(See ante, pp. 41, 121, 201.)

12 preliminary leaves, exclusive of the frontis- MONTAIGNE, WEBSTER, AND MARSTON: piece, and 96 leaves of text, aggregating 108 leaves. The blank leaves noted in the collation are G5 and H1. The following pages are misnumbered, the correct figures being given in brackets: [99], 299; [102], 202; [103], 203; [106], 206; [107], 207; [110], 210; [111],



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Perfect copies of Amanda' are of great rarity, and even that in the British Museum lacks the half-title, and is in generally poor condition, the frontispiece turning its back upon the title-page, instead of facing it. This half-title has the word Amanda" printed vertically upon it, the type, with a comma after the name, being the same setting as that of the name on the title-page. The frontispiece is said by a former possessor of my copy to be "the chef-d'oeuvre of Faithorne, the best engraver of his day." Copies either without the half-title or the frontispiece, or the blank leaves G5 and H1, are not infrequently met with; and the last perfect copy which contained all these desiderata that I can trace in the sales realized 377. at Sotheby's on 17 May, 1901 (lot 311), and has probably gone to America.


An excellent account of 'Amanda' given in the New York Philobiblion, 1863, ii, 87, 105. Though the literary interest of the book is small, Hookes was a reader of Shakespeare, and several faint echoes of the great dramatist were pointed out by R. R. at the last reference that I have cited at the head of this note. Hookes draws his allusions from the most recondite quarters, and I will conclude with a passage that might give some trouble to a conscientious editor: We have good Musick and Musicians here, If not the best, as good as any where: A brave old Irish Harper, and you know English or French way few or none out-go Our Lutanists; the Lusemores too I think For Organists, the Sack-buts breath may stink, And yet old Brownes be sweet, o' th Violin Saunders plays well, where Magge or Mel han't


Then on his Cornet brave thanksgiving Mun,
Playes on Kings Chappel after Sermon's done:
At those loud blasts, though he's out-gone by none,
Yet Cambridge glories in your self alone:
No more but thus, he that heares only you,
Heares Lillie play, and Doctor Coleman too.

These lines are from a poem addressed to "Mr. Lilly, Musick-Master at Cambridge." Dr. Charles Coleman is commemorated in the 'Dict. Nat. Biog.,' as well as Davis Mell; and doubtless Saunders, Magge, and Mun are not forgotten in musical circles at the University. W. F. PRIDEAUX.

They will be found in the Bodleian and in the Dyce Library at South Kensington.

THE parallels in Montaigne and Marston are so numerous and so close that I find it will save time and labour to students if I record them as they occur in Marston's work. Only close or interesting coincidences in the two authors will be noticed, and those that have already been dealt with will, of course, be excluded from this list, which is far from being complete.

Several of Montaigne's quotations from Latin and other authors are used by Marston and Webster:

Malheureux. O miseri quorum gaudia crimen habent.-"The Dutch Courtezan,' II. i. 82. This sentence occurs in the Essays,' book iii. chap. v. p. 448, col. 1, the reference being to Cor. Gal. El.,' I. 183.

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We can confidently assume that Marston did not consult the original in the above case; and it is still more unlikely that he went to St. Jerome for the following, which Montaigne cites in the same chapter, p. 438,

col. 2:

Diaboli virtus in lumbis est !-'The Dutch Courtezan,' II. i. 92.

Now, this quotation from St. Jerome comes immediately after matter in Montaigne that Marston has copied literally in 'The Fawn,' III. i. 227-36, as will appear in the proper place.

Following the saying of St. Jerome is the question of Malheureux as to whether or not a wise man may be in love; and then we come to Freevill's saying about living upon the smoke of roast-meat. As I have shown already, both passages copy Montaigne, still the same chapter :


Freevill. No matter, sir; insufficiency and sottishness are much commendable in a most discommendable action.-Ll. 115-17.

Literally from Montaigne, same book and chapter:

And yet if I were to beginne anew, it should bee by the very same path and progresse, how fruitlesse soever it might proove unto me, insufficiency and sottishnesse are commendable in a discommendable action.-P. 453, col. 2.

Montaigne says that love "is a matter everywhere infused, and a centre whereto all lines come, all things looke."-P. 436, col. 1.

Freevill. Love is the centre in which all lines close, the common bond of being.-Ll. 121-2. Freevill. Incontinence will force a continence; Heat wasteth heat, light defaceth light, &c. LI. 126-7. Nimirum propter continentiam incontinentia necessaria est, incendium ignibus extinguitur: "Belike

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Yet man's but excrement-man breeding man, As he does worms, or this [He spits], to spoil this nothing.

The Old Dramatists, Conjectural Readings,' p. 7. I agree with the emendation, which is ported by the passage which Marston copied:


There have Philosophers beene found disdaining this naturall conjunction: witnesse Aristippus, who being urged with the affection he ought his children, as proceeding from his loyns, began to spit, saying, That also that excrement proceeded from him, and that also we engendred wormes and lice.-Book i. chap. xxvii. p. 84, col. 1.

Montaigne declares that the affection between man and woman is not to be compared with the real friendship that sometimes exists between man and man; the former "languisheth and vanisheth away: enjoying doth lose it, as having a corporall end, and subject to satietie."-Book i. chap. xxvii. p. 84, col. 2. to kill a friend To gain a woman! to lose a virtuous self For appetite and sensual end, whose very having Loseth all appetite, and gives satiety! That corporal end, &c.


The Dutch Courtezan,' II. ii. 221-5. Montaigne and Marston are both very outspoken, they call a spade a spade; but the Frenchman is more refined in his speech than his imitator, who-to use a pet phrase of his own-is "gross-jawed":

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Non pudeat dicere, quod non pudet sentire. Let us not bee ashamed to speake what we shame not to thinke......For my dare do.-Book iii. chap. v. part I am resolved to dare speake whatsoever p. 429, col. 2.

Beatrice. Fie, Crispinella, you speak too broad. Crisp. No jot, sister; let's ne'er be ashamed to speak what we be not ashamed to think: I dare as boldly speak venery as think venery.-'The Dutch Courtezan,' III. i. 26-9.

Why was the acte of generation made so naturall, so necessary and so just, seeing we feare to speake of it without shame, and exclude it from our serious and regular discourses; we pronounce to rob, to murther, to betray; and this we dare not but betweene our teeth.-Book iii. chap. v. p. 431, col. 1. Crispinella. Now bashfulness seize you, we pronounce boldly, robbery, murder, treason, which

deeds must needs be far more loathsome than an act which is so natural, just, and necessary, as that of procreation; you shall have an hypocritical vestal virgin speak that with close teeth publicly, which she will receive with open mouth privately; &c. The Dutch Courtezan, III. i.

The worst of my actions or condicions seeme not so ugly unto me as I finde it both ugly and base not to dare to avouch them. Every one is wary in the confession; we should be as heady in the action.Book iii. chap. v. p. 429, col. 2.

Crispinella. I give thoughts words, and words truth, and truth boldness; she whose honest freeness makes it her virtue to speak what she thinks will make it her necessity to think what is good.— "The Dutch Courtezan,' III. i. 39-42.

Is it not herein as in matters of books, which being once called in and forbidden, become more saleable and publik?-Book iii. chap. v. p. 431, col. 1.

Crispinella. I love no prohibited things, and yet I virtue; for as in the fashion of time those books would have nothing prohibited by policy, but by that are call'd in are most in sale and request, so in nature those actions that are most prohibited are most desired.-'The Dutch Courtezan,' III. i. 42-7.

I love a lightsome and civil discretion, and loathe had a constant countenance, but lightsome and a roughnes and austerity of behaviour......Socrates smyling: not frowardly constant, as old Crassus, who was never seene to laugh. Vertue is a pleasant and buxom quality.-Book iii. chap. v. page 429, col. 2.

Crispinella. Fie, fie! virtue is a free, pleasant,. buxom quality. I love a constant countenance well; but this froward ignorant coyness, sour austere lumpish uncivil privateness, that promises nothing but rough skins and hard stools; ha! fie on 't, good for nothing but for nothing.-' The Dutch Courtezan,' III. i. 51-6.

Crisp. Virtuous marriage! there is no more affinity betwixt virtue and marriage than betwixt a man and his horse; &c.-'The Dutch Courtezan,' III. i. 88-90.

Those who thinke to honour marriage by joyning love unto it (in mine opinion) doe as those who, to doe vertue a favour, holde that nobilitie is no other thing then vertue. Indeed, these things have affinitie, but therewithall great difference; their names and titles should not thus be commixt; both are wronged so to be confounded.-Book iii. chap. v. P. 432, col. 1.

See also 'The Fawn,' III. i. 212, where Marston says that "love or virtue are not of the essence of marriage.'

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1. Sr Walter Raleigh Historie of the World.

2. BPP Andrewes Sermons in one volume.

3. The Historie of Josephus.

4. The Councell of Trent in English.

5. Shakspeers Workes.

6. Et Governador Christiano.

7. Mich de Montayne his Essays.

8. The diall of Princes, 1 qt. vol.

9. Discourses of Michaell and Overment.

10. S Phillipp Sidneis Arcadia.

11. Love and Reveing by


65. The Garden of Spirituall flowers. 66. A Gramer Anglois.

67. An English Exposition of hard words. 68. A Bruiseed Read by Dor Sibes.

69. Brittains remembrance by Withers.

70. A feast for wormes Devine poems by Frauncis Quarles.

71. Pleales & Dialoges by Thomas Heywood. 72. The Practice of Pietie.

73. Castra.

74. An Interpreter of hard words in English.

12. The Triumphs of Gods Reveing by Jo: Renolds. 75. Babrach his Epistles in English.

13. The Arch BPP's relacon 1639.

14. Bapnells History of England.

15. Hookers Eccli'all Pollicie.

16. BPP of Exeters Paraphrase upon St John.

17. Taylors Workes the water poet.

18. Godfrey of Bulloigne.

76. The Tradagie of Cleopatra. 77. Ovid his Epistles in English.

78. Mr Harberts tutred poems.

79. Ovid his Metamorphosis in English. 80. A Gramer.

81. Suplicacons and Suites.

19. Danells Historie of England conteyned by 82. The Anotomy of the world.


20. The Bible in English.

All in folio.

21. Mr Willm Austens Meditacons.

22. Riders Dictionarie wth a Thornatius.

All in folio.

23. Boulton Meditacons.

24. Sr Richard Bakers Meditacons upon the Lordes


25. The Bible in quarto.

26. Riders Dictionarie in Colme.

27. The Arraignment of Idle weomen.

28. The Booke of Comon prayer & New Testament. 29. A Dialoge of Wine beere and Tobacco.

30. A Defence of Eternitie.

31. Altucca Christiana.

32. A written sermon of the BPP of Oxford.

33. A forme of Comon prayer with the order of fasting in tyme of Infeccon.

34. Burtons Appologue or Appeale.

35. A Comodie called the wittie faire one.

36. Tidmuns Sermons.

37. A Comodie called the Traitor.

38. The historie of Sampson.

39. Prayers for the 27th March.

40. The Articles profest in England.

41. The Holy Table name & thing.

42. A forme of prayer for the 27th March.

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43. The Marquesse Hambletons declaracon for the of "pagan" is derived directly from paganus,

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53. A prayer booke in latten liber preca' public seu of this view a passage from Orosius, Ex

minnistery Ecclic'a.

54. A latten bible printed at Amsterdam.

55. Poems and Elegies by ID on the authors death. 56. A Catalogue of the Nobilitie.

57. Cornwallis Essayes.

58. Aristippus.

59.. The Jugurth warr by Salustus two bookes in English.

60. Mich Drayton his poems.

61. Hipolito & Issabell in English.

62. The Compleat Justice.

63. Haywoods Historie of Queene Elizabeth. 64. Gomersalls Poems.

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locorum agrestium compitis et pagis pagani vocantur. This explanation is rejected by many modern ecclesiastical historians-for example, by Harnack and Zahn (see Bigg's lectures on The Church's Task,' 1905, p. 42). The other answer is that our pagan is directly derived from paganus, in the sense of "a civilian" as opposed to a soldier," a sense to be found in Pliny, Juvenal, Tacitus, and Tertullian. Christians were regarded as soldiers of Christ, bound to His service by a


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sacramentum (a military oath). To them the outside world were simply civilians," or pagani. It is suggested by historians that the use of “pagan as opposed to Christian may be found nearly two hundred years before " Christianity had been generally accepted in the towns and cities of the Roman Empire." Dr. Bigg thinks that the first instance of this use is to be found in an inscription of the second century, given by Lanciani ('Pagan and Christian Rome,' p. 15). This inscription was written on the tomb of a daughter, of whom the father says, quod inter fideles fidelis fuit, inter alienos pagana fuit." But is fidelis here equivalent to "Christian"? This sense of the word fidelis does not appear to have come into general use before the time of St. Ambrose and St. Augustine. If Dr. Bigg is right, we have in this inscription a very early instance of the use not only of paganus, but of fidelis, with a Christian connotation.




ST. LUKE'S DAY, 18 OCTOBER.-In 1677 one John Smith, of Greatham, was charged in the Court of the Archdeacon of Durham with "plowing on St. Luke's day" (Surtees Soc., vol. xlvii. p. 228). W. C. B.

"BELAPPIT."-In The Oxford Book of English Verse,' p. 69, Mr. Quiller-Couch gives Alexander Scott's "Hence, Hairt, with Hir that most Departe," assigning it the title 'A Bequest of his Heart.' The third stanza of the lyric, as modernized by the anthologist, opens thus:- :-

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Though this belappit body here

Be bound to servitude and thrall,
My faithful heart is free entier

And mind to serve my lady at all. In a foot-note Mr. Quiller-Couch explains that "belappit" means "downtrodden." What should have induced him to think so is not very clear, especially with the context to suggest lapping or wrapping round and the thraldom of a bond slave. Lap," no doubt, is also the past tense of "leap"; but in this sense it needs some such particle as "on" or upon" to impart to it a transitive force. In its intransitive application it was never better illustrated than in the report given by a Scottish farmer of his experiences in taking the village schoolmaster home from the public-house. At one stage in the proceedings the shoe of the tipsy dominie, having come off in the mud, had to be readjusted; "and then," afterwards said his comrade, he jamp an' he lap, an' he ture an' he swure," the whole animated display

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9th S. ii., iii., iv. passim.)—A letter in a London BLACK IMAGES OF THE MADONNA. (See daily paper revives an old controversy. It seems incredible that there should exist people who still think, as this writer to believe, that the "Black Madonnas invented by missionaries of the Western Church as а means of making converts among Eastern peoples. The researches of Prof. Kondakoff on the miniatures of the Christian world produced before the eleventh century, and the numerous works on mosaic and on Byzantine painting, have evidently produced no effect on the general public. What are commonly called "Black Virgins are not only known among the most celebrated representations of the Mother of God" in Spain, France, and Russia, but their history can be traced from the very earliest dates down to the eikons (almost exactly identical) which are still produced at Mount Athos for sale at Kiev and Moscow. The type is that of the Syrians, numerous in the Holy Land, to the present day. B. I. O.

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"THE FIRST WARLIKE KING."-No doubt there were many warlike kings before Agamemnon, but who was the first it would be hard to say, notwithstanding all our modern knowledge of ancient history. In "Haydn's Dictionary of Dates,' however, we are told, under 'War' (twenty-third edition, p. 1368), that it was Osymandyas of Egypt. The only ancient historian who mentions this king is Diodorus Siculus, who places him eighth before the founder of Memphis, whom he calls Uchoveus. Twelve generations after the latter, he says, came Mæris, and seven generations after him a king called by him Sesoosis, evidently intended to be the same whom Herodotus calls Sesostris, and whose legend (it is really no more) became so famous, depicting him as the conqueror of a great part of Asia. As to Osy mandyas, Herodotus makes no mention of him, nor of any king except Maris, between Menes and Sesostris. Diodorus gives a very elaborate account of a monument erected to Osy


mandyas at Thebes, which is really that of Rameses II., the Pharaoh of the oppression. The former cannot, therefore, be recognized as an historical personage, and probably Thothmes I. was the first Egyptian king who led an army beyond that country. W. T. LYNN.

RODERIGO LOPEZ.-Lopez the Jew, who became chief physician to Queen Elizabeth in 1586, and was executed in 1594 on a charge of conspiring to poison her, was at one time undoubtedly very high in her favour. She granted him leases of the estates of the bishops of Worcester, known as "Lopezleases," which Bishop Thomas (1683-9) used to call " hopeless leases" (Oxf. Hist. Soc., xvi. 397). The people were loud in expressing their satisfaction at his fate. Bishop John King records that when "D. Lopus and his fellowes " were "executed at Tyborne there was "such a showte of the people to seale their affections and assentes, as if they had gained an harvest, or were deviding a spoile," and his own opinion is that their ends were too too merciful for traitors......and I doubt not but the Angelles in heaven reioyce" (Lectvres vpon Ionas, at Yorke, 1594, 1597, p. 138). All that the D.N.B.' (xxxiv. 134) knows of his wife is that her name was Sara, and that she came from Antwerp. She was a daughter of Dunstan Anes, purveyor of the Queen's grocery, who was the son of George Anes, of Valladolid in Spain (Harl. Soc., i. 65).


W. C. B.

METROPOLITAN MUNICIPAL COUNCILS. It is generally thought that municipal bodies, other than the Corporation of the City and the London County Council, were unknown in the capital before the passing of the London Government Act of 1899; but this idea evidently was not shared by the editor of the now long defunct Morning Herald, a report in which, on 19 November, 1855, thus commenced::

"Marylebone Municipal Council.-The first sitting of the new vestry, or more properly speaking 'Municipal Council,' of St. Marylebone, under Sir Benjamin Hall's Metropolis Local Management Act, was held, on Saturday, at the Marylebone Court House." But the name Municipal Council," as

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France." It seems to me that the writer means countries besides France, and not those that are at the side of France. I quite agree with the idea of getting rid of the "s whenever possible, and accordingly I always write amid, among, &c.; but the writer quoted has no such idea, for a few lines below he uses the word "towards"-"do very little towards further developing." RALPH THOMAS.

THE HARE AND EASTER.-An instance of the association of the hare with Easter is that of the tenure of the glebe at Coleshill, in Warwickshire. The vicar of this parish holds-or used to hold-his glebe on the condition that if the young men of the parish were able to catch a hare and bring it to him before ten o'clock on Easter Monday morning, he was bound to give them a calf's head and a hundred eggs for their breakfast. curious connexion of the hare with Easter is still exemplified in the representations of a hare dancing on its hind legs and holding a pair of cymbals, which are often to be met with on Belgian and French Easter cards. FREDERICK T. HIBGAME. DEERHOUND. In Wright's English Dialect Dictionary' it is stated that "drownd" was recorded fifty years ago in South Wales as = "greyhound," but that now the word cannot be traced. When I was in Wales some years ago I noticed that (1) the people write more than we do hyphened words-e.g., "post-office" with them has one only accent in pronunciation, viz., on the than we do-e.g., not only "forehead," but post"; (2) in such cases they omit h more "blockhead," lost the h. "Drownd," then, is simply "deerhound" in the Welsh pronunciation, and a greyhound is a Scotch deerhound. T. NICKLIN.

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CHARLES LAMB.-In the excellent notice of Mr. Lucas's 'Life of Charles Lamb' which appeared ante, p. 257, appropriate allusion is made to Lamb's preference for Fleet Street as compared with rural scenes. All admirers of "Elia" will heartily endorse this. In view of this attitude of his, it has more than once struck me as a fact of moment that the most

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thus applied to the metropolitan vestries, imaginative letter of the poet of The

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never took root; and it was as vestries that they were always known until the end.


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"BESIDE."-I have noticed frequently of late this word used instead of or for" besides." Thus in an English journal of large circulation I find, "The industry is now firmly established in almost every coun ry beside

Seasons' owes its literary survival to his care. Unfortunately, there is, I believe, no probability of ascertaining its intimate history. The letter was written from Barnet in the autumn of 1725, announcing to Thomson's friend Cranston the approaching publication of Winter.' A hundred years later it was discovered in MS. by Lamb, and transcribed and published by him. The letter is divided

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