest in Cowley has been inspired of late years, and is a hopeful sign. This the appearance of the present edition will do something to foster. Cowley is a genuine poet, and the best translator of his epoch. Let those unwilling to take our words on trust look at the Anacreontiques,' that especially on drinking (p. 51), and on the rendering from Catullus of Acme and Septimius" (p. 419). His 'On the Death of Mr. William Her-vey,' with its

Ye fields of Cambridge, our dear Cambridge, say, seems to have influenced both Gray and Matthew Arnold. The Change,' beginning

Love in her Sunny Eyes does basking play, &c., "Love in her eyes sits playing," inspired Gay's while The Inconstant' supplied Sheridan with the idea for the best-known of his lyrics. The bestknown of all Cowley's poems is perhaps that 'On the Death of Mr. Crashaw,' commencing:Poet and Saint! to thee alone are given The two most sacred Names of Earth and Heaven. Cowley is to be restudied in this fascinating edition.. Calendar of Letter-Books of the City of London preserved at the Guildhall. Letter Book G. Edited by Reginald R. Sharpe, D.C.L. (Printed by Order of the Corporation.)

THE seventh volume of the Letter-Books printed by order of the Library Committee of the Corporation of the City of London differs from all its

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