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shop was opened ; the eve was kept in merry- and their friends, with children of all makings; and on the day the usual Prayer- sorts and ages, failed to gather each night Book service was held in many churches, in for fun and frolic, and all this time the some (e.g. on Garlick Hill) with full cere- kissing bush was the centre of attraction, monial, and there were no disturbances. The under which all the kissing forfeits were Cavaliers arranged for a big horse-race on redeemed. Banstead Downs on the 29th ; see particulars The Christmas bush was a marvellous proat length in ‘Clarke Papers,' iii. 130.

duction. The foundation generally was a In 1676 two persons in the parish of St. couple of hoops, one inserted within the Nicholas, Durham, opened their shops on other; or a young fir of considerable size Christmas Day, and were therefore brought had a portion of its heart cut out, leaving a before the Archdeacon's Court (Granville's space in which hoops could be inserted, the * Diary,' ii. 237). During the "12 daies of outer branches of the bush hanging downChristmas Dean Granville allowed his the reverse of the Christmas tree. In any servants to sit up later than 11 P.M., provided case the decoration of the hoops was much the they did not "make it a pretence to lye a same, depending entirely upon the resource bed next morning" (ibid., 155).

of the children of the family. The bars of On Christmas Day, 1714, some boys, sons the hoops were bound round with box, ivy, of Dissenters, got up a mock procession at and yew sprigs, and bits of holly loaded Croydon, dressed themselves in merry-andrew with berries were inserted here and there. fashion, with fringes of divers colours tied The other things used in setting off the bush about them, one riding upon anass, and so they were bits of coloured paper, with narrow abused folks going to church at 10 A.M.; see ribbons tied in bows, those of the brightest *Full Answer to Mr. Pillonniere's Reply to colours being used. Rosy cheeked apples, Dr. Snape, in a Letter to the Bishop of with oranges, were worked into the general Bangor,' by H. Mills, A.M, 1718, ii. 51. design, and here and there were hung various

W. C. B. kinds of little gilt and coloured animals and

birds-pigs, rabbits, cats, robins, fowls, and THE CHRISTMAS BUSH.

ducks. The glass toys, so much used now, THERE were no Christinas trees sixty years were then quite unknown, though coloured ago, at least not in country places; but there bits of glass were used when such could was the "bush,” which hung from the main be got. Both outside and inside the bush beam of every house place in the villages and places for candles were made, and these most houses in towns, the poor people in were lighted on Christmas Eve, if not afterparticular being careful to hang the bush wards. ready for Christmas Eve, seldom before, One feature in the making of the biggest. though portions of days for a whole week pre- and best Christmas bush was a representation vious were occupied in making up the bush, in some way of the Nativity. This was placed which was called the Christmas bush" or just within the bush, and where the lower

kissing bush," both terms often used in portion of the hoops crossed. The Child one sentence. A modern Christmas tree is Jesus was shown in cradle, and angels hung perhaps more“ good for sore eyes to look just above ; but as a rule this part was upon

» than the older Christmas bush, but wanting in detail, though kine sometimes. the latter was “the better to like," using were shown looking on. These details were an old phrase. The old " kissing bush” to a always home-made, for nothing of the kind great extent resembled a Christinas tree could then be bought, so that there was inverted, especially when it was of large ample scope for nimble fingers to use a pair size, and made in the most elaborate fashion. of scissors, for all the items were cut from The size of the Christmas bush depended in paper. great measure on the distance of the house- The Christmas Eve parties were full of fun place beam from the floor, for it had to be and frolic, following on a good supper of sufficiently, high to allow couples to kiss Christmas cheer notable for variety and under the bunch of mistletoe which always abundance. And the foundation of this cheer hung from the middle of the bush. There was mainly the Christmas pig, killed a week was a third name for it, “the kissing bunch," or so before, and its parts worked up into. and all the names were in regular use at pies, pork and mince, and even chitterlings Christmas time, at any rate in Derbyshire. were set upon the table, for with many this The Christmas bush was the centre of the was a dish only to be had at the pig-killing Christmas - week life, for it was rarely that time, which was at Christmas. For drinks for less than a week parties of lads, lasses, there were home-made wines—the elder for



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choice-ale mulled and otherwise, and ale. the Catholique Doctrine that Christ is True God' posset, this last the drink of the evening. ded. to Dr. Duppa, Dean of Ch. Ch. Sm. 4to, 19.

Truely Incarnate. Oxford.-On St. John i. 14; Then the games, a bit of dancing if there

leaves, 1638. room for it, hunt the slipper, turn Ussher, Iames, Archbishop of Armagh. Immanuel, trencher, “ Neighbour, neighbour, I've come or the Mystery of the Incarnation of the Son of to torment you,".." Do as I do," with various God ; unfolded. London.-Ded. to Thomas, Vis-forfeit games. The "forfeits' were the best count Wentworth. 4to, 35 leaves, 1638. liked because most of the sentences imposed bration of the Sacred Nativity of Our Blessed Lord

Anonymous. The Feast of Feasts. Or, the Celewound up with kissing, beneath the

mistletoe and Saviour, Jesvs Christ ; Grounded upon the hanging from the middle of the Christmas Scriptures, and confirmed by the practice of the bush. The forfeits were not, however, all of Christian Church in all Ages. Oxford, Leonard the “bread and cheese and kisses "

order ;

Lichfield.-Small 4to, 17 leaves, 1644. some were mainly unpleasant, and were used as Copy of an Incarnation Sermon, that should have

Bernard, N. The Styll-Borne Nativitie, or A the means of “ paying some one out.” It was been delivered at St. Margarets-Westminster, on not pleasant for a young man to be ordered, Saturday December the five and twenty, 1647, in before his sweetheart and all the company the afternoone, but Prevented by the Committee for assembled, to kneel at the fireplace, look up Preacher, carried him from the Vestry of the said

Plunder'd Ministers who sent and seized the the chimney, and say :

Church, and Committed bim to the Fleet, for his Peep, fool, peep,

undertaking to Preach without the License of Peep at thy brother:

Parliament. Now Published by the Authoritie of Why mayn't one fool

that Scripture which saith, Preach the Word, be Peep at another!

iustant, in season, out of season. London Printed But such an abasement, with others quite as for their sakes who love our Lord Jesus and his cutting, had to be done and were done at Birth day.-Dated from the Fleet, lanuary 8. 1647 ;. homely Christmas Eve parties, and none

on St. John i. 14. Sm. 4to, 17 leaves, 1648.

Warmstry, Thomas, D.D. The Vindication of thewere the worse friends for it afterwards.

Solemnity Of the Nativity of Christ ; Shewing the Such Christmas Eves were happy times grounds upon which the Observation of that and for the old folks sitting in the chimney other Festivalls is justified in the Church. With a nooks, with glasses on the hob. The men

short Answer to certaine Quæries propounded by smoked long church warden pipes, looking

one Joseph Heming, in opposition to the aforesayd on with approval, smacking their thighs with practise

of the Church. —Sm. 4to, 14 leaves, no

. a “Dash my wigs !" when any funny incident “ Pastor Fido.” Festorvm Metropolis. The sent them into hearty laughter. If such Metropolitan Feast. Or the Birth-Day Of Our could look on a present-day Christmas tree, Saviour Jesus Christ, Annually to be kept holy they would tell us that nothing boats "the by them that call upon him in all Nations. Proved Christmas bush."

by Scriptures, the practice of the Church PrimiThos. RATCLIFFE.

tive, and Reformed; the Testinionies of the Worksop.

Fathers, and Modern Divines ; strong Reasons,

grounded on the Word of God; confirming Miracles ; BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CHRISTMAS.

&c. Written by Pastor Fido. London: Printed

by Matthew Sinimons. — Sm. 4to, 43 leaves, 1652. (Continued from 10th S. ii. 503.)

Dedication, signed B, to John Dutton, of SheirTWENTIETH LIST.

borne, co. Glouc., esq., who sheltered him during

exile ; defends A CORRESPONDENT at 10th S. iii. 32 referred baies and rosemary," and quotes Fisher's "Christian

plum.pottage_and minc'd pies, to my contribution at 10th S. ii. 503 as my Caveat. “ second list.” It was in fact my nineteenth, Woodward, Hezekiah. Christmas Day, the Old. for the series began at 6th S. vi. 506, and has Heathens Festive Day in honour of Saturn their been carried on with scarcely a break ever Ido! God, the Papists Massing Day, the True

Christian Mau's Tasting Day. 1656. since.

Anonymous. Against the Observation of a Day. Saxton, Peter, vicar of Leeds. Christmas Cheere, in memory of Christs birth, written in 1659, and 1606.-Hunter, .S. Yorkshire,' i. 94.

now tendred to the consideration of all sober and Ludovicus Granatensis, Tractatus...... De mysterio serious Persons, this present Decemb. 1660, by a Incarnationis Filij Dei......Colon. Agripp.-12mo reverend Divine.-12mo, 4 leaves, no separate title (pp. 1.110), 1614.

or imprint. Havsted, P., M.A. Ten Sermons, 1635.-No. 5, “ Friar John." A Sermon preached by Fryer • Upon the Day of the blessed Innocents.'

John, curate of Colignac in France. Upon the Prideavx, Iohn, D.D., Regius Professor, and Feast of Epiphanie, comnionly called I'welfth Day. Rector of Exeter Colledge. A Christians Free-will London.-Sm. 4to, 4 leaves, 1680. Offering. As it was delivered in a Sermon on Stratford, N., D.D., Dean of St. Asaph. Sermon Christniasse day, at Christ Church in Oxford. before the King at White Hall on Christmas Day,Oxford.-Sm. 4to, 15 leaves, on Psalm cx. 3, 1636. 1682. London.-4to, 17 leaves (on Rom. viii. 3),

Gardyner, Richard, D.D., Canon of Ch. Ch. 1683. Sermon preach'd in the cathedrall chvrch of Christ Gower, Humfrey, D.D., Master of St. John's. in Oxford, on Christmas Day: wherein is defended Coll., Cambridge. Sermon before the King at.

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White-Hall on Christmass Day, 1684. London.-4to, Sedding, Edmund. A Collection of Antient 18 leaves (on Gal. iii. 21, 22), 1685.

Christmas Carols, Arranged for four voices. London, Burnet, Gilbert, Bishop of Sarum. A Sermon Novello.—12mo, 16 leaves, 1860. Preached before the King & Queen, At White-Hall, Anonymous. Christmas, Easter, and S. Mary on Christmas-Day, 1689. London.-4to, 20 leaves Magdalene. The lost Epistles and Gospels for these (on 1 Tin. iii. 16), 1690.

Feast days, recovered from the First Book of The same. A Sermon Preached before the King Common Prayer......With a preface. London, C. J. at Whitehall, on Christmas Day, 1696. London. Stewart.-8vo, 8 leaves, 1862. 4to, 18 leaves (on Gal. iv. 4), 1697.

Hatfield, Charles Williani. Historical Notices Ibbetson, Richard, M.A., Fellow of Oriel. The of Doncaster. Second series. 1868.- Minstrels, Divinity of our Blessed Saviour prov'd from Scrip: Waits, and Christmas Carols,' pp. 181-90. ture and Antiquity. A Sermon before the Uni- Inman, Rev. Thomas. B.A., Queen's College, Camversity of Oxford, at St Mary's, on the Epiphany, bridge. The Star of Bethlehem and the Eastern Jan. 6th, 1711/12, in which Mr. Whiston's Attempt Magi; or, A Christmas Lecture on the Messiah, to revive the Arian Heresy is consider'd. Oxford. and the doctrines of Salvation and Immortality, as -8vo, 20 leaves (on 1 Tim. iii. 16), 1712.

predicted and revealed in the Avesta of the Magi, Anonymous. A Pindaric on the Nativity of the and in the books of Enoch, Job, and Ezra. London. Son of God. London: Printed for St. John Baker, -8vo, 12 leaves (pref. dated Witham, Essex, 3 Nov., at Thavies-Inn-Gate in Holborn.-Svo, 8 leaves, 1879). with notes, 1712.

Jewitt, W. Henry. The Nativity in Art and “Phileleutherus Cantabrigiensis.". Letter to the Song : its varied Treatment with Pen and Pencil, reverend Dr. Mangey. Occasioned by his Sermon ancient and modern, with illustrative potes, hison Christmas Day, entitled Plain Notions of our torical and legendary.-Cr. 8vo, many illustrations, Lord's Divinity. London.-8vo, 24 leaves, 1719. 1898.

Anonymous. (See Curteis, below.) Genethlia : a Mummers in North Berks.-An article in The Poem on the Blessed Nativity. Design'd to excite Times, 24 December, 1904. an Awful Sense of Religion both in the Indolent Keeping Christmas in the Heart. By the Rev. and the Unbelieving Part of Mankind. London.- J. R. Miller, D.D.-Pp. 19, 1905. Fol., 12 leaves, 1727.

Christmas Superstitions. By W. Henry Jewitt.Tilly, W., S.T.P. Beata Maria Virgo ab Angelo In The Treasury, December, 1905. Gabriele Salutata : Carmen Heroicum Sacrum; The Pre-Christmas Antiphons. The Antiphons aliquot antè annis conditum, nunc vero primùm to the Magnificat, of which one was gung formerly editum. London.-4to, 1729. Dedicated to Alex on each of the days between December 16 and 23. ander Pope, from Albury, com. Oxon., 11 Oct., 1729. S.P.C.K. Curteis, T., rector of Wrotham, Kent. Genethlia:

W. C. B. a Poeni on the Blessed Nativity:- Before 1733 ; probably identical with 'Genethlia, 1727, above. Barnard, John, of Marblebead, in New England.

FRENCH PROVERBIAL PHRASES. Sermon on Christmas Day, 1729.—See next.

(See 10th S. i. 3, 485; ii. 404 ; iii. 203.) Pigot, George, W'. D. M (sic). A Vindication of the Practice of the Antient Christian, As well as

A d'autres, dénicheur de merles.- This saying the Church of England, And other Reformed is used to express want of confidence in the Churches, In the Observation of Christmas-Day; person to whom it is addressed. Its origin In Answer to the Uncharitable Reflections of is wittily explained in an anecdote in one of Thonias de Laune, Mr. Whiston, and Mr. John the Lettres of Edmé Boursault (1638–1701). Barnard of Marblehead: In a Sermon preach'd on the 4th of January, 1729/30. Boston, printed by T. A similar anecdote occurs in L'Art de Fleet, at the Heart and Crown in Cornhill, and désopiler la Rate'(published in 1758), which Sold by Gillam Phillips at the Three Bibles has been put into rime by the Chevalier de and Crown in King-street.-8vo, 35 leaves (on Fontenailles. Here is the rimed version :Deut. xvi. 16), 1731. (Pearson, Williain :) Divine Recreations : eing

Devant messire Jean Chouard, a Collection of Psalms, Hymns, and Canons, in two, Magister et coq du village, three, and four parts : with easy, grave, and Pierrot se vanta par hasard pleasant tunes......part i. For the Christmass D'avoir trouvé sous le feuillage quarter. London.-8vo, 1736. Hymn I. For

Un nid de nierles : “ Par ma foi ! Christmas Day. These following, with several

C'est une fortune pour toi ; others, were anciently called Christmass Carols, Il n'est pas loin d'ici, je gage. because they were composed and frequently sung

-Tenez, voyez-vous ce bocage ? in the Reigo of King Charles the First.

-Oui, je le vois.- Eh bien, l'ormeau qui fait le coin I. A song of joy unto the Lord we sing

Est le séjour du nid que je garde avec soin. And publish forth the favours He hath shewn. Les petits sont-ils drus? -Bientôt, et leur ramage til. Ô thou man ! ( being of an ancient composi- Pour être bien instruit; aussi dès qu'il fut jour, II. A Virgin unspotted the Prophets did tell. Fait déjà babiller les échos d'alentour.”

Il n'en fallut pas davantage, tion, is therefore to be sung swiftor"). Scott, Rev. William, M.A.. late echolar of 'Eton, Le lendemain, plus espiègle qu’un page, and Trin. Coll., Cambr. A Sermon on Christmas.

Messire Jean mit la nichée en cage, Day, almost Fourteen Hundred Years old, of..... Pierrot y vint trop tard, et se douta du tour...... St. Chrysostom, translated. London, - 8vo, 24 Qu'y faire ? " Au premier qui l'occupe leaves, 1774.

Un nid appartient, dit Pierrot, PiAnonymous. A Few Christmas Words. Derby, Et je suis vraiment pris pour dupe John and Charles Mozley.-8vo, 4 leaves (1858). Je le vois, mais n'en disons mot,

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Et ne publions pas que je ne suis qu'un sot.” j'ai imaginé que vous méritiez bien mieux qu'on Un mois après, par aventure,

graissât la vôtre.' En devisant sur la verdure,

At the time when bell-cords were
Devant le traître confident,
Il se vanta, l'amour est imprudent,

common than knockers, they usually terQu'il avait fait une maîtresse

minated with the foot of a deer or other Aux environs. “ Vas-tu la voir souvent?

animal. Later, graisser le marteau was subDit le fin oiseleur, que le cas intéresse.

stituted for graisser la patte, but in the sense - Une fois chaque jour; encor n'est-ce pas tant Que je voudrais.- Est-elle jeune et belle?

of sto tip the porter."

Cf. Racine's Les -Oui, monsieur.-Où demeure-t-elle ?

Plaideurs,' Act I. sc. i. -Oh! palsangué! nous y voilà,

EDWARD LATHAM. Sans doute, et ce n'est pas pour enfiler des perles Que vous me demandez cela ;

Eau bénite de cour (ante, p. 204).-In 'King A d'autres, dénicheur de merles !"

Lear,' III. ii., the Fool says :

• O nuncle, At one time dénicheur de fauvettes or de this rain water out o`door.”

court holy water in a dry house is better thani

M. N. G. moineaux was applied to a chevalier d'industrie, or a person keenly alive to his own interests, and not to be trusted.

WAITS. (See 10th S. ii. 503.) – In 1679 Il ne faut pas mettre tous ses aufs dans Ņathan Harrison, musition, afterwards un panier.—This phrase has, of course, its described as "wait," was admitted a freeman English literal equivalent, but the following of York, “gratis (Surt. Soc., vol. cii. 152, rime by Boursault is a good illustration of its 218). Many minstrels, musicians, and harpers meaning :

are mentioned in the same volume. The late Un homme avait des ceufs, et voulait s'en défaire ;

Robert Davies, town clerk of York, supplied Pour ne pas à la foire arriver des derniers,

notes on the city waits in Marmaduke Quoiqu'il pût en remplir trois ou quatre paniers, Rawdon' (Camd. Soc.), where it is recorded Il mit tout dans un seul, et ne pouvait pis faire. that the waits of Linlithgow, in 1664, had Sa mule, qui suait sous le poids d'un fardeau drums and bagpipes (pp. 136, 137). Fragile comme du verre,

W. C. B. Pour en décharger sa peau A quatre pas de la donna du nez en terre.

CHRISTMAS Pig's - HEAD SUPPER.-It is a Hélas ! s'écria l'homme, à qui son désespoir

long time since I was present at a Christmas Inspira de vains préambules, Que n'ai-je mis mes aufs sur trois ou quatre mules ! pig's-head supper. But such suppers were Je mérite un malheur que je devais prévoir.

common enough at this season when I was a Si le ciel veut me permettre

lad, and in many houses the Christmas pig's De faire encor le métier,

head served at this meal, roasted Je jure de ne plus mettre Tous mes ceufs dans un panier.

generally, but sometimes boiled, and was

looked upon as a great treat. It seems to Graisser la patte.- To use palm-oil, bribe. me that the Christmas pig's head in the According to La Mésangère, this phrase is poorer houses was an imitation of the boar's found in a fabliau of the thirteenth century, head in the greater houses. from which he gives an extract:

Thos. RATCLIFFE. "Une vieille femme avait deux vaches qui la

Worksop. faisaient subsister. Elles entrèrent un jour dans les pâturages du seigneur, et y furent saisies par

BLACK CAT FOLK-LORE.—For a black cat, son prévôt. La bonne femme à l'instant courut au a strange one, to enter a house without an château supplier cet officier de les lui rendre. Il invitation is considered to be a piece of good fit entendre qu'il lui fallait de l'argent; et celle-ci, luck, if the cat is not driven out, but allowed qui n'avait rien à donner, s'en rovint bien désolée: to remain until it goes of its own will. Apy En chemin elle rencontra une de ses voisines, qu'elle kind of black cat brings good luck under consulta sur son malheur. Il faut en passer par ce qu'il demande, lui dit l'autre, et vous résoudre à such conditions, but if the cat has not a lui graisser la patte. La vieille, qui était fort white hair to show, the good luck is stronger. simple, n'y entendit pas finesse ; et prenant le con- This, with variations, is a pretty general seil à la lettre, elle mit dans sa poche un vieux

belief. morceau de lard, et retourna au château. Le seigneur se promenait devant sa porte, les mains

But there is another phase in which the derrière le dos. Elle s'avance doucement sur la pointe appearance of a black cat in a sudden fashion du pied, et lui frotte les mains avec son lard. Il se is a portent of death-the worst of luck. retourne pour lui demander ce qu'elle fait: 'Ah! This, however, necessitates the sudden apmonseigneur, s'écrie-t-elle on se jetant à genoux, le prévôt a saisi mes deux vaches dans votre pré, et pearance of the black cat out of doors. It Pop m'a dit que si je voulais les ravoir, il fallait lui is the women folk who note and speak of graisser la patte. Jo venais pour cela ; mais comme such things as a rule, and so far it does not je vous ai vu à la porte, et que vous êtes son maître seem that men are troubled in this way,






A young unmarried woman told me a short taste, and even a little heady into the bargain. time ago that, whenever she saw a black cat There was tea also as a drinking, but not in cross her path a few feet before her, she much favour, for the worker in the open heard in a short time of the death or serious liked something “rough on th' tongue," as illness of a close friend. When the cat came he would put it, and nothing he could get to her and rubbed against her dress, the could be too strong for his taste. Some called death of a member of her family followed it “ bite and sup time"—that is, the forenoon She gave me two instances of the latter, and pause; but most of them favoured "drinkmentioned several instances of the former. ings” and “ drinking time." She has a particular aversion to a black cat,

Thos. RATCLIFFE. and had this aversion even before she noted Worksop. trouble coming after such visitations. Other cats she likes.


“JACK TAR, HAVE Worksop.

NEWS ?”—I give the first few lines of an old

song I heard in my childhood, and somehow AN IRISH WATCHMAN."-In an old album it is often very present with me. It used to of nearly eighty, years ago is a page thus be sung by an old nurse :headed. There is a quaint picture in water Jack Tar, have you heard of the news? colours of the watchman, with staff and

'Tis peace by land and by sea ; dantern, and four lines entitled :

Great guns are no more to be used,

They are all disbanded (?) away.
To-night is the day, I say it with sorrow,

Tololderololderol, That we were all to have been burnt up to-morrow,

Fololderololderoladdie. Therefore take care of fire and candle light,

“Disbanded” the old woman sang it. 'Tis a fine frosty morning, and so good-night.

JOHN J. SMYTH. M. A. J. Rathcoursey, co. Cork.

Thos. RATCLIFFE. THE BOAR's HEAD. - It may be worth

SIR JAMES PENNETHORNE AND 'THE SATURnoting that at St. Cuthbert's College,

DAY REVIEW. (See ante, p. 402.)— The article Worksop, on the evening of 30 November on the "Rebuilding of the Public Offices' in this year, the boar's head was conducted

The Saturday Review of 17 November, 1855, from the kitchen to the supper-room with was probably written by Mr. Beresford Hope, a procession with lanterns and torches. The an enthusiastic advocate of the Gothic style college baker, dressed in the and

for public buildings-indeed, for buildings of

apron cap of his profession, carried the head on high. to live to see a Gothic theatre, and must have

kind. He once declared that he hoped The chaplain, the Rov. B. R. Hibbert, sang been disappointed at the result of his advice the carol Caput apri defero, Reddens laudes in the designs for the Gaiety Theatre, Domino."

Thos. RATCLIFFE. Worksop.

London, and the Shakespere Theatre at

Stratford-on-Avon. “DRINKINGS": "DRINKING TIME.”—It is Mr. Beresford Hope did scant justice to many years since I heard the terms "drink. Sir James Pennethorne (not Pennington, as ings” and “

drinking time," and I wonder at p. 402), the surveyor to the Office of whether they are still in use, now that the Works, who was an accomplished architect, working conditions of farm and other and not merely a surveyor, as suggested in labourers are so altered from what they were the article. He was brought up in the office upwards of fifty years ago. In the fields, of his uncle, John Nash, under whom and by the roadside, and in quarry work of every Augustus Pugin he received his professional kind there were set terns for taking “drink- education, which was supplemented by an ipgs.” The “ 'leven o'clock” was the recog. extensive tour in France and Italy during nized "drinking time" in the forenoon, and the years 1824-6. five o'clock" in the past noon. The leader The article enumerates some of Penneof a gang of men, looking upwards where the thorne's works, including the offices for the eun was or ought to be, said, " 'Leven o'clock, Duchy of Cornwall, Buckingham Gate, and 'tis drinking time,” or “Let's hev ar drink the west wing of Somerset House, fronting ings"; and supping kegs and stone bottles on Lancaster Place, but omits to mention the were drawn from cool recesses, and, with or Museum of Economic Geology in Piccadilly, without tots, each man had his 'lowance his finest work at that time, and by many in ale, small beer, or bang-up"—the last a considered to be not surpassed by his later compound from various herbs, worked with work for the University of London, Burlingbarm, or “bang-up barm," stingy to the ton Gardens (1866–70), now occupied by the

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