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they do, let him quote it and the sailors who how disappointed I have been of my inten. endorse it. If only we can establish the tion. Weeks ago I wrote to the Daily Mail, actual words, I am perfectly content to be feeling sure there would be blundering as to proved wrong, I may still think them ill the words of this proud signal; but they strung, but I shall be satisfied. At present I withheld me from their circulation. I wanted am not.

all this to have been discussed beforehand, Of Pasco, Thompson only says "I believe" not after the event. When ‘N. & Q.' kindly he had been disabled.” What he does abso- gave me house room it came too late to lutely deny is that Pasco "had to do with correct anything. On the 21st the Daily the well-known” signal. PROF. LAUGHTON Mail put forth a picture with the Pasco slurs the whole of this over as if it were version. That gave publicity ; but publicity i mere nothing.

can assure neither accuracy nor veracityWe have thus the distinct word of G. L. the reverse rather, if anything at all. As we Browne denying what Pasco asserts, and cannot, I fear, reach the truth now, it giving the very words of Nelson. It struck remains for the country at large to adopt as the young lieutenant that "England" should final the best phrase—that which is most be substituted; that “Nelson" would want six worthy of the occasion. flags, whilst one would do for “England"; and "Whosoever," says Ralegh, "in writing & he elicits the direct reply : “Right, Browne; modern history, shall follow the truth too that's better.” This brings it all home to me near the heels, it may haply strike out his with a Plutarchean force that should accom- teeth." pany veracity. It has the further advantage There are three versions for us to choose of discharging from the phrase two improper from. We shall have to see which will lose its words—“confide" and "that."

teeth by close running. Being of a positive The word “expects,” that Pasco would sub. temperament, I say that Prof. LAUGHTON'S stitute for "confides," may have a flag in the teeth are perfectly safe in his head. It is code ; but how do you propose to account for only the log-book can make that true, and what Browne says of Nelson as a word want. so cause him mutilation. ing six flags? This appeals strongly to me. The version "England expects that every The word "Nelson" was in debate, and the man will do his duty” I regard as impossible to word “confides was not. To me it is clear be true, and should still if fifty Pascos swore that Pasco was not there (disabled or not to it. The man who could reach the thought, disabled), and that Browne was.

being a sailor, would never so word it. Whether confide" was a blunder-word of England expects every man will do his the great admiral's or not I cannot say. I duty” is quite impossible because ineffective. am not read in his dispatches. For such a England expects every man to do his purpose it is not worth referring to them. If duty seems to me, using the infinitive, to he likes to make a neuter verb into a verb be fittest and most adequate of all. My active, I should say at once, “Good admiral, tongue holds to it, even at the risk of the make it as active as your own self, or the teeth.

C. A. WARD. British navy, if you like." Let somebody produce the code signal The whole of the recitative music commencing

“THE DEATH OF NELSON' (10th S. ix. 365). from the actual log, if it exists. If not, away «O'er Nelson's tomb” is by Braham ; the with all palaver about historical accuracy in the matter. It is lost, and nobody can replace first four bars of the melody of the air to it now that a hundred years have whittled

the words,

'Twas in Trafalgar's bay us away from it. Pasco's story looks to me

We saw the Frenchmen lay, disabled, whether he himself was so or not at the minute of breathless interest we are Chant du Départ, which was composed in

are note for note the same as Méhul's Le now discussing. Browne's tale carries with it the truth and heat that burn a picture in 1794. The musical phrase is very simple upon the brain as imperishably as Shakspero's Méhul's song, and it must be noted that

trumpet-call. Possibly Braham never heard Cæsar, when re-read for us out of Plutarch

Brabam added many more phrases not by him. I am pleased to see that W. R. H. is with Méhul's, including a charming modulation in

I am pleased to see that W. R. H, is with the harmony of the last verse. me so far as to reject the word that alto

WILLIAM H. CUMMINGS. gether. I cannot agree with him that to do

Guildhall School of Music, E.C. implies command. But his will do is just as sailorlike. Let us wait for the log.

PIECE-BROKER” (10th S. iv. 367, 391). —DB. Before I quite finish, however, let me say MURRAY asks if this word is actually used

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for a person who buys remnants of cloth from William & Benjamin Brooke, 290, High tailors to sell to others for mending. I can Street, Lincoln, printers, appear in Slater's affirm, from my own knowledge of the trade, Directory of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire,' that the term is commonly so used, and it will 1849. Alice Swindells, 8, Hanging Bridge,

, even be found in the 'London Directory' in Manchester, and William Brooke, High this sense.

The classical haunt of the piece- Street, Lincoln, appear in Pigot & Co.'s broker in London is around Golden Square. Directory 'for 1822-3, and in that for 1828-9. There are several, for instance, in Carnaby Chas. Walker, letter-press printer, Runcorn, Street and West Street. In the north of also appears in Pigot's 'Directory' for 1822-3. England, instead of piece-broker, the tailors

HENRY JOHN BEARDSHAW. call him a fent-dealer, from “fents," the local 27, Northumberland Road, Sheffield. name for remnants. JAS. PLATT, Jun.

POLAR INHABITANTS (10th S. iii. 30).-In Although this term is not used, I believe, the “Historia Norwegia' it is stated (the in the West Riding of Yorkshire, any one original is in Latin) :who lives in the stuff-manufacturing districts “Beyond the Greenlanders (i.e. Norsemen), towould at once take it to mean a wholesale wards the north, certain dwarfs are found by agent for woven fabrics. Textile materials hunters, whom they call Skraellings, who when are sold by the manufacturers in “pieces,” they are wounded with weapons, when alive, their which in the "stuff” trade (ladies' dress dead their blood hardly seems to flow. But they

wounds become white without blood, but being fabrics, as distinguished from coatings, are entirely without iron; they use whales' teeth trouserings, &c.) are usually of fifty yards for missiles and sharp stones for knives.” (nominal) length. There are also double Of course the writer means the Eskimopieces, usually of 104 yards. “Pieces” is called by other early writers Karelians-and

, such a definite noun that it needs no modifi- the whales' teeth mean narwhals' horns cation or explanation in the textile districts. (Discovery of America by the Norsemen,' by The newspapers use

· The Piece - Goods J. Fischer, S.J., p. 62, note 4). Market' as a heading, and report that “the A Danish geographer, Claudius Clavus demand for pieces was not very brisk.” In (1413), mentions pygmies" in GreenBradford the old market-house was known land." He calls them Karelians, and had as Piece Hall, a name preserved in Piece- seen some of them in captivity, and also their hall Yard. I hope DR. MURRAY will not boats, great and small. Another geographer suppose that I think this a complete and -Schöner-writing a little later, mentions sufficient answer to his query. At the game

the Arctic pygmies, who use coracles. time, it may be suggestive of the direction Cardinal Filiaster, in 1427, in side-notes to for further research. H. SNOWDEN WARD.

some northern maps, speaks of Greenland as Hadlow, Kent.

inhabited in the north by pygmies, griffins, My friend Mr. W. G. Butcher, who is, like and unipeds. It is, however, most probable myself, the son of a member of the Royal that it was from the Scandinavian history of Exchange, or stock-broker, agrees with me Archbishop Olaus Magnus (1555), that strange in thinking that "piece-broker" must refer jumble of facts and fancies, that Fulke to a money.changer who dealt in cash or Greville learned about the northern pygmies, current coin, rather than in nominal or paper

, Gruntlanize” (ibid., p. 67, note 3).

for the archbishop speaks of “De Pegmæis money.

“Piece" means piece of inoney," as does pièce in French, or peseta in Castilian.

Since writing the above, I have seen the E. S. DODGSON. map of Ortelius, 1570. On this Greenland is

represented as a large island ; north of it, CARAVANSERAI TO PUBLIC-HOUSE (10th S. iv. separated by a wide strait, is an undefined 308). —Sir John Hawkins in his “Life of Dr. region, across which is printed “Pigmei” Johnson' (second edition, 1787, p. 87) has a ("Life of John Davis,' p. 28, by Clements R. foot-note on the antiquity of taverns and Markham, in " The World's Great Explorers”). their decrease in London within the last forty


L. R. M. STRACHAN. Heidelberg, Germany.

KIT's Coty HOUSE (10th S. iv, 247). — Not

only DR. MACKAY, but also succeeding conCHAPBOOKS AND BROADSIDES (10th S. iv. tributors on this point, at the references 327).-I am glad to be able to supply some of given by the Editor, seem to ignore the exthe information desired by the Assistant planation afforded by Stow in his ‘Annales, Keeper of the Viennese Imperial Library. 1615, p. 52, which might well be reproduced

William Ford, 6, York Street, Sheffield; here, in order that it may be borne in mind James Todd, Long Street, Easingwold ; and in case of further discussion of this curious monument. One can see no greater difficulty prints, and the writer has a good many thoain Kit's Coty House, i.e., the cotty or cottage- sands, which are open to MR. SMITHERS'S house of Kit, being a sepulchral monument inspection. There is a large, but very incom. and a corruption of Catigernus, than in the plete, collection in the Print - Room of the very modern-sounding Wayland Smith's Cave British Museum ; and in the Reading Room at Ashbury, on the western boundaries of are many of the books of words. These Berkshire, having been, in Saxon times, but prints and plays are too much despised by not originally, Welandes Smiththan (Weland's superior persons; their value mainly rests in smithy or forge), for thus it is said to be the fact that they are the only delineations mentioned in a deed of conveyance, the only of the actors, dresses, and scenery of many monument of its kind directly named in an famous plays of the first half of the last cenAnglo-Saxon document before the Conquest. tury. The drawings for many of the prints The following are the words of Stow, whose were made at the theatres during performallusion to a “coit's cast might also be ance. Such original drawings are in the noted in connexion with MR. J. F. MARSA's Museum collection.


W. SANDFORD. suggestions with regard to the Celtic coeten= 13, Ferndale Road, Clapham, S.W. a quoit, at 5th S. x. 50 :"There was also slaine in the same battaile at

GREAT QUEEN STREET, No. 56 (10th S. iv, Aeglesthorpe, Catigerne, brother to Vortimer, 326):- If MR. HEBB had looked up the original whose monument remaineth till this day, on a great quotation he would have seen that it runs:plaine heath in the parish of Aelsford, and is now "A house was hired......It was handsomely for. corruptly called Cits cotihous, for Catigernes (Inished, and contained many valuable pictures by have my selfe in companie of divers worshipful and various masters. I resided with my mother. Mr. learned Gentlemen beheld it in Anno 1590), and is Robinson continued at the house of Messrs. Vernon of foure flat stones, one of them standing upright & Elderton in Southampton Buildings.' in the middle of 2 other, inclosing the edge sides

Robinson was of the first, and the fourth layd flat aloft the other

an articled clerk, and the three : and is of such height, that menne may stand marriage had not been avowed. Robinson on eyther side the middle stone in time of storme had represented himself as heir to his uncle; or tempest, safe from wind or rayne, being defended hence, no doubt, the taking of an expensive with the bredth of the stones, as having one at and fashionable house.

T. TURNER their backes, one on eyther side, and the fourth over their heads. And about one coits cast from

ENGLISH POETS AND THE ARMADA (10th S. this monument Iyeth another great stone, much part thereof in the ground, as fallen down' where iv. 346). The best poem written on an the same had beene fixed."

English victory is Campbell's Battle of the There is an illustration of Kit's Coty House Baltic. That was not a belated memorial. in The Queen, 20 October, 1900.

It would be strange if it had escaped obserJ. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL.

vation in a review_of poems of this sort. CHESHIRE WORDS (10th S. iv. 203, 332).-It of Childe Harold,' should be mentioned, I

Byron's stanzas on Waterloo, though a part is perhaps worth noting that trapesing" is think, in such a 'review. Addison's 'Cama word of two syllables (infinitive to paign may be depreciated; but there is 8 & trapes"). By those who do not know the line in it which has become a part of the word in use it might be supposed to have a language : pronunciation similar to that of Rhodēsia. ROBERT PIERPOINT.

Rides in the whirlwind and directs the storm.

Few of these poems have achieved such & FARRELL OF THE PAVILION THEATRE (10th S.

success as this.

E. YARDLEY. ii. 188, 252).—MR. C. G. SMITHERS, at the latter reference, deplores the disappearance LAMB'S GRANDMOTHER (10th S. iv. 328).- No of the publications of the juvenile or toy doubt the correct date of the death of Mrs. theatre, and states that the British Museum Field is that which is recorded on her tombhas no collection of them. He can be re-stone-viz., 31 July, 1792. Canon Ainger's assured on both points. Within the last few statement that she died on 5 August is evi. months the writer has looked through no fewer dently an error. When he visited Widford than forty thousand sheets of portraits and in 188l the inscription on the gravestone was plays by the Skelts, Park, Green, Hodgson, almost illegible. Some time afterwards I and others, and thousands more are avail assisted my friend the Rev. J. Traviss Lockable to the judicious inquirer. The task of wood, the rector of Widford, to clean the looking over them is, however, almost as stone, and then it revealed a clearly cut arduous as the study of the fiscal question or inscription "To the Memory of Mrs. Mary the reform of the War Office. There are Feild, not Field. The spelling of the surseveral complete private collections of these name'must have been an error on the part of



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the mason who cut the inscription. Mr. his head in at the window, and said, I believe you Lockwood, in his book op Widford and are Lord Berkeley?' 'I am. I believe you have Widford Church' (1883), after referring to always boasted that you would never surrender to this, writes as follows: “Unfortunately, a ing a pistol, 'I am a single highwayman, and I say:

a single highwayman?' *I have.' 'Well,' presentfew weeks afterwards a hurricane blow down

'Your money or your life."' *You cowardly dog a tree which, falling upon the stone, broke it said Lord Berkeley; do you think I can't see short, and it has now a somewhat stunted your confederate skulking behind you?'. The highappearance."

wayman, who was really alone, looked hurriedly My brother, the late Sir Martin Gosselin, head.' I asked Lady Caroline Maxse (1803-88), who

round, and Lord Berkeley shot him through the was a great admirer of Charles Lamb, and was born a Berkeley, if this story was true. 'I can

"Lamb Library" at Blakesware. With never forget my thrill when she replied, 'Yes; and the consent of the rector of Widford he had I am proud to say I am that man's daughter.' Mrs. Field's tombstone repaired, and wishing It has escaped my memory whether Grantley that some lasting record should be made to Berkeley, who was the brother of Lady Caroshow that the tomb was that of “The line Maxse, corroborates this story in his Grandame," he had the beautiful lines quoted Recollections. Still, on Mr. Russell's great by your correspondent cut under the original authority, it should be safe to accept it in inscription.

the form he tells it. Such a tale could never HELLIER R. H. GOSSELIN-GRIMSHAWE. have been told of either the first or the second Errwood Hall, Buxton.

Earl Bathurst. Frederick Augustus, fifth [MR. W. B. GERISH also thanked for reply.] Earl of Berkeley, appears in a tête-à-tête in DETACHED BELFRIES (10th S. iv. 207,

The Town and Country Magazine, March, 290).

1773, vol. MR. PAGE is mistaken in stating that Orms


V. p. 121. kirk Church, Lancashire, has a detached I have a vivid recollection of my good tower. This church has two steeples, side by mother (who was a Yorkshirewoman) telling side, at the west end, a tower and a spire, but me this story in the forties. His lordship, they are both attached to the main fabric of she said, had long made it his boast that no the church.

T. GLYNN. highwayman should ever rob him. Driving Liverpool.

in his coach late one night in a lonely locality, May I, as an amateur, venture to express of the road, thrusting a pistol through the

he was suddenly pulled up, and a knight what has always appeared to me a simple explanation of the detached belfry? 1. It open window, reminded the occupant of the would only occur to the builders of the earliest boast in question, and demanded his money churches or temples that a tower of some

or his life. Apparently quite unconcerned, sort in which a bell could be rung was neces-shouldn't have it now, if it wasn't for that

the gentleman coolly retorted, “No! and you sary to apprise people of the approaching service. Hence were built such campaniles

man behind you !' The robber, naturally, as those of Venice and Pisa and the minarets turned momentarily to see who the second of Eastern cities. 2. It would be a second intruder might be. Then, instantly drawing and distinctly later thought to join the tower a pistol from his bosom, the noble lord neatly to the church, so as to save the necessity of a put a bullet through the assailant's head. fourth wall and increase the stability. In

HARRY HEMS. support of my suggestion I would point out

Fair Park, Exeter. that the separated towers in this country are CATALOGUES OF MSS. (10th S. iv. 368).-It is usually on the village side of the church.

hard to understand what view is taken by S. D. CLIPPINGDALE. the authorities responsible for the catalogues LORD BATHURST AND THE HIGHWAYMAN of MSS. contained in the three great State(10th S. iv. 349). —The following extract from aided repositories : the British Museum, the Mr. George W. E. Russell's delightful Col- Bodleian Library, and the Public Record lections and Recollections' (p. 6) would seem Office. As I have already pointed out, the to satisfy J. E.'s inquiry :

printed catalogues are too expensive for any ". Another story of highway robbery which one to buy them, and copies are not deposited, excited me when I was a boy was that of the fifth as they should be, in all the local libraries. Earl of Berkeley, who died in 1810. He had always It is consequently necessary to journey to one declared that any one might without disgrace be of the three places named to ascertain what overcome by superior numbers, but that he would is to be found there, just as if we lived before never surrender to a single highwayman. As he was

The waste of time crossing Hounslow Heath one night, on his way printing was invented. from Berkeley Castle to London, his travelling car. involved is incalculable, and is, in most cases, riage was stopped by a man on horseback, who put prohibitive of any search being made in that

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direction. As State aid implies the dis- known," whilst MR. GOODWIN has given semination, as well as the conservation, of quite a good account of John Aleyn, one is knowledge, I imagine that the provision of just a little sceptical as to the value of their low-priced catalogues of MSS. should properly criticism. engage official attention, and that every Can MR. GOODWIN tell me whether it is public library in the kingdom should be sup- the value of the reports in their exposition plied with copies. The Indexes, at any rate, of the legal points involved that is impugned, to the Catalogues_of MSS. and to the or whether the compiler is faulty in the Calendars of State Papers should be obtain- facts recorded in the cases which he reports ? able for a shilling or two a piece, or almost as With regard to this latter, I am much easily as the half-yearly indexes to ‘N. & Q.' interested in one of the cases recorded in

It is surely remarkably short-sighted, this “slender black-letter folio,” more par. when the type is set up, to print so few ticularly as to the correctness or otherwise copies that hardly any one can get at them. of the spelling of the names of the parties One can scarcely speak with patience of the to of the suits there mentioned. futility of printing Calendars nowadays with When MR. GOODWIN sees my signature he out a lexicographical index. I have had will know to which case I am referring. Are myself to go to the expense of ten or twelve the original MSS. or papers upon which pounds in making a rough index for my own the learned compiler founded his reports in use to the Calendar of Chancery Proceedings, existence ? and if so, are they capable of A.D. 1558-79, printed by the Record Office in access ?

J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 1896; and similar unindexed calendars are Antigua, W... still being issued. GEORGE F. T. SHERWOOD.


(10th S. iv. 327).- The blood procured by the

churchwardens was probably to be used as SIR FRANCIS DRAKE AND CAIGWELL Row paint for outside woodwork. Blood was fre (10th S. iv. 230, 332). —According to Charles quently employed in Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, Kingsley (Westward Ho!'chap. xxx.), Drake and elsewhere for this purpose, especially on was one of those who were playing bowls on farm buildings, in comparatively modern “the little terrace bowling-green behind the days. So late as 1861 a correspondent of 'Pelican’Inn, on the afternoon of the nine- The Gentleman's Magazine tells of seeing teenth of July," 1588. The reason given for composition of bullock's blood and rud (red continuing the game was that in Drake's chalk) smeared on the exterior of one of the opinion it would not be wise to be in a hurry doors of York Minster (see 'Gent. Mag. Lib.: to put to sea. "The following game is the Topog.,' vol. xiv. p. 369). This blood may, game, and not the meeting one.

however, have been procured for the purpose ROBERT PIERPOINT. of mixing with mortar. Several examples of JOHN ALEYN, LAW REPORTER (10th S. iii. this custom have been referred to in previous 344). – I have a copy of this gentleman's numbers of “N. & Q.

Barker and Flecher were, it seems, chosen Reports (1681) amongst my books elsewhere, and I hope that MR. GORDON GOODWIN will as brethren of the Guild of All Hallows at pardon me for asking him to be kind enough tain, have a light burning in the church for

this time (1533). It would, we may be certo tell me in what consists their worthless. the welfare of the members, and most propess as a law report, which, he states, has been so branded by those competent "autho- bably an altar there also. rities Marvin and Wallace." Would he mind

EDWARD PEACOCK. telling me who these authorities are - for, LOOPING THE LOOP: FLYING OR CENTRI. owing to my long absence from and dis- FUGAL RAILWAY: WHIRL OF DEATH (10th S. connexion with anything legal in England, iv. 65, 176, 333).—I think J. C. P. must be I am, I am sorry to say, ignorant of their in error in saying the Centrifugal Railway very names - and where this sweeping was in the Botanic Gardens, Liverpool, about criticism is to be found ?

1857. These gardens were transferred to the MR. GOODWIN suggests that this "bad- Corporation of Liverpool in 1841, and it is ness” may have arisen from the long interval not at all likely that they would engage that had occurred between the author's Blondin to give an exhibition.

Indeed, death in 1663 and the publication of his Picton's 'Memorials,' vol. ii. p. 427, says that reports in 1681. Not unlikely, perhaps : but Blondin and many other celebrities per inasmuch as these critics themselves state formed at the Zoological Gardens, West that “of the reporter himself nothing is Derby Road; and I should say that most

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