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this everyday word. The writer traces back DOVER PIER (10th S. iv. 387, 451).-With the earliest stages of the art to Pliny, reference to DR. MURRAY'S query respecting 100 B.C., and defines it as an art “dependent the pier at Dover, I have compared the on the two sciences of chemistry and optics." events and dates there mentioned with the

J. H. Schulze, a German physician, is cited records of Dover, and find that the Emperor as having obtained in 1727 copies of written Charles V. landed at Dover 26 May, 1522. words by the action of light upon nitrate of There was existing at that time at the silver.

western extremity of Dover Bay a head, of Thomas Wedgwood, fourth son of the great blocks of chalk and piles, called a pier, conpotter, wrote a paper upon making pictures structed in 1495 by John Clark, master of by means of a camera and sensitive salt. the Dover Maison Dieu. by means of a subEdited by Humphry Davy, the chemist, this sidy granted by Henry VII. Soon after 1522 paper appeared in 1802 in the Journal of the that head was much damaged by storms, and Royal Society. By means of the concen- an appeal was made to Henry VIII. to assist trated light of the solar microscope Davy in strengthening and extending that pier. obtained about this period pictures upon The king granted 5001. for that purpose, and paper coated with nitrate or chloride of the works commenced in 1533 ; but about silver, but was unable to fix them.

two years later the king himself took the Joseph Nicéphore Niepce, 1765–1833, work in hand. spending about 60,000l. in an developed what he termed " pictures pro- endeavour to build out seaward a stone pier, duced by light” in connexion with litho- the foundations of which he laid. They still graphy, afterwards known as heliography. remain between the Admiralty Pier and the His first camera was made out of a cigar Prince of Wales's Pier, nearly uncovered at box, and credit is given to him as being the low-water spring tides; they are called the real inventor of photography. He was the Mole Rock, and were formerly called “the first to obtain permanent pictures, and to King Foundation.” The great expenditure discover the principle of development. of Henry VIII. was of little value, the har

In 1827, during a visit to his brother Claude bour work of real utility being done in the at Kew, he brought over to England speci- latter part of the reign of Elizabeth. mens of his "light pictures," which he was

JOHN BAVINGTON JONES. anxious to exhibit to the Royal Society, but was prevented by the rule which requires a stone”; I would suggest a consideration of

Dr. MURRAY objects to “French pierre, a full explanation of the processes. In this year he took views of Kew Church and other is of a harbour extension made visible,

the Latin pareo, as in “appear." The idea places which are now deposited in the British whereas the mole or break water is more at Museum. His first success with the camera was in 1814. The collection of his apparatus could not cling to the new pier, but had to

sea level.

Recently the Channel steamer is in the museum of his birthplace, Châlonsur-Saône, where a statue is erected to his recross for shelter, the extension being so far

from the land.

A. HALL. memory.

Photogenic drawing first occurred to Henry It appears not impossible that pier Fox Talbot in 1833, while he was sketching may come from Latin pede=foot Compare the Italian lakes, and the idea took six years apeadeira, apeadeiro, apeadoiro in Portuguese; to mature. See Philosoph. Mag., vol. xiv. and apeadéro in Castilian. The last is transp. 196, 1839.

lated in the dictionary by M. Seoane as The Calotype process was discovered by follows: “A block or step, with the aid of Talbot in September, 1840.

which a person mounts a horse or mule.” In Photoglyphy is a process of engraving on the same book “Apear el rio" is rendered steel by the action of light, introduced by “To wade or ford a river.” If this does not Talbot in 1852.

afford a light upon the etymon, perhaps we Photogram. See 'Photograms of an Eastern must look at some medieval French word Tour,' published by Shaw, 1859, 8vo.

meaning a place for paying toll on embark. Photographics. See • Photographics of Paris ing or disembarking; or at one of the nauLife,' published by Tinsley, 1862, 8vo.

tical senses of the verb to “pay."

É. S. DODGSON. The Amateur Photographer also reveals photographist, photographister, fotografer,

ISAAC JOHNSON, OF MASSACHUSETTS (10th S. fotografist, vol. iv. p. 111, 1886, and elsewhere iv. 227, 314).—This shadowy personage (to phototypography and photometric.

whom has been paid the closest attention of

WM. JAGGARD. the Massachusetts annalist, and who was the 139, Canning Street, Liverpool.

first white man, or rather Englishman, to be

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interred in Boston ground, it is claimed) left crapulam, ex ventris indigerie solutus est in dysenno issue, according to the careful Drake in teriam. Postea vero cum paululum cessasset filuxus, his authoritative Boston, when dissecting phlebotomatus est." Johnson's will and commenting on the exact

Roger of Wendover (ob. 1236) says:spot where “the Lady Arbella" is supposed “Acutis correptus febribus cæpit graviter in. to have been buried, she predeceasing her firmari; auxit autem ægritudinis molestiam perhusband by a few months at Salem.See, niciosa ejus ingluvies, qui nocte illa de fructa pertoo, Hawthorne's delightful chapter on Lady febrilen in de calorem acuit fortiter et accendit."

sicorum et novi ciceris potatione nimis repletus Arbella in his 'Grandfather's Chair.' C.

Also in `Flores Historiarum,' by the same AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED (10th S. writer, we find : secundum consuetudinem iv. 249, 316).—The author of

suam persicis cum musto et pomatio ingurgiLast eve I paused beside a blacksmith's door I

tatus," &c. is Mr. L. B. Coke, of New York City. The Matthew Paris (ob. 1259) gives almost the poem has sometimes been attributed to the same account: Novi pomacii quod vul. Rev. John Clifford.

JAMES R. Joy. gariter cicera appellatur nimis repletus.” The Plainfield, N.J.

peaches are also mentioned. John tried to

ride to Sleaford, but from pain was forced to WILLIAM SHELLEY (10th S. iii. 441, 492,; iv. dismount ("anhelus et gemebundus "); and 55, 114). The Court influence exerted' for was carried some part of the way on a litter, Mrs. Shelley, to which MR. WAINEWRIGHT the jolting of which aggravated his malady. alludes at the first reference, is set forth in a Walter of Coventry (A. 1293): morbo, letter to her from one James Parry, a prisoner ut fertur, dissinteriæ graviter fatigaretur.” in the Fleet, intercepted by the spy Beard, 2. That he was killed by poisoned fruit. — and forwarded to Cecil (Cecil MSS.). He · Annales Monast. de Bermundeseia' says: says :

"Ut quidam ferunt, venenatus cum cerusis "You know when all your greatest kinsmen in per quendam monachum nigrum Wigorniæ." Herefordshire refused to certify the abuses offered Henry Knighton (f. 1363) gives a long and you by your husband's varlets, I did procure certain Justices contrary to your religion to put to their graphic account. John on arrival at Swineshands in hopes of your confornity; on which Mrs. head wishes to violate a nun, the sister of the Blanch Parry procured your maintenance of 2001. abbot. A monk, on condition of receiving & year.

Beware of your husband's cousin Mr. absolution, undertakes to prevent the crime Beard. Use none of his chambers, nor copfer in and kill the king. He poisons some pears private, for God's sake, good cousin ; remember (pira); places them on a dish with others, your house_that mourneth for you. I dare not write what I will tell you."

which are not infected, and offers them to Beard in several letters to his patron com

John, who at first is suspicious, but, on findplains that the warden of the Fleet and ing. that the monk suffers no harm after Parry warn his intended victim against him. eating three of them at his request, takes

“Nec se James Parry was a Hereford gentleman of one that is poisoned, and dies. good estate, whose extravagance and turbu

ulterius potuit continere rex, apprehenso uno lence had landed him in the Fleet. He was

ex venenatis comedit, et eadem nocte exonly distantly related to Mrs. Blanche, the tinctus est.” This event must have occurred Queen's chief lady, and his cousinship to 12 or 13 October, but John did not die till Jane Shelley is unexplained.

the morning of the 19th at Newark. T. H. PARRY.

3. That he was poisoned by a cup of wine.

-Ranulph Higden (ob. 1364) repeats the KING JOAN POISONED BY A TOAD (10th S. story of John's death from dysentery. (“morbo iv. 168, 256). — There appear to have been dysenterico"), and adds: “Tradit tamen in early times three accounts of the vulgata fama quod apud monasterium de manner of John's death. Those which were Swynesheved alborum monachorum intoximore or less contemporary imply that he catus obierit." He then tells the story of the died of dysentery ; whereas later records refer loaf, to the suspicion that he was poisoned. I subjoin the three stories, with brief pas. illius venenum confecit, regi porrexit. Sed et ipso

quod audiens unus de conversis fratribus loci sages from the authorities I have consulted. prius sumpto Catholico viatico, siniul cum rege

1. That the cause of death was dysentery, hausto veneno interiit." brought on by distress of mind and a glut- Thomas Wykes (“Chronicon ') says:tonous meal.- Ralph of Coggeshall (ob. 1228) “Intoxicatus, ut dicebatur, continuo cæpit ex writes :

violentia veneni contabescere, indeque progrediens "! Ut dicitur, ex nimia voracitate qua semper in. usque Newerk ibideni post dies paucos exspiravit.” satiabilis erat venter ejus, ingurgitatus usque ad Lastly, we come to the story of the toad,

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catus est.

which is very fully related in 'Eulogium stated that in 1894 John Stacey, then aged Historiarum' (vol. iii. pp. 109–11, ed. F. s. pinety-six, petitioned the War Office for an Haydon). This story either originates from increased pension. He had served as a bugler the French 'Brut,' or is taken from the same or a druminer in the King's German Legion source as the account in that chronicle. lt at Waterloo.

R. L. MORETON. contains, however, many additions rendering the tale more dramatic. The whole account

AMATEUR DRAMATIC CLUBS (10th S. iv. 388, is well worth reading, but too long to 431). — Behind the Footlights; or, the Stage transcribe. John is at Swineshead. The as I Knew It,' by W. C. Day, published by story of the loaf recurs, which induces the Frederick Warne & Co., 1885, provides some monk to determine on the king's death. Then information about “The Scenic Club” that follow these words :

had brief existence at the Western “Monachus gardinum adiens unum invenit

Literary Institute. There are references to bufonem teterrinium, qui eum capiens et in pelvin other amateur dramatic clubs, but the work ponens atque cum cultello suo stimulans donec is not of importance. ALECK ABRAHAMS.

venenum evomebat, qui illud diligenter 39, Hillmarton Road, N. colligens et in ciphum regis apposuit." The monk then confides his plan to the

Since my reply to J. H. B. I have come abbot, quoting the words of Caiaphas, "It across a brief article in The Era for

19 August were better that one should die than' that (p: 15) entitled Amateurs and Professionals, the whole people should perish." Then

which gives a long quotation from a copy of

The Theatrical Times of 1846, without giving “ monachus ...... ab abbate absolutus in the precise date of the month.

Unfortutrepidus calicem cum veneuo regi præsentavit, ipsumque more Saxonico salutavit, et ait:

Wassayi, nately I do not seem to possess the particular et subjunxit, quod tota Anglia gauderet de illo number from which l'he Era gathers its Wassayl. Rex dedit responsum : Drinkhayl, et information.

S. J. A. F. monachus læeto vultu ciphum hausit; quo hausto regi obtulit, qui libenter potavit et statim toxi. GEORGE III.'s DAUGHTERS (10th S. iv. 167,

Monachus infirmariæ adiens continuo crepuit (cf. Shak., ‘K. John,' v. vi.) medio, et 236, 291, 336).–Of Princess Sophia it is said diffusa sunt omnia viscera ejus ; qui tempore that she married Col. Garth, had two sons, perpetuo tres habet monachos pro eo celebrantes who made her very unhappy, and died ex consensu capituli generalis.

miserably. A letter from Princess de Lieven, Soon the king feels the effects. He is told March, 1829, runs as follows :the monk is dead, and feeling death ap- “ Un certain capitaine Garth passe ou se fait proaching, admits that the monk's prophecy passer pour le fils de la princesse Sophie, soeur du was true. “Jussit ergo rex movere (mensam) roi George IV. Des sommes promises par un et hernesia sua trussare, et venit ad Cas cavalier de la cour pour payer ses dettes, et surtout

pour avoir possession de certaines lettres, montrent tellum de Newerk," &c. The version given clairement que la famille royale est intéressée dans by St. SWITHIN (p. 256) appears in parts to cette question. Le premier fait est conjectural; be a translation of this ; cf. infirmarice, mais voici le comble : le capitaine Garth prétend trussare, rendered

“ farmerye and " tó que ces lettres prouvent que le Duc de Cumberland trusse.


est son père, en même tenips que la princesse Sophie

est sa mère, et, quelle que soit l'opinion que l'on “ BESIDE” (10th S. iv. 306, 375, 434).--Prof porte de cette infâme calomnie, les journaux

n'entretiennent le public que de ce fait, soit pour Skeat's teaching, as communicated in 'An l'affirmer, soit pour le démentir.”Revue des Deux Etymological Dictionary of the English Mondes, i Mars, 1903. Language' is that

Can any reader make me acquainted with “the niore correct form is beside ; besides is a later all the circumstances of the Garth romance? development due to the habit of using the suffix-es to form adverbs ; the use of besides as a preposi.

Repecting Princess Amelia and a secret tion is, strictly, incorrect, but is as old as the twelfth inarriage with General FitzRoy, I note the century.

following :

Sr. SWITHIN. 1. “The interesting subjects upon which he “ PAULES FETE (10th S. ii. 87, 138 ; iv. George III.) had to open his mind had, doubt

less, more relation to domestic affairs than to 435).-The term is explained in the 'N.E.D.' public events. His favourite daughter was dying,

J. T. F. and, upon her death-bed, she is said to have Darham.

revealed to her father the circumstances of an

attachment which, as was believed, had involved a WATERLOO VETERAN (10th S. iv. 347, 391). violation of the Royal Marriage Act."-Lord Col. In an account of the battle of Waterloo chester's 'Diary,' vol. ii. p. 287. which appeared about ten years ago in 2. Wellington wrote to the Marquis of • Battles of the Nineteenth Century,' it was 'Buckingham:

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P. 457.

“Where I found, when last in town, nought but though great and many, endeavour his enlargement exultation and triumph, I now, on the contrary, by exchange, for one or moe Jesuits, or Priests, who witness depression and despair in the strongest were prisoners here...... In all the time of his degree. In consequence of a most unadvised durance, he never heard from any friend, nor any indulgence, arising from overweening confidence, from him, by word or letter: no English man being the King has experienced a thorough relapse from ever permitted to see him, save onely one. viz. : Mr. the flattering state in which he recently appeared. Walter Strickland of Bointon house in York shire. He attended for three hours on the inst. in With very much desire and industry, he proarranging the will of the Princess Amelia, according cured leave to visit him, an Irish Frier being to what he conceived her wishes, and immediately appointed to stand by, and be a witnesse of their fell back into the incoherency which forms the discourse. Here ho remained thirty years in prominent feature of his malady." -Memoirs of restraint, and in the eighty first year of his age the Court and Cabinets of George III.,' vol. iv. died a Prisoner."

To this last section Fuller adds, in a What attachment is alluded to in the first marginal note, “So am I informed by a Letter quotation? What words have been intention from Mr. Hen. Molle his Son.” ally omitted from the second ? Both quotations

Fuller makes no allusion to J. Molle as the seem to refer to a more secret event than a translator of the work of Camerarius, but marriage with General FitzRoy. Did this there can be little doubt he was the one who marriage really take place? According to underwent such a terrible imprisonment. Court gossip of that time, the princess had Your correspondent seems to have overlooked another engagement with an officer in the royal navy, and wicked tongues attributed in which "Mr. John Molle” is thus men

a marginal note to the “. Prefatory Remarks,” to this romance a more serious result. І

tioned :should be most grateful to any one who could help me in clearing up all this mystery.

“Of him also beeing to earely depriuod, it hath COMMANDANT REBOUL.

no lesse lamented his constrained absence (and per

haps for the same cause) than Rachaell did 'her Zbis, Rue des Bégonias, Nancy, France.

massacred Innocents. For alas ! this euer welldeseruing Patriot hath now

for many yeares beone "THE LIVING LIBRARIE,' BY P. CAMERARIUS missing and awanting vnto His." (10th S. iv. 425).—To the interesting descrip: His son (Fuller's correspondent) seems tion of this work I may perhaps be permitted to have edited and enlarged the second to add a few particulars respecting its trans- edition of his father's work, published in lator, John Molle, of whose personal history 1625, the first having appeared in 1621. The your correspondent was unable to give any original volumes by Camerarius were in details beyond those quoted by him. The Latin, and were published at Frankfort, only known information we possess of him is

1602-9. the short memoir in Fuller's Church His

The name of John Molle is unmentioned in tory' (1655), book x. pp. 48-9, from which the D.N.B.,' or in any of the ordinary biofollowing extracts are taken :

graphical dictionaries. There is, however, a “ About this time (1607) Mr. John Molle, memoir of him in Prince's Worthies,' mainly Governour to the Lord Ross in his travails, began transcribed from Fuller's work, the only his unhappy journey beyond the Seas. This Mr. Molle was born in, or neer South-Molton in important addition consisting of this paraDevon.'

graph: “The time of his death is said to He spent much of his early life on the the probability being that he was much older

have been about the year of our Lord 1638,” Continent, and was taken prisoner at the Hazlitt is evidently in error in stating, “The

. attle of Cambray. After being ransomed,

translator appears to have died some time * he was appointed by Thomas, Earl of Exeter..... before the publication of his work” in 1621 to be Governour in Travail to his Grand-childe, the Lord Ross, undertaking the charge with much (Third Supplement to‘Bibliographical Colreluctancie.

lections,' 1889, p. 17). Against the advice of Mr. Molle, "a Vagari

T. N. BRUSHFIELD, M.D. took the Lord Ross to go to Rome." Un SHAKESPEARE'S PORTRAIT (10th S. iv. 368).their arrival,

The tradition that no original portrait of sooner had they entred their Inne, but Shakspere exists originated in an assertion Officers asked for Mr. Molle, took and carried him of a writer in The Gentleman's Magazine to The Inquisition House, where he remained a for August, 1759. The words he uses are : prisoner, whilest the Lord Rosse was daily feasted, favoured, entertained...... The pretence and allega- “It may be, perhaps, hitherto unknown that tion of his so long and strict imprisonment, was, there is no genuine picture of Shakspere existing, because he had translated Du Plessis his Book of nor ever was, that called his having been taken * The Visibility of the Church, out of French into long after his death, from a person supposed exEnglish...... In vain did his friends in England, tremely like him, at' the direction of Sir Thomas

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Clarges (born 1635, died 1695). and this I take upon his departure. They contain “what the me to affirm as an absolute fact."

world will call an ample collection of scandaThis gentleman was criticizing the work of lous rubbish heaped together"--much too another with whom he seems to have been severe a self-criticism. Few collections are at variance; of course he never produced his of greater interest at the present day. authority for the statement, though re- Accounts of the collection will be found in peatedly called on to do so (see Boaden's Temple Bar for October, 1891, and in the Portraits of Shakspere'), he himself being Records of Buckinghamshire' of the Bucks the originator of it.

Archæological Society, 1904. There is no record or tradition of Sir

GEORGE F. T. SHERWOOD. Thomas Clarges having been the possessor of 50, Beecroft Road, Brockley, S.E. the Chandos portrait, which is the painting referred to. V. R. P. PURCHAS.

His works are still in manuscript, and, for

tunately, are in the British Museum, Addit. LORD BATHURST

MSS. 5799-5861. The first three volumes are

His extracts MAN (10th S. iv. 349, 415). It is evident imperfect indexes to the rest. that the writer in T. P.'s Weekly has con

from wills are in 5861. Every will in fused the names of Bathurst and Berkeley. volumes I and K of the Registers of the Probably Mr. G. W. E. Russell first read the Consistory Court of the Bishop of Ely, is

The period story, in Lord Stanhope's History of Eng- here abstracted and indexed.

to 1558. These were land.' The date is indicated by Horace covered. is 1515 Walpole, who, writing to Sir Horace Mann the earliest volumes which could be found from Strawberry Hill on 14 November, 1774,

in Cole's time, but volume A, beginsays: "Two evenings ago Lord Berkeley ning 1448, is now at Peterborough. At the shot a highwayman." The Gent. Mag. (1774), end of his manuscript, Addit." MS. 5861, P. 538, gives a different version of the occur- p. 222, is this :

HORACE BLEACKLEY. 1781, Friday March 16th. Thank God, this is Fox Oak.

the last will of this volume, which has been more

than ordinary tedious, as the gout in one foot has This was an oft-told tale in recounting the tormented me much towards the conclusion of it.” deeds of highwaymen at country folks' fire. He died soon afterwards. sides on winter nights in the forties, and I It should be remembered that volumes I can even now feel the thrill which the first and K do not contain all the wills for the hearing gave me. The hero, as I heard it, period mentioned. Volumes F, H, L, M, N, O was not a lord or a squire, but a merchant on his round.

cover parts of the same period, and the

Thos. RATCLIFFE. Worksop.

registers of the Archdeacon's Court begin about 1520.

W. M. P. Lord Berkeley is given as the hero of this • PICKERIDGE": PUCKERIDGE" (10th S. iv. story by Lord Stanhope in his History of 367). – If " pickeridge" is of Romance origin, it England,' vol. vii. p. 313 (8vo ed.).


may be worth while to quote from the "Dic

cionario Catalan-Castellano, por F. M. T. P. At vol. i, p. 216 of Grantley Berkeley's 'Life y M. M. [who were they }]. Barcelona : and Recollections' appears a tale of his Imprenta y Librería de Pablo Riera. 1839." father's meeting with a highwayman, but the There one reads, " Picor, f. pruitja: picazon, tale there told is certainly not that mentioned comezon, rascazon, prurito," i.e. the itch. On by your correspondents at the above pages. p. 509 there is, “ Pruitja, f. picazon, comezon, HAROLD MALET, Col. mordicacion, 'hormiga, hormigueo, hormi

Compare pigure in W. COLE, CAMBRIDGE ANTIQUARY (10th s. queamiento, quemazon.


E. S. DODGSON. iv. 429).-R. M. should have inquired in the MS. Department at the British Museum, POPULATION OF A COUNTRY PARISH (10th S. where the MSS. of the Rev. William Cole iv. 428). - Would it not be possible to compute (1714-82) are amongst the most often con- the population of a country, parish at any sulted of those of any genealogical antiquary. given period from the parish church registers ? Horace Walpole, just going to the opera, of course any calculation based upon the received one of these volumes from its tran- registers would be affected by the Nonconscriber, and stayed at home to read three- formist element in the parish. In many fourths of it. Cole says of his books that he cases this would not exist at all, and in treated them as his friends, entrusted them others it might be estimated with some with his most secret thoughts, and engaged approach to accuracy by any one with a very them not to speak until twenty years after slight knowledge of local history. I would


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