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died as infants; Joseph, a lieutenant of En- in the Verdict.' This was reissued in The gineers, was killed at Tarifa, in Spain, on the Pamphleteer, No. X., May, 1815, and was last day of 1811, and a tablet to his memory pirated at Edinburgh

" when the Bill for was placed in the church at Gibraltar ; the introduction of the trial by jury in civil George, the youngest son, in the ac- cases in Scotland was before Parliament, and countant's office in the East India House, great efforts were made to get rid of the died on 2 February, 1815, aged nineteen, and unanimity.” The last three pamphlets bear was buried in St. Pancras churchyard. The his name.

W. P. COURTNEY. other children were Frances, Mrs. Hall, d. 5 December, 1845, aged sixty-seven ; Eliza

NOUNS AND VERBS DIFFERENTLY beth, Mrs. de Berniere, d. January, 1859,

PRONOUNCED. aged seventy-nine ; Charlotte, Mrs. Jeffery, d. March, 1868, aged eighty-seven ; Sophia, the verb to accent by a difference of stress ; I

We distinguish between the sb. accent and Mrs. Davenport, d. 7 May, 1860, aged seventyeight; Anna Maria, Mrs. Lloyd, d. 26 Feb propose to discuss this on a future occasion. ruary, 1852, aged sixty-eight; William, Fellow and the verb to use by employing a voiceless

We also distinguish between the sb. use of St. John's Coll., Camb., and Chancery barrister, d. 1 March, 1846, aged sixty; John, latter. I observe the following note in

s in the former case and a voiced 2 in the , major Royal Artillery, d. Governor of the Latham's. Grammar,' ch. xviii. :Isle of Dominica, June, 1839, aged fiftythree ; Charles Thomas, Archbishop of Can

“Verbs formed from nouns by changing a final

sharp consonant into its corresponding flat one; as terbury, d. 27 October, 1868, aged seventy- use, sb. to use, vb. ; breath, to breathe ; cloth, to four; Catherine, d. February, 1870; Martha, clothe." d. October, 1872; Rosamond, Mrs. Lynn No explanation is offered ; and the true Smart, d. March, 1841, aged forty-nine. facts are concealed. There is no such thing Longley was the author of (1) 'America, as this alleged “changing," but only a

) an Ode' (anon.), 1776, which I identify with natural difference at a most remote period. America, an Ode to the People of England,' The difference has existed throughout the Lond., Almon, 1776, quarto, noticed in the whole period of literary English. A little Monthly Review, July, 1776, p. 72. (2) • De- reflection will show that the spoken forms of fence of Archdeacon Law in_ Reply to a the sb. and the vb. were always distinct from Kentish Curate' (i.e., Thomas Francklin, see the first. The sb. use is the Norman us (with 'D.N.B.'), who animadverted on Law's visi- the s sound) from Lat. usum, accus. tation charge (anon.), 1780. (3) 'An Essay was voiceless because it was final; and the towards forming a More Complete Represen, addition of e in the written E. form did not tation of the Commons of Great Britain,' alter its sound. But the Norman verb was 1795. It was dedicated to William Smith (of user, and the Middle English verb was usen, Norwich), the Hon. Thomas Erskine, and the both being dissyllabic. Here the s was necesother inembers of the Society of the Friends sarily, pronounced as a voiced z, because it of the People, and in it he exposed the was intervocalic, having a vowel after it as delusions under which the American war well as before it; and this is the whole of had been popular for a time and the exag. the secret. Even when the n of the infinitive gerations of Ministers on the danger from mood was lost, and the infinitive thus became events in France. Many of the provisions monosyllabic, there remained several forms which he advocated (e.g., vote by ballot and such as useth, using, uses, usëd (dissyllabic), the trial of contested elections by a separate in which the s was still a z; and all that was legal body) have been adopted"; but more needed to distinguish the verb from the sb. (such as biennial elections, all elections on one was to go on as before. Very striking in this fixed day, and but one vote to be allowed to connexion is the employment of uses as a pl. each citizen) are still unaccomplished. The sb., because here the pronunciation of the essay was the production of a Whig and singular was faithfully retained ; whilst he something more. On p. 13 he acknowledges uses (with 2) is verbal. But the process was his obligations to the teaching of Burgh. perfectly natural, and quite inevitable, (4) 'The Case of the Hop Planters under the wherever distinctness was at all desired. Additional Duty of 1802' (Rochester, 1803). The same explanation applies to all similar He contended that the tax was "contrary to cases. Thus breath has the voiceless th, the soundest principles of political economy. because it is final. But in the M.E. brethen, This tract is not in the Library of the British to breathe, the th was intervocalic, as it still Museum. (5) Observations on the Trial by remains in the pres. participle breathing and Jury, particularly on the Unanimity required in the pp. breath-ed in archaic pronunciation.

The s


No nightly trance or breath-ed spell

the violent shocks undergone in her perInspires the pale-eyed priest from the prophetic cell. formances (see Daily Telegraph and Daily

It will now be readily understood that the News of 17 April). 'The somersault appears natural distinction between such sbs. and to have been substituted for the circular their related verbs has been preserved from track. former times for the sake of keeping them Looping the Loop” was no new thing: apart. And it follows that, wherever such when it was recently exhibited in London. distinction exists, it is always the sb. that I have an advertisement of has the voiceless consonant, and never the “The Flying Railway now exhibiting at the verb. Other examples are : advice, advise ; Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly. The Railway consists device, devise ; bath, bathe ; sheath, sheathe; of two Inclined Planes, and a Circle of between wreath, wreathe ; leath, loathe ; sooth, 40 or [sic] 50 feet in circunference, rising 14 feet soothe; troth, betroth (pron. betrothe); mouth, Line 150 feet in length. The Carriage descends the

perpendicular from the floor, making the whole mouthe. So, also, loss, lose; house, house Line, passes the Circle, and ascends the other in(pron. houz); abuse, excuse ; réfuse, refúse ; clined Plane, travelling at the rate of 100 Miles per pouse, mouse (to catch mice); thief, thieve; Hour. Large Iron Weights, and Buckets of Water, belief, believe; wife, wive; safe, save ; relief, glide majestically down the Plane, pass the Circle, relieve; calf, calve ; half, halve ; strife, strive and although completely turned upside down, land grief, grieve;, proof, prove.

without a drop being spilt. A Lady or Gentleman

And compare will be continually in attendance, and will descend chief with achieve.

the Line, make the Grand Tour of the Splendid For a like reason we have loaves as the Circle Head Downmost. Which is the most Fearful, plural of loaf, from the A.-S. hlāfas, pl. of Daring, and Astonishing Feat ever accomplished,” hlāf. An interesting example is the adj. &c. Leavy, derived from leaf. Shakespeare knew At the top of the advertisement is a picture that leavy formed a perfect rime with heavy; of the railway, with one carriage at the top both words were then pronounced with the of the circle upside down, and another just ça as in great. But Pope altered the reading finishing the journey. The date written by leauy (1623) to leafy, as Mr. Aldis Wright some one at the foot is 1850. duly notes ; see ‘Much Ado,' II. iii. 75. That A centrifugal railway must have been is what comes of meddling.

shown before this, as one is referred to in WALTER W. SKEAT. "The Comic Album: a Book for Every Table,'

London, Wm. S. Orr & Co., Amen Corner, LOOPING THE LOOP: FLYING OR CENTRI- tion T (the book is not paged). The article

Paternoster Row, 1843, sixth page of SecFUGAL RAILWAY: WHIRL OF DEATH.

begins as follows: Not very long ago a performance called 'Looping the Loop" was to be seen in Lon- tion of man's ingenuity to turn things upside down,

"The Centrifugal Railway Is a practical illustradon (? date and place). A man on a cycle and while he laughs at its wonderful effects, he is went down a steep track, up and down a constrained to acknowledge the centre of-gravity! circle, and finished on a steep incline. At A person making a revolution is like a man on the the top of the circle the man and the cycle plane at the rate of one hundred miles an hour.”

brink of bankruptcy, who rushes down the inclined were, of course, upside down.

On 15 April in Paris, at the Casino de It ends as follows :-
Paris, Mlle. Marcelle Randall died after

“Verily, there are more centrifugal railways in
going through a performance called "The the moral than in the material world."
Whirl of Death.' She had repeated the The name of the author is not given.
performance successfully during several

Some of the articles in the ‘Album'are by weeks. She used to start in a small 9 h.-P. Laman Blanchard, Alfred Crowquill, Gilbert motor car, in which she was strapped, from A. A'Beckett, and the author of 'The Comic the top of a track inclined nearly at 45 de- Latin Grammar.' grees. The track just before reaching the According to the advertisement referred to stage turned slightly upwards, then stopped above, another of "The Greatest Wonders of short. When the car reached the bottom of the Age” (heading) was the track a powerful spring was let loose, “The Patent Signal Telegraph ; or, Writing projecting the vehicle upwards and forwards Machine. By this Apparatus a letter may be in such a way that the car, with the girl written in London and copied in Liverpool and strapped in it, turned a complete somersault thus rendering time and distance no longer obstacles

all intermediate places at the same instant of time; in the air, then fell down on a padded track to communication.” further along the stage, by, which it ran to

ROBERT PIERPOINT. the level. Mlle. Randall's death was due to

(In illustration of “Looping the Loop” at the chronic heart disease, directly hastened by Aquarium MR. ALECK ABRAHA MS quoted at gel S

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X. 366 (November, 1902) Old Humphrey's account in and historical use of this phrase, treat it as 1843 of the Centrifugal Railway. At gth $. xi. 337 obsolete ; but, like many old English expresMR. ABRAHAMS further quoted the description of sions, it survives in the United States. In the railway given in a handbill in the Granger Collection at the Guildhall, and referred to an Miss Alice Hegan Rice's wonderfully sucadvertisement in The Times of 8 July, 1842, an. cessful Kentucky story 'Mrs. Wiggs of the nouncing the opening of the Centrifugal Railway Cabbage Patch,' first printed in England in at the exhibition in Great Windmill Street. The 1902, the resourceful heroine, as she critically We ourselves witnessed the Centrifugal Railway tell you what's the matter with him: his

Patent Signal Telegraph.” was also shown in 1842, surveys the horse in a fit, exclaims : "I!!! in action about the period named, 1842-3.]

lights is riz." And she proceeds to administer

as medicine what appeared to be a large THE AMIR OF AFGHANISTAN'S TITLE. A marble,” and which she explains to be a short time ago an Irish member of Parlia, camomile pill, which strikingly recalls the ment, of inquiring mind and philological old-fashioned remedies for this complaint, tendencies, asked the Secretary of State for described at the last reference by MR. ASTLEY. India whether he was aware that the Amir

ALFRED F. ROBBINS. had been erroneously described as Siraj-ul

[MR. ASTLEY treated the expression as current.) millat-wa-ud-din in a Parliamentary Paper; whether he should have been set out as

OLORENSHAW FAMILY.-I shall be glad to Siraju - 'Imillat wa'd - din; and whether he correspond with any one who is collecting was aware that the name Habibulla is a con. particulars of this family. I have a few traction for Habibu Allah. Now, although notes, which I am desirous of augmenting. any member of the House of Commons is

JOHN T. PAGE. prepared to assume the responsibilities of an

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. empire at a day's notice, our Constitution JACOBITE REBELS.- In the British Museum does not provide that he should master the is a List of Persons engaged in the Rebelintricacies of an Oriental language in the lion in Scotland, showing their Places of same brief space of time, and the Secretary Abode, their Present Place of Residence, of State, being unversed in the tongues, was 1764.' 'The reference is Add. MS. 19,796. compelled to have recourse to a “high In my own MSS. I have lists of the authority," who, in guarded language, in political prisoners transported in 1716 to formed him that the transliteration of Virginia, Jamaica, Maryland, South Carothe Amir's title indicated by the hon. lina, Antigua, and St. Christopher's. The member might be considered more correct, total number of them is 623. My collections as a matter of scholarship, than that adopted show that in 1747 a still larger number of by the Government of India, but that the rebels were sent to the Leeward Islands, transliteration of the Amir's name indicated Jamaica, Maryland, and Barbadoes. by the hon. member was less correct than

I have no doubt that many Americans at that adopted by the Government of India. the present day, if they knew that their It will be observed that the “high authority” emigrant ancestors had been Jacobitos, would cautiously refrained from going, beyond the be proud of the fact. comparative degree. Had he wished to say

GERALD FOTHERGILL. what was quite correct," he would have

11, Brussels Road, New Wandsworth. informed the Secretary of State that, as a

JOHN JULIUS ANGERSTEIN.--The D.N.B.' matter of scholarship, the Amir's title was Sirāju-'l-millati wa.'d-dīni, and that in collo (i. 416) says of this worthy that he was quial Arabic it was Sirāju-'l-milla wa-'d-din, born in 1735, was of Russian extraction, and the title signifying Lamp of Religion and at the age of fifteen came first to England. the Faith. Our ancestors of the days of Sir Some account of his birth and parentage will Roger Dowler would doubtless have called be found in the following paragraph, copied his Majesty (until recently his Highness) Lady's Magazine for January, 1836, "partly

from a biography of Catherine II. in The Sir Roger Miller Deane. The name of the translated from the French of the Duchess Amir

is, of course, Habību-llah, which means the Beloved of Allah. It is satisfactory to

d'Abrantes know that no further action will be taken in she (the Empress Elizabeth] was the mother of

“Such was the degeneracy in those days that this important matter.


several illegitimate children, who were taken

privately from the palace. One of these, the son of “ RISING OF THE LIGHTS.” (See gth S. vi. resident at St. Petersburgh, was noted in England

à very handsome Englishman, a Russia merchant, 308, 415, 516.) – The contributors who, at for his great munificence and noble person, and as these references, fully explain the meaning la princely patron of the fine arts. "His name will

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be long remembered as the founder of a gallery of born at Arbigland, Kirkcudbright, 6 July, paintings. The story goes that, when a babe, this 1747. gentleman was let down in a basket from a window in the Empress's palace at St. Petersburgh, and

Messrs. Dean & Son, of Fleet Street, pubendowed, by his iniperial mother, with a fortune lished about thirty years ago, in their of 100,000 roubles of gold. This fortune was well “Deeds of Daring Library," a life of Paul improved by his father, who brought the princely Jones. I have urged upon the firm to reboy up as a merchant; and when of age, he made publish this book; but it is “out of print,". in this country such a prudent and benevolent use and, possibly, they bave not an "original” of his vast means, that his name will be placed in

" from. our annals as the rival, in good deeds, of our copy to “re-comp: This biography Greshams and Herriots [sic]. He died full of years is appreciative, if a trifle severe. I underand honours, in England, in 1813. His daughter, stand that (according to the papers) the the beautiful Julia A- married a Russian identity" of Paul Jones's bones is gravely prince; and his son follows the steps of his father doubted "shall these dry bones live ?." I in England."

do not see why we should disinter - and 1813 is a misprint for 1823, in which year, exhibit-the remains of great men or women, on 22 January, Angerstein died at Wood as we did in the case of Rameses II. Why lands, his villa at Blackheath, having retired not let them rest in peace? from business twelve years previously.


39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. GARIBALDI: ORIGIN OF THE NAME.-The [Arbigland is in Kirkbean parish, so that there Pall Mall Gazette, in a recent article on D.N.B. and Blackie's Popular Encyclopædia.

is no contradiction between the statements in the Mazzini and Garibaldi, remarked :

Bartholomew's "Gazetteer of the British Isles' "In their very physical characteristics there was mentions under “Arbigland” that Paul Jones was the most marked difference between the two great born there, and under "Kirkbean" that he was a

Garibaldi, reddish-haired, clear blue-eyed, native of the parish.] sedate in his manners, had nothing of the typical Italian. His very nane, meaning, bold in war,'

“MR.'_ Under The Office Window' in showed his non-Italian, Germanic descent. Dukes The Daily Chronicle of the 17th inst., a in Bavaria once bore the name of Garibald. In correspondent raises the question, "When England, even, there is, to this day, a Garboldisham does a Mri' cease to be a Mr,'?” I think

the Home or Settlement of some Angle or Suxon the rule of T'he Athenæun is a good one, Chieftain." Garboldisham is a village in South Norfolk, which confines the prefix to living people.

A N. Q. 8} miles east of Thetford, with a population of 640 persons. Garibaldi was of Genovese or Ligurian

Queries. descent, or possibly a Fleming. Mark Antony Garibaldo was a Flemish painter of We must request correspondents desiring in. some celebrity, 1620-90. JOHN HEBB.

formation on family matters of only private interest

to affix their nanies and addresses to their queries, DEAN STANLEY'S POEM 'THE GIPSIES.'

in order that answers may be sent to them direct. I possess two quite separate early editions of this Newdigato Prize poem,

“recited in the

LIVERPOOL PRINTED Books : DR. Hoon.Theatre, Oxford, June 7, 1837." They are Can any of your Liverpool or other readers both printed by J. Vincent, of Oxford. The throw light on the authorship of two books first edition is dated 1837 ; the second, printed at Liverpool" by James Smith for 1842. The second is not merely a reprint, the author" in 1822, but quite distinct. The first contains eighteen

The first is entitled “Creation : a Poem,' by

The pages and a little over ; the second, fifteen the author of Primum Mobile, &c. pages. They both belonged to the collection preface is dated August, 1822, and states, of the late Edward Hawkins, F.S.A., of the "A few copies only of the following Poem British Museum.

are printed for the author's private use and T. CANN HUGHES, M.A., F.S.A. circulation." What was the size of the Lancaster.

edition ? The poem is in two sections,

Celestial' (books i., ii., and iii.) and TerPAUL JONES'S BIRTHPLACE. (See 10th S. restrial' (books iv., v., and vi.). It contains iii. 415.)—I have what I believe to be a 240 pages, and bears evidence that the author tolerably correct biography of John Paul was acquainted with Killarney and Bantry Jones in Blackie's 'Popular Encyclopædia,' Bay. My copy is bound in boards, with a 1837, wherein it is

stated that Paul paper label, Creation, a Poem,' on the back. Jones (as he preferred to call himself) was The author implies that, if called for, another

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edition might "probably undergo material SIR JOHN HARRISON, OF BALLS PARK, correction." Did this happen?

HERTS.—Is any portrait known of Sir John The second volume is called Primum Harrison or of his first wife Margaret FanMobile, or, Solar Repulsion ; being a Query shawe, mother of Lady Anne Fanshawe of concerning the Primary Cause of Motion in the Memoirs'? H. C. FANSHAWE. the Solar System as connected with Gravity. 107, Jermyn Street. The preface is dated September, 1822, and again says, "A few copies of the following MR. GORDON GOODWIN's notice of this family

GLEN FAMILY.-I was much interested in essay are printed for private circulation.

James Glen, the colonial It is suggested that a fuller work shail (10th S. iii. 485). appear if this be successful.

governor, is said to have had a sister Elizabeth Is anything known of the other works of who married James Gordon, the laird of Ellon, the author implied in the “* &c." of the Aberdeenshire (no relation whatever to the Creation'? The Primum Mobile has an present laird of the same name). This James illustration of the comet of 1680 as a frontis. was either the brother or the father of Mary piece, and a considerable number of diagrams of Blanerne, and thus became the


Gordon, who married in 1771 James Balfour, pasted on, and not printed with the pages. Minister's ancestor. Were these Ellon GorThe author's father was evidently himself an author, as on p. 27 he refers to some manu

dons any relation to Alexander Gordon, the script writings of his parent. On p.71 he antiquary mentioned by MR. GOODWIN / and writes :-

what was the precise connexion between

James Glen and the Ellon Gordons ? "In an essay on Physiology recently published

J. M. BULLOCH. by Dr. Hood of Liverpool, in which some ingenious discoveries, highly applicable to medical practice,

118, Pall Mall. have been introduced, this doctrine has received a more forcible illustration than we are capable of


wrote the following lines ?Who was Dr. Hood? and what were his

With a heart of furious fancies "ingenious discoveries "?

Whereof I am commander,

With a burning spear, and a horse of air,

To the wilderness I wander. Lancaster.


Alas! for man who has no sense

Of all God's gifts, and innocence, am anxious to obtain information about a

But still rejects and raves; badge which has in the centre a cameo of Whoni all God's love can scarcely win the Duke of Wellington, and is mounted in One soul from taking pride in sin, a wreath of laurel leaves (the mounting is

And pleasure over graves. not gold, nor_is the cameo real). In front

JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. is engraved " Peace, 1814," and on the back, “RADDIDOO.” — Can any of your readers “Watier's, July 1st, 1814." It formerly be- tell me the origin of this curious word? I longed to an old lady whose husband had have known it all my life, but have never fought under the Duke of Wellington, and heard it used anywhere but in the East it had been given to him by a Peninsular Riding of Yorkshire. It means a wideawake friend (name unknown). Can any reader of hat such as the plough lads used to wear. I 'N. & Q. supply information about a dinner had not heard the word for many years until or entertainment that took place at Watier's the other day; but on inquiry I find it is still Club on that date, and tell me why badges were in fairly common use in this locality. Prof. given?. Although Gronow's, Recollections,' Wright does not appear to have it in his *The Life of Beau Brummell,Old and New admirable 'Dialect Dictionary;' London,' and various books refer to the club,

M. Ü. F. MORRIS. no mention is made of any entertainment Nunburnholme Rectory, York. there on that date. The badge has been shown to Messrs. Spink and to the officials

G. WOOD, CLOCKMAKER. I should feel of the British Museum, but neither had seen obliged if some of your readers would give one like it before, nor could give any infor- me information respecting G. Wood, clockmation about it. I hope that my appeal to maker, of Nailsworth, Gloucestershire. 'N. & Q.' may meet with more success.

JOHN RADCLIFFE. (Hon. Miss) EMILY WINN. Furlane, Greenfield, Oldham. Appleby Hall, Doncaster.

DAVID RAMSAY. – I possess & copy of « THE PILGRIM OF ETERNITY.”—How came “ Military Memoirs of Great Britain ; or, & Byron to be so called ?


History of the War, 1755-1763. By David

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