Since writing the above I find that the not play me false, the steeple at Pembridge subject was very fully discussed at the follow-stood detached, like an Italian campanile. ing references: 7th S. ix. 107. 169, 277; x. 18, W. K. W. CHAFY. 356. JOHN T. PAGE. West Haddon, Northamptonshire.

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Mr. Harper thinks "the real reason for this detached wooden belfry" is the waterlogged site not being "capable of giving support to so heavy a structure as a stone tower," and he adds a local legend which all Brookland people will thank me for not repeating here. F. A. W.

I have seen the following

St. Mary's, Marston Morteyne, Beds. SS. Mary and Helena, Elstow, Beds. St. Mary Magd., Fleet, Lincs (with spire). St. Mary, West Walton, Norfolk (very fine).

St. Clement, Terrington, Norfolk.

St. Mary, Long Sutton, Lincs (with spire). The last-named is not absolutely detached, but just touches the south-west angle of the south aisle.

The cause of the detachment of Terrington St. Clement's and its prospect of reattachment must be learnt from local informants. H. K. ST. J. S.


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At Lapworth, in Warwickshire, the belfry is connected with the church by a covered passage.

At Pembridge, in Herts, the detached belfry is built entirely of wood, the frame in the ground, with merely a casing of boards. which the bells are hung rising at once from A. R. BAYLEY.

[MR. G. A. AUDEN, MR. W. M. BYWATER, Mr. J. DORMER, B. W., and DR. GREVILLE WALPOLE are also thanked for replies.]

GEORGE III.'S DAUGHTERS (10th S. iv. 167, 236).-To any one fairly acquainted with the history of George III.'s Court, the story of the lives of the six beautiful golden-haired princesses must appeal, entailing mingled feelings of interest and sympathy.

Their fair faces, as they appeared in youth, depicted by Gainsborough, Hoppner, and Beechey, still gaze from the walls of Windsor Castle and Buckingham Palace, and as each grew up, gracious and graceful, suitors were talked of for their respective hands; but years sped by and they remained long unwed. Perhaps their royal father shuddered at the prospect of any repetition of the disastrous Danish marriage of his younger sister Matilda, or the loveless union of his elder sister Augusta to the Duke of Brunswick. perhaps the prudent Queen Charlotte reflected in those revolutionary days that no continental Courts offered any prospect of a peaceful or permanent establishment for her children.


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at her own residence of Clarence House, 22 Sept., 1840.

Next of the sisters in order of birth was the Princess Elizabeth, born 22 May, 1770. H.R.H. possessed a pretty taste for art, and the American Minister Rush records that she it was who chiefly assisted the Queen to "do the honours" in the days of the Regency, Princess Elizabeth had long been considered a confirmed spinster, when irreverent courtiers received with considerable mirth the news of her engagement, at the mature age of fortyseven, to the Prince of Hesse-Homburg, of whose person and manners the caustic Creevey paints a very unattractive picture in his biting memoirs. But there seems no doubt that Queen Charlotte had been unfortunate in her attempts to make their home a happy one for her daughters; though the Princess Elizabeth did not escape the comments of a censorious world for quitting the aged and dying queen.

It must be admitted that as Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg the princess's many excellent qualities were displayed in later life to great advantage. A volume of correspondence dealing with her last years was published not long ago. H.R.H. died 10 Jan.,


General FitzRoy, to whom her will bequeathed all her jewels and personal property.

So many years have elapsed since all these princesses were in the heyday of youth and beauty that the real facts relating to the romances of their lives are now little likely to be ever fully disclosed; but should the whole truth become known, it will be probably learnt that beneath the demure roof of the austere Charlotte it was not her wild sons only who sought and encountered many strange adventures. H.

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TRIPOS VERSES (10th S. iv. 124, 172).-For this subject see A Short Manual of Comparative Philology,' by P. Giles (Macmillan, 1895), p. 58, and Wordsworth's 'Scholæ Academice,' pp. 17-21. The former says, The honour-lists were printed on the back of the sheet containing these verses." In the copy I possess (1886) this is undoubtedly so. I very much regret that the practice has lapsed. H. K. ST. J. S.

228, 252).-If J. F. R. will refer to the May
number of The Connoisseur, he will find
on p. 15 an excellent article on 'Speaking
Pottery of France,' by L. Solon. It also
referred to.
contains interesting illustrations of the ware

Full information as to the patriotic Revo-
lution pottery may be found in Champfleury,
Histoire des Faïences Patriotiques de la
Révolution,' Paris, 1867.
Hildegardstrasse 16, Munich.


The Princess Mary followed Elizabeth in seniority. Born in 1776, she formed an early attachment to her cousin Prince William, afterwards Duke of Gloucester. It is said that reasons of State prevented for many years the royal sanction to their union, the ruling powers having decided that the prince must be kept in reserve as a possible husband for the Heiress-Presumptive, the Princess Charlotte. No sooner had the marriage of the latter with Leopold of Coburg taken-See Herodotus, bk. i. ch. cxcvi., and No. 511 place than Princess Mary's dreary period of of The Spectator. The account in Herodotus waiting came to an end. Her union with the is the subject of a well-known picture by the Duke of Gloucester was celebrated 22 July, late Edwin Long, R.A., The Babylonian 1816, and she died his widow 30 April, 1857. Marriage Market,' now in the Royal Holloway EDWARD BENSLY. College, Egham. Aldeburgh.

The fifth daughter was the Princess Sophia, born 3 Nov., 1777. To disinter dead-andgone scandals is an ungrateful task, but it is undeniable that gossip made free with the good name of this princess; Creevey's pages again supply the details. Her royal highness lived in great retirement for a series of years, and died in her apartments at Kensington Palace, 27 May, 1848.

The youngest of the sisters, and the darling of her father's heart, was the Princess Amelia, born 7 Aug., 1783; but she in her turn was fated to know misfortune. She expired after a rather mysterious illness on 2 Nov., 1810, and it appears certain that she had some time previously contracted a secret marriage with

DOWRIES FOR UGLY WOMEN (10th S. iv. 247).

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The quotation sought for is from Herodotus. The idea has probably done service often in fiction. In The Marriage Act,' a farce by Charles Dibdin, the plot turns on an edict by the governor of an imaginary island that all the celibate inhabitants are to be married forthwith:

"The maidens shall assemble this day in the garden of the castle, there to be ranged and bid for by the young men, according to their different degrees of beauty...... Whoever would make a choice, must give more or less for his wife in proportion as purchase the handsome goes to portion the ugly, she is handsome or ugly......The money given to that so they may easier get husbands."

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This farce, produced at Covent Garden Theatre on 17 Sept., 1781, was made out of the underplot of Charles Dibdin's comic opera The Islanders.' produced at Covent Garden Theatre on 25 November, 1780. The text of the latter was not printed. Two pieces by St. Foix, 'L'Isle Sauvage' and 'La Colonie,' were drawn on for the plot.

EDW. RIMBAULT DIBDIN. Morningside, Sudworth Road, New Brighton. [Several other correspondents supply the reference. We have forwarded to MR. KING the long extract from Beloe's translation copied out by PRINCIPAL SALMON.]

BROUGHAM CASTLE (10th S. iv. 229).-MR. BIRNBAUM will find a very good paper upon this castle in the Archæologia of the Society of Antiquaries, vol. lviii., by Mr. E. Towry Whyte. The owner is Lord Hothfield.


In the time of Edward the Confessor the lord of the manor was Walter de Burgham, whose male descendants held it till the reign of Edward III., when the succession ended in three coheiresses, whose issue inherited it in three portions till 1676, when it was united in James Bird, Esq. At his death the estate was sold to John Brougham, Esq., descended from a younger branch of the ancient lords, and apparently it thus became the property of the distinguished statesman Henry, Lord Brougham. Much concerning the old castle will be found in James Dugdale's British Traveller, 1819, vol. iv. p. 441; W. Hutchinson's 'Excursion to the Lakes. with a Tour through Part of the North of England in 1773-4. also his History of Cumberland'; Lewis's 'Topographical Dictionary,' s.v. Brougham' and 'Penrith'; and last, but not least, Burke's 'Peerage.' There is also a 'History of Penrith,' which I have J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL.

not seen.

6, Elgin Court, W.

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[S. H. and W. B. H. are also thanked for replies.]

SWEDISH ROYAL FAMILY (10th S. iii. 409, 456; iv. 91, 196).-Failing any possible descendants of Prince Gustavus, the son of Eric XIV.-the eldest son and heir of Gustavus (Vasa) I.-the Czar is undoubtedly heir general of the original house of Vasa, the wife of his ancestor Frederick IV., Duke of daughter of Charles X., and sister, and in Holstein Gottorp, having been the eldest her issue heir, to Charles XI. The descendants of Charles X.'s sisters can have no claim to the representation of this_family_while those of his daughter exist. Eric XIV. was dethroned by his brothers in 1568, and his son took refuge with the Emperor, and, I believe, died unmarried, but I have never been able to ascertain this for certain. RUVIGNY.

Galway Cottage, Chertsey.

A NAMELESS Book (10th S. iv. 123, 176).— Since I sent a note about this volume, a brief surcease from business has afforded me an

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opportunity of looking through Simon Wilkin's edition of Sir Thomas Browne's Works,' first published in 1836, and reprinted ten years afterwards in Bohn's "Antiquarian Library." In the second of these, on pp. 171-2, mention is made of the book, Περίαμμα which bears the following title, "Пepiaupa Ednjμov: or, Vulgar Errors in Practise Answered. London, Royston, 1659, pp. 112.” Then follows a summary of the seven chapters, but the author's name is not stated. All this proves that the volume had an independent existence when first published. Furthermore, the dates do not favour the suggestion of our learned correspondent MR. EDWARD BENSLY, who, to our advantage, is no longer an Antipodean, for it is clear that a book printed in 1659 could not have accompanied another that ap peared three years before, the original title of which is, according to Lowndes, "A Discourse of Auxiliary Beauty, or Artificiall Handsomeness, in Point of Conscience between Two Ladies. London, 1656." The words "With some Satyrical Censures on the Vulgar Errors of these Times" would seem to have been added to the edition of 1662 by the publisher, R. Royston, who may have reprinted the little work as being of a similar character to the larger book, and,

possibly, by the same author, who, in that
case, would be Dr. John Gauden, according
to Anthony Wood.

AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED (10th S. iv. 168, 197, 237).-Most probably LORD ALDENHAM is correct in his emendation. I transcribed the duet " Could a man be secure," &c., from the 'Memoir of William Bullock' in Jerdan's 'Men I have Known' (p. 80).

Nor can I be quite sure if it is allowable to
employ the words "more nearly"
more nearly" or "less
nearly." A fact, or the expression of a fact,
can only be correct in one way. An attempt
at expression may be incorrect in a thousand
ways. Suppose a class of boys is asked to
spell a difficult word. A has one letter wrong,
B has two letters wrong, and C has three
letters wrong. May B be described as being
" nearly correct," while A is " more nearly
correct," and C is "less nearly correct"? I


Tom Moore in one of his lyrics has the should prefer to say that they are all insame idea:

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Many a time have I heard my father sustain the bass part in it. WALTER W. SKEAT.

correct, but A is less so than B, and C is more so. Or take a similar word-straight. D has a decidedly retroussé nose. Politeness demands that we should call it nearly straight," while in strict accuracy, it is "slightly crooked." Logically, I do not think we can qualify adjectives of an absolute nature, although a strict adherence to this rule might curtail our power of expression.

There is another common fault, of which writers with a high reputation for style are occasionally guilty. This morning I received a copy of Stevenson's Essays in the Art of Writing.' On cutting the pages I came across the following sentence in the essay on Technical Elements of Style' (p. 33): "The two first [selections], one in prose, one in verse, I Surely chose without previous analysis." here we ought to read "the first two," and not "the two first." One selection precedes the other, and they are read in single file. There is, by the way, an unpardonable misprint on p. 35, where "Xanadu" from Coleridge's 'Kubla Khan' is spelt "Xanady."

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writers had not both judgment and taste;
It would be foolish to say that the classical
and if we follow the analogy of their syntax
in regard to such a word as correct," we
shall see that it was their custom to compare
the adjective" rectus." Horace has "Si quid
novisti rectius istis." And Quintilian, the
grammarian, uses the expression "rectissima
W. B.

[MR. J. STERMIN is also thanked for a reply.] "CORRECT" (10th S. iv. 189).-If GYPSY will kindly refer to my note (ante, p. 66), he will see that the responsibility for the use of the CUMBERLAND DIALECT (10th S. iv. 169).-If expressions I or "less correct" may guess, I should say that the translation rests not on me, but on the Secretary of would run, "Thy thigh tickles, what must State for India, or the "high authority "you do with it?" Scratch it."



more correct

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whom he consulted with regard to the trans-
literation of the Amir of Afghanistan's name.
Personally, I am of opinion that the adjective
correct is not susceptible of degrees of
comparison. I am therefore compelled to
disagree with GYPSY in his tolerance of the
use of
most" for the purpose of emphasis,
though perfectly aud "quite," having
merely an expletive force, may be admissible.



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Intending to cross the Spey by wading, I was told it would take me to the "thee," which I saw must mean thigh. This enables me to say that "Theau thee kittles, what mun ye do wi' it? Scrat it," must be in English, Thy thigh tickles, what must you do with it? Scratch it." I never heard "thou," "thine," "thee," or "thy used in


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Scotland, so the query cannot have come languishing condition of the house and its from a Scotsman. Aberdeen.



"Thoo kittles, what mun you do with it? Scrat it." This is not very pure" Cumbrian, but it means, "What must you do if MISTLETOE. you tickle? Scratch."

If MR. HENRY SMYTH will send me his address, I think I can supply an answer to his query privately.


Wakefield Grammar School.

ROMANOFF AND STUART PEDIGREE (10th S. iv. 108, 157, 197).-The Czar Nicholas II. has seven, not three, descents from King James I. and VI., and consequently fourteen from Henry VII. As the Czarina has also three descents from King James, their children have ten lines of descent from James I. and VI., a Stuart paternally and maternally. See 'The Blood Royal of Britain.'

Galway Cottage, Chertsey.


COPENHAGEN HOUSE (10th S. iv. 205). The entry in Francis Place's Diary' would seem to convey an erroneous impression as to the state of this pleasure resort in 1824. One dead dog, although a promising symptom, does not make a decayed tea garden. In 1815, according to the author of 'The Epicure's Almanack,' the house was famous for its ales, "which served as an excellent stimulus to those who halt......preparatory to the ascent of Highgate Hill." Then from 1816 to 1830 Copenhagen House was a favourite Sunday tea-garden with the middle classes (Picture of London' for 1823 and 1829), who flocked there, especially in the summer time, during the hay harvest in the fields around. Although the builders were making their way up to Copenhagen House from London, says Mr. Warwick Wroth in his invaluable 'London Pleasure - Gardens' (1896), it still commanded an extensive view of the metropolis and western suburbs, with the heights of Hampstead and Highgate "and the rich intervening meadows." In 1841 the tavern and tea-gardens were yet in existence, and the space between them and Highgate was still open fields (plan of Lewis's Isling ton'). Attached to the house at that time was a well-known cricket-ground (J. Hollingshead's My Lifetime,' i. 13, quoted in Wroth's 'Pleasure - Gardens'). This cricket- ground was between Copenhagen House and Maiden Lane.

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A correspondent (J. C. P.) of The Builder, 30 October, 1847, seems to mark the then

surroundings. "Recently walking in the neighbourhood of Copenhagen Fields," he says,

"I was much grieved to see the alteration in appearance of this once delightful spot. Verdure is now almost destroyed, and clamps of burning bricks occupy the spot where the weary citizen, after the toils of the day in the close counting-house, used to refresh himself with a mouthful of fresh air. In a few months it will probably be covered with a parcel of flimsy houses, run up with rubbishing materials; and the poor, worn-out clerk and artizan will have to walk an additional mile or two to get a sight of a green field......Perhaps some may recollect that most delightful rural lane, called Hagbush Lane, which used to run in a northern direction from near Copenhagen House towards Highgate. This lane was an ancient packhorse road, and before the use of vehicles was the great northern road. This thoroughfare was closed some few years since by a system of gradual encroachment, in the most unjustifiable manner, and all signs of its former existence destroyed."-P. 533.

Then, according to Tomlins's 'Perambulation of Islington,' the Corporation of London purchased Copenhagen House and grounds and the large fields in the front thereof to the southward, about 75 acres in all, and converted the same into a cattle market, which was opened on 13 June, 1855. Hence the present Metropolitan Cattle Market, between the York and Caledonian Roads. The site of the old tea-gardens, says Mr. Warwick Wroth, is approximately marked by the great clocktower in the market.


Pleasant personal recollections are entertained of Copenhagen House in the late forties and early fifties. It was then well known for its tea-gardens, but was more famous for its pedestrian matches. Copenhagen Fields, where the latter were run (the site of the present Cattle Market), adjoined the house, and were enclosed by a high hoarding of deal boards. We schoolboys used to cut holes in these with our pocket knives, the better-as outsiders-to view the fun going on within.

Nelson, in his 'History of Islington' (1823), says one story of the origin of its name was that a Danish prince, or ambassador, resided there during the Great Plague; and another that in the beginning of the seventeenth century it was first opened as a place of entertainment by a Dane, that being about the time the King of Denmark paid his visit to James I. Coopen-Hagen" is the name given it in the map that accompanies Camden's Britannia' (1695). In 1812, Nelson remarks, a company was formed for establishing a sea-water bathing-place, the salt water

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