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We have to announce a new edition of this Dictionary. It first appeared at the end of 87, and was quickly disposed of. A larger (and corrected) issue came out in the spring of 1889, and is now out of print. The Third, published on July 14, contains a large accession of important matter, in the way of celebrated historical and literary sayings and mots, much wanted to bring the Dictionary to a more complete form, and now appearing in its pages for the first time. On the other hand, the pruning knife has been freely used, and the excisions are numerous. A multitude of trivial and superfluous items have thus been cast away wholesale, leaving only those citations which were worthy of a place in a standard work of reference. As a result, the actual number of quotations is less, although it is hoped that the improvement in quality will more than compensate for the loss in quantity. The book has, in short, been not only revised, but rewritten throughout, and is not so much a new edition as a new work. It will be seen also that the quotations are much more racontés" than before, and that where any history, story, or allusion attaches to any particular saying, the opportunity for telling the tale has not been thrown away. In this way what is primarily taken up as a book of reference, may perhaps be retained in the hand as a piece of pleasant reading, that is not devoid at times of the elements of humour and amusement. One other feature of the volume, and perhaps its most valuable one, deserves to be noticed. The previous editions professed to give not only the quotation, but its reference; and, although performance fell very far short of promise, it was at that time the only dictionary of the kind published in this country that had been compiled with that definite aim in view. In the present case no citation-with the exception of such unaffiliated things as proverbs, maxims, and mottoes-has been admitted without its author and passage, or the "chapter and verse in which it may be found, or on which it is founded. In order, however, not to lose altogether, for want of identification, a number of otherwise deserving sayings, an appendix of Adespota is supplied, consisting of quotations which either the editor has failed to trace to their source, or the paternity of which has not been satisfactorily proved. There are four indexes-Authors and authorities, Subject index, Quotation index, and index of Greek passages. Its deficiencies notwithstanding, Classical and Foreign Quotations' has so far remained without a rival as a polyglot manual of the world's famous sayings in one pair of covers and of moderate dimensions, and its greatly improved qualities should confirm it still more firmly in public use and estimation.
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NOTES:-John Longley, 61-Nouns and Verbs Differently Pronounced, 64-Looping the Loop: Flying or Centrifugal Railway: Whirl of Death, 65-The Amir of Afghanistan's Title" Rising of the lights"- Olorenshaw FamilyJacobite Rebels-John Julius Angerstein, 66-Garibaldi -Dean Stanley's Poem 'The Gipsies'-Paul Jones's Birth place-"Mr.," 67.
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Notices to Correspondents.
JOHN LONGLEY, 1749-1822.
WHEN Bennet Langton was staying at Rochester, in command of a company of the Lincolnshire militia, he was visited by Dr. Johnson, who then made the acquaintance of Longley, a gentleman of considerable learning." The doctor was delighted with his new friend. He said :—
"My heart warms towards hin. I was surprised to find in him such a nice acquaintance with the metre in the learned languages; though I was somewhat mortified to find that I had it not so much to myself as I should have thought."-Boswell,
sub anno 1780.
Longley explains the incident in his manuscript autobiography, a copy of which has been lent to me by Lady Longley, the widow of his grandson Sir Henry Longley, and from it and other sources I have written the following narrative. The autobiography, with the exception of some of the private passages, should be printed in full. It would attract the residents at Rochester who take pride in the past history of their city, those interested in education in Dissenting circles as well as at Eton and Cambridge, and the student of the politics of that time. The words in this memoir between quotation marks are taken from it.
John Longley was born at Chatham on 27 October, 1749 (O.S.), 7 November (N.S.). It was the constant tradition in the family that they were descended from the ancient race of Langley which owned the estate of Knowlton, near Canterbury, "and their arms were assumed accordingly." His great-grandfather resided at Sandhurst in the weald of Kent; his grandfather, John Longley, bought a house at Chatham, where my father afterwards resided and in which I was born, settled himself in business as a linendraper, and married a daughter of Capt. Edward They were Dissenters, "of the Moorcock. class of Independent Baptists," attending the meeting-house in Heavisides Lane.
Longley's father, Joseph Longley, was the youngest son, and there were nine other children. The eldest brother, John, died a bachelor. "After their father's death they succeeded to his house and business at Chatham, living together until the marriage" of Joseph, who was born on 16 July, 1705, and died at Rochester in August, 1785. Joseph's wife was Mary, second daughter of John Gouldsmith, an apothecary at Chatham, who had married [Anne] Moorcock, sister to the mother of my father; thus my parents were first cousins." She was the widow of a surgeon called Richard Cosens, who wasted her little fortune. The marriage of Joseph Longley and Mary Cosens was celebrated in Rochester Cathedral on 7 December, 1747. She died on 1 September, 1779, aged sixty-seven, and was buried in the cathedral, on the right-hand side of the steps going up from the nave to the choir," on 7 September. A poetical inscription by her son on the wall of the south cross aisle commemorates her name (Rochester Cath. Registers,' ed. T. Shindler, pp. 9, 38, 57). The subject of our
was the only child they ever had."
After some little instruction in a girls' school and in private tuition this child, John Longley, was taken to a school at Newington Green, then a rural suburb, " on a fine afternoon in the month of August, 1756, when I wanted two months of the age of seven. The school was kept by James Burgh (see the D.N.B.'), a man of talents and enlightened views, and there the boy remained "till the summer of 1764." Of his schoolfellows he was
"most intimate with a Carolina boy named Roger Smith, who afterwards distinguished himself in that province as a promoter of the revolution; with Henry Ibbetson, a boy of the mildest temper and most amiable manner, an uncle of the present Sir Henry, whom I met after an interval of near fifty years at Hampstead, and who died there shortly after; with William Wansey, of Warminster [query
In his fifteenth year, in September, 1764, "my father and mother carried me to Eton and placed me under Dr. Barnard, the then head master. Fortunately for me they were acquainted with Jacob Bryant, who lived at Cypenham, within two miles of it......Mr. Bryant gave me for my tutor Mr. Roberts, afterwards doctor, fellow and Provost of Eton."
offered, if he would take his degree, to obtain for him a fellowship.
Longley entered as a student at Lincoln's Inn on 10 Sept., 1764, and came to London in October, 1769, to study the law. At first he was placed in the house of Oliver Farrer, attorney, in Chancery Lane, "with whom he was to lodge and board as well as work." This proved unsatisfactory, and at the end of a year he went into chambers at 4, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn. He was called to the bar on 2 July, 1772. For a short time he went the complete Home Circuit, but in 1774 he contracted his attendance to the Kentish assizes and sessions." He continued that custom for some years until the younger men got before him. "I then withdrew from practice in the courts."
He was at first in the house of Dame Bagwell, close to Barnes pool bridge." His parents gave up the business a year after, when he 66 removed to Dame Graham's at the south At Bath, in September, 1772, Longley made end of the long walk......kept by two Scotch the acquaintance of a Miss Bedingfield, of ladies, sisters" of Graham, the remove master. Norfolk, and fell in love with her, but it His chief friend at Eton was did not end in marriage. In the following the younger Sargent. "The elder Sargent I knew little January he renewed at Rochester his acof at Eton, intimate as I was with him after-quaintance with Elizabeth, daughter of wards." They were members of the family Thomas Bond, a timber merchant in London, which at a later date included the ladies who and became engaged to her. After some became Mrs. Manning, the two Mrs. Wilber- delay caused by the error of an attorney, forces, and Mrs. Ryder. Many other Eton who had drawn up the settlements with boys are mentioned in the autobiography. not less than a dozen capital blunders in Both the Sargents went to St. John's Col- them," they were married at Battersea lege, Cambridge, and Longley was entered Church on 23 Sept., 1773. She had a fortune there as a fellow-commoner on 24 June, 1767 of 8,000l., and her father agreed to pay 50%. ('Admissions to St. John's,' part iii., ed. R. F. per annum during his life. Scott, pp. 176, 719), "under the tuition of Dr. Frampton, a man of good address and pleasant manners, but fonder of sporting and Newmarket than of books and his college. The office of lecturing his pupils devolved on his deputies Richard Raikes and Mr. (now Dr.) Pearce, who were able men and well qualified for the purpose." While an undergraduate Longley went with his friend Irby, son of Lord Boston, to hear the Douglas case. "Lord Mansfield, in a speech replete with elegant diction, legal knowledge, and sound sense, supported the claimant's legitimacy."
In February, 1774, the couple settled in a small but pleasant house in St. Margaret's, Rochester, and in 1777 Longley purchased the adjoining house, " forming it into apartments for the children.". Even this proved insufficient for his growing family, and in 1784 he-as he subsequently acknowledged, very injudiciously-purchased Satis House, on Bully Hill, in the parish of St. Nicholas, Rochester. This had been the residence of Richard Watts, founder of the hospital, who in it entertained Queen Elizabeth in 1573. Two years, during which Longley altered and enlarged the old house at a cost of 2,000l., passed before he could occupy it.
Sargent senior took his degree at Cambridge in 1769, and as his brother was not anxious Longley was unanimously elected to the for university honours, it was determined Recordership of Rochester in 1784. It was. they should quit it together.' Longley did in July, 1783, that the conversation recorded not wish to stay behind them, especially as in Boswell took place, and I quote the pashe found that the subscription to the Thirty-sage, with a preamble that was not given Nine Articles would not allow him to take by my late friend Dr. Birkbeck Hill in his. a degree. With the subscription "I could edition of Boswell :— not conscientiously comply, being convinced that several of the doctrines in them, and particularly that of the Trinity, were unscriptural." He left with his friends, disappointing Dr. Powell, the master, who
"Some time before I left St. Margaret's 1 became acquainted with Mr. Bennet Langton, the friend of Dr. Johnson. The Lincolnshire militia was then in Chatham barracks, in which he had a company, and he acted besides as an assistant engineer. He resided at the Vicarage, having brought down.
thither Lady Rothes and his large family. We saw much of them, and were highly gratified by their society. Dr. Johnson and General Paoli came down to visit Mr. Langton, and I was asked to meet them, when the conversation took place mentioned by Boswell, in which Johnson gave me more credit for knowledge of the Greek metres than I deserved. There was some question about anapastics, concerning which I happened to remember what Foster used to tell us at Eton, that the whole series to the Basis Anapastica was considered but as one verse, however divided in the printing, and consequently the syllables at the end of each line were not Common, as in other metres. This observation was new to Johnson and struck him. Had he examined me further, I fear he would have found me ignorant. Langton was a very good Greek scholar, much superior to Johnson, to whom nevertheless he paid profound deference, sometimes indeed I thought more than he deserved.
"I remember Lady Rothes spoke of the advantage children now derived from the little books pub. lished purposely for their instruction. Johnson controverted it, asserting that at an early age it was better to gratify curiosity with wonders, than to attempt planting truth before the mind was prepared to receive it, and that therefore Jack the Giant-Killer, Parismus and Parismenus, and the Seven Champions of Christendom, were fitter for them than Mrs. Barbauld or Mrs. Trimmer. He did not, however, convert his audience, for neither Lady Rothes nor my wife changed their mode of instruction in consequence.'
Longley, in August, 1786, on a visit with his family to Ramsgate, narrowly escaped death through being dashed by the sea with great violence against a bathing-machine. With some friends he paid a visit of four days to Calais and Boulogne, probably the sole occasion on which he was out of England. But in the summer of 1794 he made a tour, with his own carriage and horses, through Hampshire and the Isle of Wight.
Longley was a Whig in politics. To the American war he was warmly opposed. He was a keen advocate for reform in Parliament, and he approved of Pitt's commercial treaty with France. When John Reeves (see 'D.N.B.') started his notorious association for preserving liberty and property against Levellers and Republicans, a branch was founded at Rochester, and Longley was chosen chairman. A committee was formed for the purpose of distributing useful publications, its members being the Dean, the Archdeacon, and the chairman of the branch; but Longley found that the Dean was bent on distributing a tract entitled 'Thomas Bull: Letter to his Brother John,' which was written by Jones of Nayland. This abused the French, declaring their government unlawful, because God never made an anointed republic," and vilified the English Dissenters, "accusing them of having occasioned the American
war." Longley's protests against its issue were in vain. It was insinuated that he must have been "influenced by a Jacobinical partiality to the French," and although he refrained from public action, "the Dean and clergy refused to dine with me as usual at the next audit, and the Dampier family and ours no longer visited." Folly very like this was conspicuous in a more recent war. In 1796 he contested, on purity principles, the representation of the city of Rochester, but he was at the bottom of the poll.
From the statements in the autobiography about his resources, it is evident that Longley was not a good manager of his private affairs,. and it became necessary for him to economize by leaving Rochester. At Christmas,. 1799, he took possession of a farm called Angley, and situated within a mile of Cranbrook, which he had purchased. Here he laid out hop-grounds, the result of a sale for 4007. of the produce of under three acres, and "in the six years during which I was a planter there was but one in which I lost, and I was in some a considerable gainer."
On leaving Satis House, which he afterwards sold, he resigned the Recordership. (23 July, 1803) and the post of assistant in the Bridge Trust, which he had held for near thirty years. He lived at Angley for about three years, when he sold it for 11,000%. to Sir Walter James, and removed to a very pleasant house at Hampstead, at the ex-tremity of the town, very near the Heath," commanding an extensive view.
In 1807, through the interest of Lord Darnley, a seat at the Thames police-court was given to him by Earl Spencer, the Home Secretary in the Administration of 1806-7. The net salary was at first 450l., and then 540l. per annum, and his colleagues wereJohn Harriott (see 'D.N.B.') and Mr. Kinnaird. Living at Hampstead, besides being excessive for his income, was inconvenient for his official duties. On 9 September, 1810, he "took a small house in Howland Street, Fitzroy Square." Harriott died on 2 February,. 1817, and Longley succeeded as resident magistrate, "the saving in house rent being near 2007. per annum." In this position he remained until his death on 5 April, 1822. A beautiful miniature of him by John Smart now belongs to Lady Longley.
Longley's wife was born on 25 March, 1754,. and died at Putney on 24 or 25 September, 1845 (Gent. Mag., 1822, i. 475; 1845, ii. 544). George Richmond, R.A., painted her portrait,. which now belongs to Lady Longley. They had seventeen children. The eldest lived but twenty-four hours; John, Mary, and Clara