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That both Vallans and Lamb used the ex. the void. As Shakespere used, muling or pression "pleasant Hertfordshire" does not mewling of the voice of human babies, it is

" prove that the one copied from the other. worth noting that in Gipuskoan Baskish the The word “Hertfordshire” was necessary to word arrantza (which seems to come from Lamb's meaning, and he need not have gone arran=cattle-bell

, clarine) means not only to an almost forgotten poet for the word the voice of mules and donkeys, but the "pleasant."

EDWARD M. LAYTON. crying of young children. E. S. DODGSON. “NECK AND HEELS." (See gth S. v.369.)- An LINCOLNSHIRE DEATH FOLK-LORE.—A stray early mention of this punishment is to be pigeon settling on a house, or coming into it, found in ‘L'Histoire de la Guerre d'Ecosse is a sign of death. In a farmhouse in the pendant les Campagnes 1548 et 1549, by Jean wapentake of Yarborough an old servant de Beaugué, Paris, 1556, Book III. chap. iii. : had full belief that some one connected with

'Puis luy lierent les pieds, les mains, & la the family would die when such a bird once teste ensemble." The whole passage is thus appeared. To confirm her in her faith there given at p. 95 of the translation of 'L'His- soon came news of the death of a near kinstoire' published by Dr. Patrick Abercromby in 1707 :-

The pigeon stayed on, and soon another “I remember they purchased one of the prisoners relative died. After that the bird entered from myself for a horse: they tied him Neck and one of the upper rooms of the house, and was Heels, laid him down in a plain field, run upon him found dead in a wardrobe ; but, contrary to with their lances, armed as they were, and on horse, the servant's expectation, no one under

the back ; killed him, cut his body to pieces, and carried the divided parcels on the sharp ends of roof departed this life. At the house of a their spears...... The truth is

, the English had friend not far off a pigeon appeared before tyrannised over that part of Scotland in the most the death of a child. barbarous manner, and I do not find that it was an

JANET LUCY PEACOCK. injustice to repay them, as the saying is, in their own coin."

COWPER AND VOLTAIRE. Cowper's dis James Miller, in his 'Lamp of Lothian,' paraging allusion to “the brilliant Frenchquotes from the above passage (p. 51 in the man' in contrast to the simple but pious new edition, Haddington, 1900).

* cottager" is well known (see the poem on The Maitland Club reprinted 'L'Histoire' Truth), But was not Cowper himself in 1830.

W. S. slightly indebted to Voltaire for the idea of

one of his shorter and lighter poems—'Report “POLITENESS "=LITERARY ELEGANCE.-The of an Adjudged Case'? dictionaries do not seem to recognize the In Voltaire's 'Candide, chap. i., Master significance given to “politeness" in the fol. Pangloss says :lowing sentence of Young's preface to his • Satires':

“As all things have been created for some end,

they must necessarily be created for the best end. “A writer in polite letters should be content with Observe, for instance, the nose ip formed for reputation; the private amusement he finds in spectacles ; therefore we wear spectacles.” his compositions ; the good influence they have on his severer studies; that admission they give to his

Compare with this the sixth verse of the superiors; and the possible good effect they nay

above jeu d'esprit :have on the public; or else he should join to his On the whole it appears, and my argument shows, politeness some more lucrative qualification."

With a reasoning the court will never condemn, The ideal thus presented is appropriately That the spectacles plainly were made for the nose, attractive and romantic ; its defect is that

And the nose was as plainly intended for them. harassing difficulty of attainment which is so Date of 'Candide.' 1759. Cowper's first prone to beset the aspirant after Utopian volume was published in 1782, four years after conditions. THOMAS BAYNE. the death of Voltaire.

C. LAWRENCE FORD. MULES: THEIR CRYING.-An Englishman Bath, having asked me what word is used in English to express the song of mules, whether WOODEN WATER.PIPES IN LONDON.-The braying or neighing, I found my brain in a Daily Chronicle of Tuesday, 10 October, state of _utter dumbness on the question. stated that on the previous day a line of Perhaps Lewis Carroll might have rolled the wooden water-pipes had been discovered run. two into one to express something that ning east and west in Theobalds Road, and would partake of both of these kinds of suggested that this was part of the original ejaculation. If no technical term is known Lamb's Conduit, dating from the reign of to the learned, perhaps muling might fill up Henry VIII.

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The subject of wooden water-pipes_was old Kings of Norway. There has been shed discussed very fully lately, in The Essex upon it the glamour of poetry and romance, Naturalist* by Mr. T. V. Holmes and others, for the name of Haakon has been borne by and in the course of that discussion I ex. many a heroic warlike “ Jarl.”. pressed the opinion, based on negative The name has the very noblest meaning, evidence, that wooden pipes were not used implying that the man who bears it is of in the London district before the time of high, nay, even of heavenly descent, like the the New River. A New River main ran

Diogenes” of the Greeks. The Old under Kingsgate Street until that thorough- Norse H

a man of high and fare was obliterated a few years ago by the noble birth,", from hár, high, and konr (reLondon County Council ; and a few months lated to our kin), “one nobly born": compare ago I saw typical New River wooden pipes our “king.”

A. L. MAYHEW. dug up at the north end of Kingsgate Street. I suggest that probably those in Theobalds “ POLTROON.” Fanciful derivations die Road are the continuation of the same line, hard, and I am surprised to see that of pol. but shall be glad if any reader of N. & Q.' troon” from pollice truncus, i.e., the practice of can furnish any evidence pro or con. As to some Romans in the days of the later empire Lamb's Conduit, I do not know its course; to mutilate their thumbs in order to escape but it does not seem very likely that it military service (which, by the by, I heard should have taken an east-and-west line recently referred to as the true one in a along Theobalds Road.

sermon), given the first place in Worcester's A. MORLEY DAVIES. 'Dictionary.' It is properly not mentioned [See 9th S. iii. 186, 445; iv. 14, 94 ; x. 421 ; xi. 73, in Webster or the 'Century Dictionary. The 112, 189.]

'Encyclopaedic' also ignores it. Prof. Skeat

calls it an astounding derivation, and ranks AFFERY FLINTWINCH IN · LITTLE DORRIT.'

it with those which do not rest on any eviInasınuch as Dickens wrote the main part of dence. It may be of interest to quote what • Little Dorrit while staying at Folkestone, Littré says on the point:it is most probable that he got the above Christian name from an old tombstone on the

“Mais le mot français. qui ne commence à edge of the pathway to the porch of the être usité que dans le XVI° siècle, est d'origine parish church of that town. The inscription forme, venir de pollex truncus.”

italienne; et l'italien poltrone ne peut, d'après la ran (and runs): “To the memory of Affery Jeffery (a female).”

H. P. L.

The word is really derived from a provincial

Italian word (polter) for bed, the original “ COURT OF RECEPTION.”—The use of the source of which is the Old High German term "Court of Reception" in the official polstor, modern polster, connected with which Court Circular, dated 17 October, deserves also is our word “bolster.” A poltroon, in note. The passage is as follows:

fact, originally meant one who preferred his His Majesty the King held a Court of Recep bed to exertion, almost equivalent to a slugtion at Buckingham Palace this morning, at which gard.

W. T. LYNN. His Majesty received the President, Vice-Presi. Blackheath. dents, Past Presidents, and Members of the Chairman, Vice and people is hati them as it chehre Berlin.—A further attempt at explaining Municipal Council of Paris, together with men, and Members of the London County Council.” historically the original meaning of the name

ALFRED F. ROBBINS. of Berlin, which has escaped the notice of the “ HAAKON VII.”—In the year 1380, more of Local Names' (1898), may perhaps deserve

revised edition of Isaac Taylor's 'Handbook than five hundred years ago, the King of to be recorded. The older name by which Norway, Haakon VI., slept with his fore- Berlin was at first known (for instance, in fathers. On 18 November Prince Charles the • Chronicle of Magdeburg,' A.D. 1411) is of Denmark was elected King of Norway, not merely, Berlin, but der Berlin," "to and will assume the royal title of Haakon VII. dem Berlin" (" zu' dem Berlin"). Several No title could have been selected which will other smaller places were, or are still, called appeal so strongly to the imagination of by the same name; for instance, "der Berlin ” every son of Norway. The name of Haakon at Frankfurt an der Oder, “ der Berlin, a is associated with the memories of a glorious place on the Elbe opposite Magdeburg, “der past. It has been the favourite name of the


und kleine Berlin" at Halle an der * Vol. xiii. pp. 60-75 (July, 1903), 117-20 and 135.6 Saale, “der Berlin” at Augsburg on the (October, 1903), 229-40 (April, 1904), 272-4 (July, river Lech, &c. All these places situated on 1904).

rivers have their appellation "der Berlin

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from an old Lusatian word barlén or berlén

Quertes. Coch brlen, i.e., a water-rake built across a river to stop floated, wood. Accordingly, WE must request correspondents desiring in. Berlin would owe its origin and

formation on family matters of only private interest

Dame to a station on the river Spree where in order that answers may be sent to them direct.

to affix their names and addresses to their queries, floated wood was landed (see an article, • Ueber den slavischen Namen Berlin,' by Dr. G. Hey, in Herrig's Archiv, vol. Ixix.

MELTON CLOTH: MELTON JACKET. — Is pp. 201-6, 1883).


anything known with regard to the origin

of “Melton cloth" (or simply "Melton") JOHN LEDERER.—"The Discoveries of John as a name for a kind of broadcloth ? Thé Lederer, in three several Marches from earliest instance I have is in Simmonds's Virginia, to the West of Carolina, and other Dict. of Trade' (1858); earlier quotations parts of the Continent: begun in March, would be welcome. The recent dictionaries 1669, and ended in September, 1670,” were say that Melton was the name of the original

collected and translated out of Latine from maker; but I have found no evidence for this, his Discourse and Writings by Sir William and it would be more natural to guess that Talbot, Baronet." The book was licensed the fabric was named from Melton Mowbray. i November, 1671, by Roger L'Estrange, and What does Byron mean by “the Melton

Printed by J. C. for Samuel Heyrick, at jacket” (“Don Juan,' xiii. st. 78)? Was it Grays - Inne-gate in Holborn. 1672.” The the current name of some particular pattern author is treating of “the Manners and or style of jacket worn by hunters ? or does Customs of the Indians inhabiting the Western it refer merely to the costume actually worn

HENRY BRADLEY. parts of Carolina and Virginia,” who, he at Melton ? explains (p. 3),

Clarendon Press, Oxford. “are done of those which the Eoglish removed BRATHWAIT'S HUNTSMAN'S RAUNGE.'from Virginia, but a people driven by an Enemy Richard Brathwait, in his 'English Gentlefrom the North west, and invited to sit down here man,' 1633, writing of outdoor recreations, by an Oracle above 'four hundred years since, as they pretend."

remarks (p. 197):

“In this rank may be numbered Hunting and On p. 4 he tells us that

Hawking,, pleasures very free, and generous, and they worship ono God, Creator of all things,

such as

the noblest dispositions have naturall whon some call Okvė, others tannith: to him

affected. For what more admirable than the alone the High-priest, or Periku. offers Sacrifice; pleasures of the Hare, if we observe the uses which and yet they believe he has no rejard to sublunary may be made of it, as I have elsewhere more amply affairs, but commits the Government of Mankinde discoursed." to lesser Deities, as Quiacosough and T'agkanysough, A marginal note refers the reader to "a that is, good and evil Spirits.'

Treatise entituled “The Huntsman's Raunge.' I have been unable to find any trace of I should be glad to know where a copy of the publication of Lederer's Discourses' in this treatise may be seen, or at all events to Latin.. ROBT.J. WHITWELL. learn the date and extent of it. I do not

find it mentioned by Lowndes in his list of GENEALOGIES IN PREPARA'ION. Many of works attributed to Brath wait. your readers who are studying family history

J. E. HARTING. will probably be interested o learn that the Weybridge. Librarian of the New

England Historic Genealogical Society, 18, Somerst Street, Boston, collection of the repartee of modern sove

REPARTEE OF ROYALTY.-I am making a Massachusetts, U.S., has ia special file a collection of more than fiv hundred reports authentic data and the circumstance which


Will any readers help me with from the compilers of gaealogies not yet brought forth the bon mot? As the subject published. From this Ist information is courteously supplied by iim, in response to may not be of general interest, perhaps they any reasonable inquiry It serves as an

would be kind enough to address me direct.

RUDOLPH DE CORDOVA. excellent means of openig intercommunication, and is a good illucration of a method

2, Pump Court, Middle Temple, E.C. that might be generallyapplied to all biblio- JAMES BUTLER, DUKE OF ORMOND.-Is graphical investigation See Scottish Notes anything known of James Butler, the last and Queries, second eries, vol. vii. p. 53 Duke of Ormond, after he was attainted for (October, 1905).

high treason in the reign of George I. for a EUGEN) FAIRFIELD MCPIKE. plot to restore the Stuart dynasty? Was be Chicago, U.S.

married at the time? He was supposed to have fled to Spain. Was his wife then It seems probable that the spoon was living? I have heard he became a Spanish intended to remove any impurities that merchant under an assumed name, that he might accidentally get into the chalice at married a Spanish lady and had direct the celebration of the Holy Communion; descendants from this marriage. Is this and I feel convinced that I have somewhere fact?

A. E. COOPER. read or heard that, if a fly or other insect [See life in ‘D.N.B.' and authorities at end.] should happen to get into the cup, it was the CASSELL'S WORKS OF EMINENT MASTERS.'

duty of the officiating priest, after removing -In 1854 John Cassell , of Ludgate Hill, pub- with any trace of the consecrated wine still

it, to kill it, lest it should recover and fly off lished vol. i. of The Works of Eminent adhering to it ; and that the spike was proMasters, in Painting, Sculpture, Architec. vided for that purpose. ture, and Decorative Art.' This volume,

I have hitherto failed to find any authority which is extensively illustrated, is so admir; for this notion, but I cannot believe that it is ably compiled and so full of interest that I

l should be glad to know something of its a mere figment of my own imagination ; and writers or editor, and if more than one the question and state what the real object

no doubt some of your contributors can solve volume of it ever appeared. Many of the of the spike of a church spoon may be. engravings were again used in John Cassell's

ALAN STEWART. Art Treasures Exhibition' (which the great

7, New Square, Lincoln's Inn. exhibition at Manchester in 1857 called into existence), published by W. Kent & Co., of Pocock's PAINTINGS OF THE BATTLE OF Paternoster Row, in 1858. The latter was THE NILE.—Can any reader tell me where published serially, and probably the former the above pictures by Nicholas Pocock, the also. I have copies of both. W. ROBERTS. celebrated marine painter, are to be seen? 47, Lansdowne Gardens, Clapham, S.W.

The following letter (the original of which is AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED.

in my possession) from Admiral Sir Robert

Stopford (Governor of Greenwich Hospital) Yet all these were, when no man did them know, Yet have fron wisest ages hidden beene ;

to Sir Edward Paget (Governor of Chelsea And later times thinges more unknowne shall show. Hospital) refers to the battle-pieces in quesWhy then should witlesse man so much mis- tion :

Royal Hospital, Greenwich, That nothing is, but that which he hath seene?

12th April, '43. FRANCESCO GRASSI.

MY DEAR SIR EDWARD, 2, Via Bossi, Milano.

Mr. Newagate has communicated your proposal respecting

Pocock's paintings of the battle of A peacock on every wall."

the Nile and I hink they ought to appear in our E. H. M. Painted Hall. The principle upon which this Hall

has been hithert furnished with paintings has been Thou cam’st not to thy place by accident;

by donation, and as we both find that numerous It is the very place God meant for thee.

families are rathr expensive, a donation these JOHN J. SMYTH.

paintings from ether of us would be inexpedient. [Sonnet by Archbishop Trench. See his 'Poems,'| Any order for a extra disbursement of money 1865, p. 36.]

issues from the Almiralty. I have written to Sir

Geo. Seymour staing all the circumstances of these CHURCH SPOONS.-It is not uncommon to paintings, which remember to have seen at your find among church plate spoons with perfo- Brother's house, nd think them well worthy of rated bowls and handles terminating in a

our reception. I doubt, however, whether the sharp point or spike. A fine example may be purchase will be pnctioned, but of this I will

apprize you seen in the very interesting collection belong the anniversary of Lord Rodney's action, quorum

when eceiving the answer....... This is ing to the church of St. James, Garlickhithe, pars parva fui in 172.- Believe me, &c., in the City of London; and, as it seems that

ROBERT STOPFORD. opinions differ as to the purpose of the spiked There are foul paintings by Nicholas end, an authoritative statement by an expert Pocock in the Panted Hall, Greenwich, but would be satisfactory.

. In his Old English Plate' (eighth edition, none by him of thebattle

of the Nile. ',

CHARLES DALTON. p. 389) Mr. Cripps states that in private life 32, West Cromwell foad, S.W. such spoons were used " for straining tea and clearing the spout of the teapot before the PAUL WHITEHEAD-I have in my posses. introduction of the fixed strainer at the inner sion a print of Paul Whitehead, and should end, or insertion, of the spout. But I have be glad of any infornation concerning him, been unable to find any information as to the his wife, and his family. Who were bis use of the spike in church ritual.

parents ? When was le born! He married


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(when and where ?) Anna, only daughter of visitations (ecclesiastical) of the same place ? Sir Swinnerton Dyer, Bart. What was the I have a pretty good idea as to where they date of her death, and where was she buried ? ought to be, but what I want to know is Paul Whitehead died (date and month where they actually are, Have any lists of wanted) in 1774, and bequeathed his heart to them been printed? or do any such lists exist Lord Despenser. It was buried at West in any public building in London in MS. ? I Wycombe. Where was his body buried ? Did may remark that I am aware of the fact that he leave any issue?

E. H. M. a few visitation documents are contained [You have, of course, seen the life in ‘D.N.B.' by in the British Museum (MS. Dept.) and in the Master of Peterhouse.]

St. Paul's Cathedral Library. I also know STAINES BRIDGE.-Staines Bridge, built by lished some years ago in Archæologia.

that a thirteenth-century record was pubRennie 1832, has three principal arches. The

W. McM. piers are said to be only nine feet in thickness, and to be smaller in proportion to the

“HELPER."--This word appears to mean span of the arches sustained than those of person in some definite feudal or tenurial any other bridge in England. I should like relation to a lord in the precept of seisin from to know if this is correct.

which an extract is given below. What was FREDERIC TURNER. that relation? Is the word used elsewhere in


"Alexander Innes of that Ilk bailli es When did the maypole disappear in the Low, in that pairt coniunctlie and seuerallie speciallie lands of Scotland { and what were the local constitute greting.... [Know ye me] to have sett and customs connected with it? Were maypoles to maill lattin to the said James Iones of Rothformerly known to the Scotch Highlanders, makedze his subtennentis helperis and cottorris all the Irish, Welsh, and Bretons? If so, are

and haill my landis of the Kirktoun foroster sete they still used ?

G. W.

and Dunkympty with their pertinence liand within the shirefdome of Elgin and fores."

Q. V. TAILOR IN DRESDEN CHINA.—I have often seen a figure of a tailor, made of Dresden CHERRY RIPE.'— Where does the

song china, wearing a pair of spectacles, and Cherry Ripe' occur for the first time? In mounted on a goat. On the goat's horns are Pugin's Gothic Furniture' I find on the a thimble and iron; his rider wears a pair of plate of an horizontal grand pianoforte a shears in lieu of a sword, and carries a tape- piece of music lying open on the piano bearmeasure, pattern-book, &c. Does this figure ing the words • Cherry Ripe.' The plate represent the tailor of Augustus the Strong, bears the date 1 July, 1826. or the maker of some of Count Brühl's three

LUDWIG ROSENTHAL. hundred and sixty-five Court saints? If so,

Hildegardstrasse, 16, Munich. wby has he been immortalized in this (Horn's "Cherry Ripe belongs supposedly to manner ?


1825, in which year Madame Vestris sang it at

Vauxhall.) Greenford, Middlesex. AUSIAS MARCH.-Can MR. Dodgson or any like to know the approximate date of chap;

J. Pitts, PRINTER.-I should very much student of Catalan literaturo inform me books printed by * J. Pitts, Printer, and whether any of the verses of this writer have Wholesale Toy Warehouse, 6, GreatSt. Andrew been translated into English? Ausias has

F. JESSEL. been styled the Spanish Petrarch, and has Street, 7 Dials.” left many

beautiful love poems, though THOMAS GERY was admitted on the foundacareful_to explain that his sentiments for tion at Westminster School in 1704.

I Teresa Bou were purely platonic :

should be glad to obtain particulars of his Sens lo desig de cosa deshonesta

parentage and career.

G. F. R. B. Don ve dolor á tot enamorat. His name, by the way, might well have REV. ROBERT GORDON LATHAM.—Was he figured in a recent correspondence in these in any way connected with the Rev. Charles columns as a "curious Christian name.” In Latham, Melton Mowbray, who had General Latin documents it appears as

Ausiacus." Thomas Gordon, of Greek liberation fame, as JAMES PLATT, Jun. his pupil from 1804 to 1806?


118, Pall Mall. one kindly inform me definitely where the bishop's transcripts of the City parish MELCHIOR GUY DICKENS.-Can any of

your registers are to be found, also the records of readers inform me who was Melchior Guy

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