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Dickens, Envoy Extraordinary to the Court the sixth century. The first line of the
of St. Petersburg in (circa) 1745.6 ? In eighteenth poem in his book runs :-
Molloy's 'Russian Court of the Eighteenth Kychwedyl am dodydd o galchuynyd ;
Century' he is called Guy Dickens : the

that is same error appears in "The Courtships of Catherine the Great' lately published. He

A rumour has come to me from Calchrynyd; had a son who was a Gentleman of the Bed- which rumour refers to fighting in Strathchamber to Charlotte, Princess of Wales ; clyde and Annandale. Calchvynyd” is his daughter married a Costello, and her plain Welsh calch mynydd, the chalk hill. daughter Mary Ann married George Can- What I would ask, therefore, is this: if ning, and was the mother of the Right Hon. Kelso be rightly interpreted as cealc şou, George Canning, Premier 1826-7. I have a chalk brae, is it impossible that cealc hyth pen-and-ink sketch of Melchior Guy Dickens should have become Chelsea ? (which has descended from his grand

HERBERT MAXWELL. daughter to me), attributed by family legend to Sir Joshua Reynolds. I wish to discover that it is impossible that Cealchythe could

Prof. SKEAT shows, on philological grounds, any details of his life and career, his

have been an old name of Chelsea, and to parentage, &c., and should be grateful for that extent my former note on the subject any hints on the subject. H. ATHILL-CRUTTWELL.

(9th S. i. 264), which was written chiefly with the view of discrediting the popular deriva

tion from Ceosil-ig, must be modified. But Beplies.

the question arises whether the name of the

place where the "contentious" synod was “FAMOUS” CHELSEA.

held is ever spelt Cealchythe in any authentic (10th S. iv. 366, 434.)

charter or manuscript. I should like to feel

assured on this point. I WILL not presume to offer any opinion in

Chelsea seems to have been « famous" the discussion between MR. LYNN and Prof. because it was a regular meeting place for SKEAT ; but when the last-named gentleman

councils or synods. Thorpe, who was, I says that Cealchythe could not have been believe, an accurate palæographer, gives the old name for "Chelsea, "for cealc is chalk, (* Diplomatarium,' p. 38) a copy of the “procès and the modern name of it could never have verbal” relating to the dispute between gọt nearer than Chalkea," I venture to ask Heathured, Bishop of Worcester, and Wulfwhether there may not be exceptions even heard, son of Cussa, a landowner in that to etymological rules. The modern name diocese, which was decided in the year 789 Kelso was written Calkou, Calchou, Kelcou, at a“ pontificale conciliabulum in loco famoso &c., in the twelfth century. In Roger de qui dicitur Celchyth" under the presidency Ov's short charter granting the church of of the two archbishops Iaenbeorht of Canter Langtoun (c. 1147) to the monastery the bury and Hygebeorht of Lichfield.*., In 801, name is written Kelkou and also Kelcho as we learn from another charter (ib., p. 45), ('Liber de Calchou,' No. 138). In King David's confirmation of the lands and rights of Mercia and Wihthun, Bishop of Selsey,

a dispute about land between King Cenwulf of the abbey, about the same date, it is referred to as locus qui dicitur Calkou, and which we

was settled by a synod held Het Celchithe,

are told in another document also a vilia de Kelchú (ibid., No. 2). The (ib., p. 72) was presided over by Archbishop sibilant first appears, I think, in Wyntoun's Æthelheard of Canterbury. In this last 'Cronykil,' where the name is written charter the synod is said to have been held Kelsowe (c. 1420). Chalmers is an indifferent at Calchythe."

6 at Calchythe." But we have not yet authority on place-names, but his interpre- discovered why the little riverside hamlet tation of this one has not been challenged, should have held this honourable position, so far as I know. He says that it came while PROF. SKEAT'S authoritative statement from "a calcareous eminence which appears renders the discovery of the meaning of the conspicuous in the middle of the town, and more distant than ever. Chalices which is still called the Chalk Heugh” could not have been imported into Chelsea in (“Caledonia,' ii. 156). Of course, there is no such numbers as to have given the place its true chalk at Kelso, but there is gypsum, name, and we are only left” to conclude that which is a calcareous deposit cropping out the Anglo-Saxon must have possessed several on the brae aforesaid, and considered to be chalk at a very early period. The Welsh

* The Archbishopric of Lichfield was abolished bard Taliessin is supposed to have lived in in 803.



words of which we cannot guess the meaning, A grandson of one who was signalman to as they are not to be found in any of the Admiral Harvey on the morning of Trafalgar extant charters or codices which are written Day, I may perhaps be allowed to repeat what in that language.

W. F. PRIDEAUX. I have heard almost at first hand : that not A friend (also a native of Chelsea, but at a

half of the sailors who fought on that day more recent time than myself) had reminded heard of Nelson's signal England expects," me, before I saw the letters of MR. FOSTER &c., if at all, until the battle was fought PALMER and MR. WARD at the last reference; decks

were cleared for action, and nine out

and for the simple reason that the that Carlyle died in Cheyne Row, not Cheyne Walk, and this is mentioned in the of ten of the officers and seamen were below, Dictionary of National Biography.

the gunners stripped to the waist, getting PROF. Skrat points out that Cealchythe the guns ready and bringing up the shot. was not the same place as Celchyth (the During the battle my grandfather captained latter

was probably. Chelsea), and quotes one of the guns on the main deck. a passage from Birch in which the same ex

I have also heard that the celebrated pression (“ in loco famoso ") is used about it signal was not thought very necessary by as of the other in the account of the synod those who saw and understood it—the men of 816, where in the text it is spoken of as throughout the fleet had been hoping for the place "qui dicitur Celichyth," but the several days for a good battle, and feeling heading has “Synodus Calchuthensis." In sure of the result. the ‘A.-S. Chronicle' we are told that "

Amongst the mass of writing in the papers litigious synod” was held at Cealchyth in during the last few weeks on the plans for A.D. 785. It would be interesting to know the battle made days beforehand, I have where this place was- I suppose, not very near nowhere noticed what I believe is a fact: London, as the word is connected with chalk. that the plan of Nelson's column was altered


by himself while the ships were going into

battle. It had been arranged that CollingNELSON'S SIGNAL (10th S. iv. 321, 370, 411). wood should lead one line and Harvey the -MR. WARD has apparently written more

other; but as his own line was shaping, than he has read about the signal, or he Nelson, stimulated by the advance of that would know that the logs of the ships at brave Collingwood," called to the Temeraire, Trafalgar have been printed in Nicolas's moving to the front, “I'll thank you, • Dispatches and Letters of Viscount Nelson, Harvey, to take your place in the rear of the in Sir T. Sturges Jackson's "Great Sea Victory.” In that order, therefore, these Fights,' and in my own edition of the vessels went into battle. • Letters and Despatches,' and that the

The note above as to the signal not being originals can be seen at the Record Office. He very necessary reminds me of an incident might, too, have learnt that the flag-lieutenant which occurred in a London theatre on

-Pasco-is the officer to whom, in ordinary receipt of the news. The play was stopped, course, the Admiral-Nelson-would give the the announcement made, and there was a order to make the signal. Pasco says he did call for the song ‘Britons, strike Home !! 80, and tells the story in a straightforward when a stentorian voice from the pit or and intelligible manner. MR. WARD cites gallery called out, “Why, damme, they have, against it a letter, written some mighty years

haven't they ?"

E. A. PETHERICK. after date, by a man who had heard his

Streatham. father say that some one else--Browne-had TRAFALGAR (10th S. iv. 385, 431). A told him. Is that evidence ? As to the similar case to that of Sepúlchre Street, grammar, Nelson was not always very par- quoted at the last reference, is Arúndel ticular, but I submit that here, at least, he Street, which I often hear from Londoners. was perfectly correct, and that he did not But is not the pronunciation Trafalgar “make a neuter verb into a verb active." merely due to the English tendency to stress But as to what Nelson might or might not any long penultimate? It is to this attracwrite, MR. WARD is, by his own admission, tive force of a heavy penultimate we owe incompetent to offer

- I do not say to have such pronunciations as Augustine, Bellarmine, an opinion, for he writes, “I am not read in Costello, Gibraltar, Hunstánton, Montréssor, his dispatches." And yet his whole argu. Santander, and many others. The alteration ment turns on the impossibility of a sailor is most striking when the stress now falls using the words which perfectly conclusive on what was originally an article or suffix. evidence proves he did use.

Thus the word reálgar is exactly parallel to J. K. LAUGHTON. Trafalgar, the accent falling in each upon

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the Arabic article al, the. The influence of an ornament, in imitation of the master. a doubled consonant is amusingly shown in For examples see my volume of 'Chaucerian the different sounds assigned to Aladdin and Pieces.' Saladin, which in Arabic were Ala-al-din and As there was, practically, no final e in Salah-al-din, and ought, therefore, to rhyme Northumbrian, Scottish poets bad no reason together in English ; but Aladdin has under to use it. Yet Chaucer's influence was so gone accentual shift, solely because it great that his imitators actually adopted happened to be spelt with dd. In the sur-many of his uses, arbitrarily and incorrectly. names Barnardíston and Osbaldístone we 'The King's Quair' was edited by me for find the accent transferred to a penultimate the Scottish Text Society. The discussion of which was originally a mere genitive ending. the final e, with examples, occupies six pages. The correct modern forms of these names King Jamos I. uses it in a purely artificial would be Barnardstown, Osbaldstown. The and arbitrary way, and actually, adds a principle involved in the change O'sbaldistóne finale (as I have shown) to indefinite to Osbaldístone is the same as in that of adjectives that did not possess one by inTráfalgár to Trafalgar. Jas. Platt, Jun. heritance.

It is part of the case against 'The Court of PREBEND CANTLERS, OR KENTISH Love that its grammar is that of a period Town, IN ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL (10th S. iv. when the final e was absolutely dead. 410).—This prebendal manor came into the I must apologize for so unsatisfactory an possession of Lord Chancellor Camden answer to so immense a question. through his marriage with Elizabeth, daughter

WALTER W. SKEAT. and heiress of Nicholas Jeffreys, Esq.,, of the Priory, co. Brecknock. Technically I believe THE OXFORD RAMBLE' (10th S. iv. 43, 78). Lord Camden is styled lessee of the manor. -I heard this song sixty years ago, and The estate, according to Lysons, is held on remember the spirited tune, with chorus. I lives subject to a reserved rent of 201. ls. 5d. will send the tune to H. if he will let me per annum, paid to the prebendary, who have his address. Derby town, not Oxford, keeps the manor in his own hands, and holds was, however, the scene of the adventures a court-leet and court-baron. The lease came related in this old ditty, as I heard it; and into the hands of the Jeffreys family in 1670. there were other slight differences from H.'s


W. R. HOLLAND. FINAL “E” IN CHAUCER (10th S. iv. 429).

Barton-under-Needwood, Staffs. The question is hardly a fair one, because it THE PURPOSE OF A FLAW (10th S. iv. 208, cannot be fully answered within a reasonable 314). -One purpose is amusingly set forth and space. It might well form the subject for a illustrated by a paragraph in The Spectator "dissertation," and the writer, if he answered of 9 September, p. 339. There is the question properly, would deserve a degree.

an old tale of the architect of the famous I can only state, briefly, a few results. As regards this matter, we should first observe was built he found it so alarmingly perfect that he

temple of Chion-in, in Kyoto. When the temple the use of the final e before Chaucer's time. was inspired with misgivings, remembering, the For it was not his invention, but his inherit proverb : Fulness is the beginning of waning: So ance. The use of it in the 'Ormulum’is fully he purposely stuck his umbrella between the inner discussed in my book entitled 'The Chaucer shafts of the front eaves, where it remains to this Canon.'

day as a saving defect."

St. SWITHIN. Secondly, it is a question of dialect. Barbour, Chaucer's contemporary, hardly over THOMAS POUNDE, S.J. (10th S. iv. 184, 268).employs it ; but Gower, whose dialect is more The following portion of a huge pedigree E Southern than Chaucer's, employs it even have compiled of the family of John Pounde,

Somerset Herald, who was “basely slain in Thirdly, it went out of use, in the Midland his tabard” near Dunbar, while on a journey dialect, gradually Chaucer's use is really to the King of Scotland with a message from archaic; he stuck to the habits of his youth. Henry VIII. (see Noble's History of the Hoccleve is tolerably regular. Lydgate College of Arms,' p. 124), may be of use to MR. began with a rather plentiful employment of J. B. WAINEWRIGHT, to Mr. A. T. EVERITT, the final e, but used 'it less and less as time and to H. C., who have each contributed so went on. During the fifteenth century the much interesting matter to `N. & Q' on the use of the final e declined rapidly, and soon family of Pounde of Beaumond (Belmont). became quite artificial, and by the year 1450 in the parish of Farlington and county of was obsolescent. Yet later poets used it as | Southampton :


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Beverley Agnes, dau. and heir William Wrythe, otherwise Wriothesley, York Herald,

of Drayton, of eldest son of Sir John Wrythe, Garter King of Arms, and London.

brother of Sir Thomas Wriothesley, Garter King of Arms.

William Pounde, of-Helen Beverley, Wriothes. Thomas, Baron Wrio- Sir Oliver Law: Anne Beaumond, in the eldest dau. and ley, wife of thesley, Chancellor rence, of Creech | Wrioparish of Farling. coheir. Buried John Pounde, of England, created Grange, in the thesley. ton, co. Southamp at Farlington, Somerset He- Earl of Southampton, county, of Dor, ton, second son of 14 Oct., 1589. rald, basely 16 Feb., 1546/7, K.G. set, knighted William Pounde, of Willdat. 25 Sep- slain in his ta. Born about 1500 at at Musselboro Drayton and South. tenibor, 1589; bard near Dun- Garter Court, Bar field, in Scotwick Priory (by Ed. proved P.C.C. bar, son of Sir bican, in the parish land, in 1547. burga, dau. and co- i 15 Oct. follow. John Pound, of St. Giles, Cripple. Died 1 January, heir of Thomas ing. of Drayton, co. gate.

1559/60. Troyes, of Marwell,

Southampton, and widow of Wils

Knt., and broliam Benger, whose

ther of Wm. third husband was

Nicholas Upton).
Died Feb., 1559, and
bur. at Farlington.

Thomas Pounde, of Beaumond, William, second son. Nicholas, fifth son. Anne, Mary, Jane; S.J., son and heir. Barrister. John, third son. William, sixth son. eldest second third at-Law of Lincoln's Inn. Bap. Richard, fourth son. Henry, seventh son. dau. dau. dau. at Farlington, 29 May, 1538. Adm. at Lincoln's Inn, 16 Feb., 1559/60. Esqu're of the Body to Queen Elizabeth. Died 8.p., 26 Feb., 1613.

As regards the crest of the Pounde family, (ruary, 1546/7, and his widow Anne was reit is not a gourd, as stated by the late Mr. married to John White, of_Southwick, on W. c. Metcalfe, but a pomegranate slipped 3 January, 1547/8. MR. EVERITT's note and leaved proper.

make: it clear that she was John White's EVERARD GREEN, Rouge Dragon. second wife, and not his first, as suggested Heralds' College.

in Berry's 'Hants,' p. 194. But it seems hard At the earlier reference MR. WAINEWRIGHT to reconcile the date of his second marriage, mentions, in connexion with the Pounds of as found by the aforesaid jury, with the date Drayton, Hants, two Winchester scholars of the death of his first wife Katherine, as Robert Pownde, elected 1518, and William given on the tomb at Southwick ; for accordPownd, elected' 1579. These scholars came ing to the inscription on this tomb, as cited probably not from Drayton, Hants, but from

by MR. EVERITT, Katherine did not die until Drayton, Berks. Robert is described as of 31 October, 1548. Drayton, Berks, in Foster's Al. Oxon.,'

John White, of Southwick, was a man of p. 1189, and William, though he

is said in considerable importance, but has no biography p. 1189; and William, though he is said in in the D.N.B. I feel 'sure that readers of Mr. Kirby's 'Scholars,' p. 149, to have been of Drayton, Middlesex, is described in the 'N. & Q.' would welcome an account of him original college register as of Drayton, in the and his family if Mr. EVERITT would furnish diocese of Salisbury, which means, I suppose, of information about Hampshire landowners.

it, under a separate heading, out of his store

, there fore, whether either of them was of the same

H. C. family as Thomas Pounde. Mr. Kirby, in his With reference to the date of Thomas 'Annals' of the College. p. 115, gives lists of Pounde's baptism, the rector of Farlington commoners there in 1486 and 1490, and the has kindly permitted me to make a further name of Pownde occurs in both lists. Possibly examination of his earliest register. It is a this Pownde was Thomas's grandfather Wil- very ancient book, with parchment leaves. liam, who, according to MR. EVERITT at the The first four entries, beginning in January later reference, was born about 1474.

and ending with Thomas Pounde's baptism If the recorded findings of the jury upon in May, are bracketed together and dated the inquisition of 1553 mentioned by me 1538. The succeeding entries, commencing in at the later reference be correct, Anthony November and ending after William Pounde's Pounde, of Drayton, Hants, died on 22 Feb | baptism in the following May, are bracketed

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together, and dated 1539. Apparently the wa-tha or Hä-yo-wen-tha shows that those entries in the first part of this register were who condensed it into "Hi." intended the copied from some former register, and probably English, and not the continental, pronunciathis occurred in 1597, for in that year parish tion for the i.

FORREST MORGAN. registers were directed to be transcribed Hartford, Conn., U.S.A. anew on parchment.' When it is remembered that Thomas

“THAT IS, HE WOULD HAVE” (10th S. iv. Cromwell, the Vicar - General, issued the 409).- The Globe of 18 November contained order for keeping parish registers

the following: 29 September, 1538, and that the civil, or humorous device employed by early nineteenth

“There is an interesting note in 'N. & Qi on a legal, year at that time ended on 24 March, century song writers. It consisted in making a there appears to be no doubt that the full-blooded assertion, and then contradicting it original register at Farlington commenced with words beginning, "That is, he would have.' in January, 1538/9, and that the errors in There seenis to be some doubt as to the author the present register are simply due to careless who first employed this idea, but we think the division of the years when the register was

editor of "N: &Q' is right in stating that it is

taken from the well-known poem beginning : 'I transcribed. The correct date therefore of sing a doleful tragedy;

Guy Faux, that prince of the baptism of Thomas Pounde would be sinisters. He might have added that these lines 29 May, 1539, and that of his younger were by Hudson, the song writer, who, moreover, brother William, 24 May, 1540.

used it in a number of other songs. Hudson's comALFRED T. EVERITT.

positions fill an octavo volume, but of the man High Street, Portsmouth.

himself we have never been able to obtain much

information." BATHILDA (10th S. iv. 28, 93).-See 'D.N.B.,'

H. W. U. iii. 404, where, however, there is no mention LOOPING THE LOOP: FLYING OR CENTRIof her canonization by St. Nicholas (Pope FUGAL RAILWAY: WHIRL OF DEATH (10th S. 858-67). If MR. PLATT is correct, as I have iv. 65, 176, 333, 416). -I well remember having no reason to doubt, her name should have seen at the Polytechnic in Regent Street, been included in the list of English canon- about 1845, a very small iron railway having ized saints, 10th S. iii. 25. She is mentioned two loops, with a platform at each end (about in the Roman Martyrology on 26 January. 2 feet higher than the board to which the

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. railway was screwed) and a train of three or MINNISINKS (10th S. iv. 248). -- In answer to finish without any mishap taking place. It

four carriages, which went from start to DR. SPRINGETT's question, I would the Minisink or Minnisink İndians were a small was in the nature of a big toy. Č. MASON.

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. tribe on the Upper Delaware River, around the present Port Jervis, New York State, GENIUS BY COUNTES' (10th S. iv. 287, where the river, after a long course south-329).—I read in The Strand Magazine for east, turps sharply south-west along the August the article alluded to by St. SWITHIN. flank of the Kittatinny Mountains, which it The writer's statistics seemed to me to be breaks through at Delaware Water Gap, based on too small a percentage of famous fifty or sixty miles below.

names.. Perhaps, however, I had been spoilt It should be said, however, that Long- by reading a work which goes into the subject fellow's Indians are not infrequently Indians in a very exhaustive manner. St. SWITHIN “in the aibstract, " like love in Sydney and others, like myself, interested, will find Smith's Scotch flirtation, the names having A Study of British Genius,' by Havelock little or no relation to exact tribal speciali Ellis (Hurst & Blackett, Lond., 1904),, a ties. • Hiawatha' is an amusing instance : fascinating and suggestive book, of value an Ojibway legend with an Iroquois hero both on the antiquarian and scientific side. (Hiawatha) and a Sioux heroine (Minne- Taking as a basis the names of 1,030 indihaha); as if in the 'Nibelungenlied'.we had, viduals of pre-eminent genius from the pages say, names like Theseus for Siegfried, and of the Dictionary of National Biography,' Morna or Sāvitri for Brunhilda or Chriem- the author has given us a summary of the hild, while the setting remained Teutonic. local, and, so far as was possible, the bioLongfellow's innocence of any further logical and hereditary influences bearing on scholarship as to the aborigines than a poet their lives. The statistics of "genius by

a needed (and he certainly chose the happier counties” are not the least fruitful part of part, for us) is shown by his favouring the his inquiry. So far as I know, Mr. Ellis's wholly groundless pronunciation Hee-a-wa- work is the only one that bears on the tha for his bero : the original form Hä-yo- geographical distribution of British genius,


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