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died as infants; Joseph, a lieutenant of Engineers, was killed at Tarifa, in Spain, on the last day of 1811, and a tablet to his memory was placed in the church at Gibraltar; George, the youngest son, in the accountant's office in the East India House, died on 2 February, 1815, aged nineteen, and was buried in St. Pancras churchyard. The other children were Frances, Mrs. Hall, d. 5 December, 1845, aged sixty-seven; Elizabeth, Mrs. de Berniere, d. January, 1859, aged seventy-nine; Charlotte, Mrs. Jeffery, d. March, 1868, aged eighty-seven; Sophia, Mrs. Davenport, d. 7 May, 1860, aged seventyeight; Anna Maria, Mrs. Lloyd, d. 26 February, 1852, aged sixty-eight; William, Fellow of St. John's Coll., Camb., and Chancery barrister, d. 1 March, 1846, aged sixty; John, major Royal Artillery, d. Governor of the Isle of Dominica, June, 1839, aged fiftythree; Charles Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 27 October, 1868, aged seventyfour; Catherine, d. February, 1870; Martha, d. October, 1872; Rosamond, Mrs. Lynn Smart, d. March, 1841, aged forty-nine.

Longley was the author of (1) America, an Ode' (anon.), 1776, which I identify with 'America, an Ode to the People of England,' Lond., Almon, 1776, quarto, noticed in The Monthly Review, July, 1776, p. 72. (2) Defence of Archdeacon Law in Reply to a Kentish Curate' (ie., Thomas Francklin, see 'D.N.B.'), who animadverted on Law's visitation charge (anon.), 1780. (3) 'An Essay towards forming a More Complete Representation of the Commons of Great Britain,' 1795. It was dedicated to William Smith (of Norwich), the Hon. Thomas Erskine, and the other members of the Society of the Friends of the People, and in it he exposed the delusions under which the American war had been popular for a time and the exaggerations of Ministers on the danger from events in France. Many of the provisions which he advocated (e.g., vote by ballot and the trial of contested elections by a separate legal body) have been adopted; but more (such as biennial elections, all elections on one fixed day, and but one vote to be allowed to each citizen) are still unaccomplished. The essay was the production of a Whig and something more. On p. 13 he acknowledges his obligations to the teaching of Burgh. (4) The Case of the Hop Planters under the Additional Duty of 1802' (Rochester, 1803). He contended that the tax was "contrary to the soundest principles of political economy." This tract is not in the Library of the British Museum. (5) Observations on the Trial by Jury, particularly on the Unanimity required

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in the Verdict.' This was reissued in The Pamphleteer, No. x., May, 1815, and was pirated at Edinburgh "when the Bill for the introduction of the trial by jury in civil cases in Scotland was before Parliament, and great efforts were made to get rid of the unanimity." The last three pamphlets bear his name. W. P. COURTNEY.

NOUNS AND VERBS DIFFERENTLY
PRONOUNCED.

the verb to accent by a difference of stress; I WE distinguish between the sb. accent and propose to discuss this on a future occasion. and the verb to use by employing a voiceless We also distinguish between the sb. use

s in the former case and a voiced z in the latter. I observe the following note in Latham's Grammar,' ch. xviii. :

"Verbs formed from nouns by changing a final sharp consonant into its corresponding flat one; as use, sb. to use, vb.; breath, to breathe; cloth, to clothe."

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No explanation is offered; and the true facts are concealed. There is no such thing as this alleged changing," "but only a natural difference at a most remote period. The difference has existed throughout the whole period of literary English. A little reflection will show that the spoken forms of the sb. and the vb. were always distinct from the first. The sb. use is the Norman us (with the s sound) from Lat. usum, accus. The s was voiceless because it was final; and the addition of e in the written E. form did not alter its sound. But the Norman verb was user, and the Middle English verb was usen, both being dissyllabic. Here the s was necessarily pronounced as a voiced z, because it was intervocalic, having a vowel after it as well as before it; and this is the whole of the secret. Even when the n of the infinitive mood was lost, and the infinitive thus became monosyllabic, there remained several forms such as useth, using, uses, used (dissyllabic), in which the s was still a z; and all that was needed to distinguish the verb from the sb. was to go on as before. Very striking in this connexion is the employment of uses as a pl. sb., because here the pronunciation of the singular was faithfully retained; whilst he uses (with z) is verbal. But the process was perfectly natural, and quite inevitable, wherever distinctness was at all desired.

The same explanation applies to all similar cases. Thus breath has the voiceless_th, because it is final. But in the M.E. brethen. to breathe, the th was intervocalic, as it still remains in the pres. participle breathing and in the pp. breath-ed in archaic pronunciation.

No nightly trance or breath-ed spell Inspires the pale-eyed priest from the prophetic cell. It will now be readily understood that the natural distinction between such sbs. and their related verbs has been preserved from former times for the sake of keeping them apart. And it follows that, wherever such distinction exists, it is always the sb. that has the voiceless consonant, and never the verb. Other examples are: advice, advise; device, devise; bath, bathe; sheath, sheathe; wreath, wreathe; loath, loathe; sooth, soothe; troth, betroth (pron. betrothe); mouth, mouthe. So, also, loss, lose; house, house (pron. houz); abuse, excuse; réfuse, refúse; mouse, mouse (to catch mice); thief, thieve; belief, believe; wife, wive; safe, save; relief, relieve; calf, calve; half, halve; strife, strive; grief, grieve; proof, prove. And compare chief with achieve. For a like reason we have loaves as the plural of loaf, from the A.-S. hläfas, pl. of hlaf. An interesting example is the adj. leavy, derived from leaf. Shakespeare knew that leavy formed a perfect rime with heavy; both words were then pronounced with the ea as in great. But Pope altered the reading leauy (1623) to leafy, as Mr. Aldis Wright duly notes; see 'Much Ado,' II. iii. 75. That is what comes of meddling.

WALTER W. SKEAT.

LOOPING THE LOOP: FLYING OR CENTRI

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FUGAL RAILWAY: WHIRL OF DEATH.

Nor very long ago a performance called Looping the Loop" was to be seen in London ( date and place). A man on a cycle went down a steep track, up and down a circle, and finished on a steep incline. At the top of the circle the man and the cycle were, of course, upside down.

On 15 April in Paris, at the Casino de Paris, Mlle. Marcelle Randall died after going through a performance called "The Whirl of Death." She had repeated the performance successfully during several weeks. She used to start in a small 9 h.-p. motor car, in which she was strapped, from the top of a track inclined nearly at 45 degrees. The track just before reaching the stage turned slightly upwards, then stopped short. When the car reached the bottom of the track a powerful spring was let loose, projecting the vehicle upwards and forwards in such a way that the car, with the girl strapped in it, turned a complete somersault in the air, then fell down on a padded track further along the stage, by which it ran to the level. Mlle. Randall's death was due to chronic heart disease, directly hastened by

the violent shocks undergone in her performances (see Daily Telegraph and Daily News of 17 April). The somersault appears to have been substituted for the circular track.

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Looping the Loop was no new thing when it was recently exhibited in London. I have an advertisement of

Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly. The Railway consists "The Flying Railway now exhibiting at the of two Inclined Planes, and a Circle of between 40 or [sic] 50 feet in circumference, rising 14 feet Line 150 feet in length. The Carriage descends the perpendicular from the floor, making the whole Line, passes the Circle, and ascends the other inclined Plane, travelling at the rate of 100 Miles per Hour. Large Iron Weights, and Buckets of Water, glide majestically down the Plane, pass the Circle, and although completely turned upside down, land without a drop being spilt. A Lady or Gentleman will be continually in attendance, and will descend the Line, make the Grand Tour of the Splendid Circle Head Downmost, Which is the most Fearful, Daring, and Astonishing Feat ever accomplished," At the top of the advertisement is a picture of the railway, with one carriage at the top of the circle upside down, and another just finishing the journey. The date written by some one at the foot is 1850.

&c.

A centrifugal railway must have been shown before this, as one is referred to in 'The Comic Album: a Book for Every Table,' London, Wm. S. Orr & Co., Amen Corner, tion T (the book is not paged). The article Paternoster Row, 1843, sixth page of Secbegins as follows:

tion of man's ingenuity to turn things upside down, "The Centrifugal Railway Is a practical illustraand while he laughs at its wonderful effects, he is constrained to acknowledge the centre of gravity! A person making a revolution is like a man on the brink of bankruptcy, who rushes down the inclined

plane at the rate of one hundred miles an hour."

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x. 366 (November, 1902) Old Humphrey's account in 1843 of the Centrifugal Railway. At 9th S. xi. 337 MR. ABRAHAMS further quoted the description of the railway given in a handbill in the Granger Collection at the Guildhall, and referred to an advertisement in The Times of 8 July, 1842, announcing the opening of the Centrifugal Railway at the exhibition in Great Windmill Street. The "Patent Signal Telegraph" was also shown in 1842. We ourselves witnessed the Centrifugal Railway in action about the period named, 1842-3.]

THE AMIR OF AFGHANISTAN'S TITLE.-A short time ago an Irish member of Parliament, of inquiring mind and philological tendencies, asked the Secretary of State for India whether he was aware that the Amir had been erroneously described as Siraj-ulmillat-wa-ud-din in a Parliamentary Paper; whether he should have been set out as Siraju-'Imillat wa'd-din; and whether he was aware that the name Habibulla is a contraction for Habibu Allah. Now, although any member of the House of Commons is prepared to assume the responsibilities of an empire at a day's notice, our Constitution does not provide that he should master the intricacies of an Oriental language in the same brief space of time, and the Secretary of State, being unversed in the tongues, was compelled to have recourse to a "high authority," who, in guarded language, in formed him that the transliteration of the Amir's title indicated by the hon. member might be considered more correct, as a matter of scholarship, than that adopted by the Government of India, but that the transliteration of the Amir's name indicated by the hon. member was less correct_than that adopted by the Government of India. It will be observed that the "high authority" cautiously refrained from going beyond the comparative degree. Had he wished to say what was 66 quite correct," he would have informed the Secretary of State that, as a matter of scholarship, the Amir's title was Siraju-l-millati wa-'d-dini, and that in colloquial Arabic it was Siraju-'l-milla wa-'d-din, the title signifying Lamp of Religion and the Faith. Our ancestors of the days of Sir Roger Dowler would doubtless have called his Majesty (until recently his Highness) Sir Roger Miller Deane. The name of the Amir is, of course, Habibu-llah, which means the Beloved of Allah. It is satisfactory to know that no further action will be taken in this important matter.

W. F. PRIDEAUX.

"RISING OF THE LIGHTS. "" (See 8th S. vi. 308, 415, 516.)-The contributors who, at these references, fully explain the meaning

and historical use of this phrase, treat it as obsolete; but, like many old English expressions, it survives in the United States. In Miss Alice Hegan Rice's wonderfully successful Kentucky story 'Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch,' first printed in England in 1902, the resourceful heroine, as she critically surveys the horse in a fit, exclaims: "I'll tell you what's the matter with him: his lights is riz." And she proceeds to administer as medicine "what appeared to be a large marble," and which she explains to be a camomile pill, which strikingly recalls the old-fashioned remedies for this complaint, described at the last reference by MR. ASTLEY. ALFRED F. ROBBINS.

[MR. ASTLEY treated the expression as current.] OLORENSHAW FAMILY.-I shall be glad to correspond with any one who is collecting particulars of this family. I have a few notes, which I am desirous of augmenting. JOHN T. PAGE. West Haddon, Northamptonshire.

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JACOBITE REBELS.-In the British Museum is a List of Persons engaged in the Rebellion in Scotland, showing their Places of Abode, their Present Place of Residence, 1764. The reference is Add. MS. 19,796.

In my own MSS. I have lists of the political prisoners transported in 1716 to Virginia, Jamaica, Maryland, South Carolina, Antigua, and St. Christopher's. The total number of them is 623. My collections show that in 1747 a still larger number of rebels were sent to the Leeward Islands, Jamaica, Maryland, and Barbadoes.

I have no doubt that many Americans at the present day, if they knew that their emigrant ancestors had been Jacobites, would be proud of the fact. GERALD FOTHERGILL.

11, Brussels Road, New Wandsworth.

JOHN JULIUS ANGERSTEIN.-The 'D.N.B.' (i. 416) says of this worthy that he was born in 1735, was of Russian extraction, and at the age of fifteen came first to England. Some account of his birth and parentage will be found in the following paragraph, copied from a biography of Catherine II. in The Lady's Magazine for January, 1836, "partly translated from the French of the Duchess d'Abrantés":

she [the Empress Elizabeth] was the mother of "Such was the degeneracy in those days that several illegitimate children, who were taken privately from the palace. One of these, the son of resident at St. Petersburgh, was noted in England a very handsome Englishman, a Russia merchant, for his great munificence and noble person, and as a princely patron of the fine arts. His name will

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be long remembered as the founder of a gallery of born at Arbigland, Kirkcudbright, 6 July, paintings. The story goes that, when a babe, this 1747. gentleman was let down in a basket from a window in the Empress's palace at St. Petersburgh, and endowed, by his imperial mother, with a fortune of 100,000 roubles of gold. This fortune was well improved by his father, who brought the princely boy up as a merchant; and when of age, he made in this country such a prudent and benevolent use of his vast means, that his name will be placed in our annals as the rival, in good deeds, of our Greshams and Herriots [sic]. He died full of years and honours, in England, in 1813. His daughter, the beautiful Julia Aprince; and his son follows the steps of his father married a Russian in England."

1813 is a misprint for 1823, in which year, on 22 January, Angerstein died at Woodlands, his villa at Blackheath, having retired from business twelve years previously.

R. L. MORETON.

GARIBALDI: ORIGIN OF THE NAME.-The Pall Mall Gazette, in a recent article on Mazzini and Garibaldi, remarked :

"In their very physical characteristics there was the most marked difference between the two great men, Garibaldi, reddish-haired, clear blue-eyed, sedate in his manners, had nothing of the typical Italian. His very name, meaning 'bold in war,' showed his non-Italian, Germanic descent. Dukes in Bavaria once bore the name of Garibald. In England, even, there is, to this day, a Garboldisham the Home or Settlement of some Angle or Saxon Chieftain." Garboldisham is a village in South Norfolk, 8 miles east of Thetford, with a population of 640 persons.

Garibaldi was of Genovese or Ligurian descent, or possibly a Fleming. Mark Antony Garibaldo was a Flemish painter of some celebrity, 1620-90. JOHN HEBB.

DEAN STANLEY'S POEM 'THE GIPSIES.'I possess two quite separate early editions of this Newdigate Prize poem, 66 recited in the Theatre, Oxford, June 7, 1837." They are both printed by J. Vincent, of Oxford. The first edition is dated 1837; the second, 1842. The second is not merely a reprint, but quite distinct. The first contains eighteen pages and a little over; the second, fifteen pages. They both belonged to the collection of the late Edward Hawkins, F.S.A., of the British Museum.

Lancaster.

T. CANN HUGHES, M.A., F.S.A.

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Messrs. Dean & Son, of Fleet Street, published about thirty years ago, in their "Deeds of Daring Library," a life of Paul Jones. I have urged upon the firm to republish this book; but it is and, possibly, they have not an out of print," copy to "re-comp. is appreciative, if a trifle severe. I understand that (according to the papers) the doubted-"shall these dry bones live?" I identity" of Paul Jones's bones is gravely exhibit-the remains of great men or women, do not see why we should disinter—and as we did in the case of Rameses II. Why not let them rest in peace?

"from. This biography

HERBERT B. CLAYTON.

39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. [Arbigland is in Kirkbean parish, so that there is no contradiction between the statements in the 'D.N.B.' and Blackie's 'Popular Encyclopædia.' Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles' mentions under "Arbigland" that Paul Jones was born there, and under "Kirkbean" that he was a native of the parish.]

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"MR."-Under The Office Window' in The Daily Chronicle of the 17th inst., a correspondent raises the question, “When does a 'Mr.' cease to be a Mr.'?" I think the rule of The Athenaeum is a good one, which confines the prefix to living people. A. N. ૨.

Queries.

WE must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that answers may be sent to them direct.

LIVERPOOL PRINTED BOOKS: DR. HOOD.

Can any of your Liverpool or other readers throw light on the authorship of two books printed at Liverpool "by James Smith for the author" in 1822

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The first is entitled 'Creation: a Poem,' by the author of Primum Mobile,' &c. preface is dated August, 1822, and states, A few copies only of the following Poem are printed for the author's private use and circulation." What was the size of the edition? The poem is in two sections, 'Celestial' (books i., ii., and iii.) and 'Terrestrial' (books iv., v., and vi.). It contains 240 pages, and bears evidence that the author was acquainted with Killarney and Bantry Bay. My copy is bound in boards, with a paper label, Creation, a Poem,' on the back. The author implies that, if called for, another

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6.

WELLINGTON BADGE: WATIER'S, 1814.-I am anxious to obtain information about a badge which has in the centre a cameo of the Duke of Wellington, and is mounted in a wreath of laurel leaves (the mounting is not gold, nor is the cameo real). In front is engraved Peace, 1814," and on the back, "Watier's, July 1st, 1814." It formerly be longed to an old lady whose husband had fought under the Duke of Wellington, and it had been given to him by a Peninsular friend (name unknown). Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' supply information about a dinner or entertainment that took place at Watier's Club on that date, and tell me why badges were given? Although Gronow's Recollections,' The Life of Beau Brummell,' 'Old and New London,' and various books refer to the club, no mention is made of any entertainment there on that date. The badge has been shown to Messrs. Spink and to the officials of the British Museum, but neither had seen one like it before, nor could give any information about it. I hope that my appeal to 'N. & Q.' may meet with more success.

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GLEN FAMILY.-I was much interested in MR. GORDON GOODWIN's notice of this family James Glen, the colonial (10th S. iii. 485). governor, is said to have had a sister Elizabeth who married James Gordon, the laird of Ellon, Aberdeenshire (no relation whatever to the present laird of the same name). This James was either the brother or the father of Mary Gordon, who married in 1771 James Balfour, of Blanerne, and thus became the Prime Minister's ancestor. Were these Ellon Gordons any relation to Alexander Gordon, the antiquary mentioned by MR. GOODWIN ? and what was the precise connexion between James Glen and the Ellon Gordons? J. M. BULLOCH.

118, Pall Mall.

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"RADDIDOO." Can any of your readers tell me the origin of this curious word? I have known it all my life, but have never heard it used anywhere but in the East Riding of Yorkshire. It means a wideawake hat such as the plough lads used to wear. had not heard the word for many years until the other day; but on inquiry I find it is still in fairly common use in this locality. Prof. Wright does not appear to have it in his admirable 'Dialect Dictionary.' M. C. F. MORRIS.

Nunburnholme Rectory, York.

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Furlane, Greenfield, Oldham. (Hon. Miss) EMILY WINN.

Appleby Hall, Doncaster.

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DAVID RAMSAY. I possess a copy of "Military Memoirs of Great Britain; or, a History of the War, 1755-1763. By David

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