always used wooden dishes and cups of horn; at table he would set apart the best morsels for the poor in what he called the dish of the Lord Jesus.' He died the father of twelve thousand religious."

In a foot-note Owen quotes Bolland as his authority, and adds :—

"It may interest some to learn that the Lady Gwenllian, daughter of the last Keltic Prince of Wales, by his consort, Eleanor De Montfort, ended her days as a nun of Sempringham, pensioned by her kinsman Edward II. It was a cheap provision." HARRY HEMS.

Fair Park, Exeter.

A little before the birth of Gilbert his mother dreamt, it is said, that the moon had come down from the sky to rest upon her bosom; and the fanciful disciple sees in it a presage that his childhood, pale, wan, and sickly as the crescent of the new moon, was destined by the grace of the Sun of righteousness to expand into a full orb of brightness. (See Newman's 'Lives of the English Saints,' vol. iv. pp. 17, 18.) Albinus, St. Gilbert's faithful chaplain, told how Gilbert was tortured by ague, and when he urged him to try to shake it off, Gilbert asked him if he would bear it for him. Albinus consented. On the morrow, at the hour when the fever came, Albinus suffered instead of Gilbert, that he might learn "how control over diseases lies not in the skill of man, but in the power of God" ("St. Gilbert of Sempringham and the Gilbertines,' by Rose Graham, F.R.Hist. Soc., 1901, p. 15 seq.).

J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. See Alban Butler's 'Lives of the Saints,' 4 February.


[Reply also from MATILDA POLLARD.] PREROGATIVE Court of CanTERBURY WILL REGISTERS (10th S. iii. 488).-The official copies of wills proved in this court prior to those now at Somerset House, London, commencing in 1383, are said to have been lost or destroyed in Wat Tyler's Rebellion. But I have some doubt as to the truth of the assertion. Those to be met with in the Archbishops' Registers were proved during vacancies in the see. Such of the latter invaluable records as are now missing at Lambeth would probably be met with at Rome, and it seems a great pity that our Government has not made every possible effort to obtain their return, or, at least, an attested copy of them. W. I. R. V.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL QUERIES (10th S. iii. 227, 292, 473).—When there is much doubt about the size of the leaves would it not be more

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The following early eighteenth century allusions to the game, before the evolution of the present square-shouldered bat from the club, and when the "gamesters," instead of "making runs,' ran notches," have not, I think, been noted :

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"On Monday is to be determined a Suit of Law on Dartford-Heath by a Cricket Match between the Men of Chinkford, and Mr. Steed's Men; they had a Hearing about two Years ago before the Lord Chief Justice Pratt, when the Merits of the Cause appear'd to be, that at a Match between the abovesaid Players, the Chinkford Men refused to play

out the Game at a time the other Side had the Advantage; but the Judge, either not understanding the Game, or having forgot it, referr'd the said Cause back to Dartford Heath, to be play'd on where they left off, and a Rule of Court was made for it accordingly."-Mist's Weekly Journal, 3 September, 1726.

"On Monday next there will be a great CricketMatch play'd on Kennington Common, in the County of Surrey, between the Gentlemen of Sevenoaks, in the County of Kent, and the Gentle men of London; the Ground will be roped round, and all Persons are desired to keep without side of the same; the Match is for a Guinea a Man, and the Wickets are to be pitch'd by One o'Clock."London Evening Post, 2 July, 1734.

"On saturday last the great cricket-match was played at Moulseyhurst, in Surry, between his royal highness the Prince of Wales, and the Earl of Middlesex, for 1,000l. a side; eight of the London club and three out of Middlesex play'd for the Prince; and the Kentish men for the Earl: the chiefest of the wagers were laid on the first hands, apprehending there would not be time to play it out; and the Londoners went in first and fetch'd 95; then the Kentish men went in and fetch[ed?] 80; upon which the odds ran ten to three on the former, who went in a second time, and fetch'd but 41, which made them in all only 56 [in advance], so that the Kentish men beat them, and had three men to come in: to-morrow fortnight the second great match for 1,000l. a side is to be play'd on Bromley Common, in Kent; and we hear the whole eleven who are to play for the Prince will be chosen out of the London club."-The Grub Street Journal, 17 July, 1735.

"On Wednesday last a Match at Cricket was play'd at Barnes Common, between the Gentlemen of Barnes, Fulham, and Richmond on the one Side, and the Gentlemen of London on the other, when the Londoners were beat 19 Notches; and the same Gentlemen will play again in the Fields behind Powis House on Tuesday next, the 17th Instant."St. James's Evening Post, 12 August, 1736.

"On Monday last, according to agreement, the Gentlemen of Kent and Surrey met on Cock-Heath, near Maidstone, to play their second Match at Cricket, when the Surrey Gamesters were in first, and play'd one hands out [?], on which the Kentish Men went in next, and got an equal Number of Notches with five Wickets to spare; but the Weather proving very rainy they were forced to give over Play; so that the Surrey Men must retain their Honour for this Year, the Season being too far advanced for any more of that Sport."St. James's Evening Post, 5 October, 1736.

As to the imputed French origin of cricket, see Mr. Andrew Lang on 'France the Mother of Cricket' in The Morning Post, 6 July, 1901. J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL.

Although the earliest mention of the term "cricket" may be traced back only to 1598, the origin of the game is undoubtedly much


It is on record that so far back as the

time of Edward II. his tutor John Leek was in 1305 drawing 100 shillings from the Treasury for expenses "ad creag et alios ludos per vices." Whether the game of " creag was the origin of cricket is, of course, uncertain.

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The games of cricket, rounders, and American base-ball are believed to be offshoots of the old English "club-ball." Rymer, in referring to the decline of archery

temp. Edward III., says: That art is now neglected, and the people spend their time in throwing stones, wood, or iron; in playing at the hand-ball, foot-ball, or club-ball, &c." It has also been suggested that tip-cat was the origin of cricket. G. H. W.

[For other early cricket matches see 9th S. iii. 273; iv. 17; 10th S. i. 145, 395. At the last reference W. I. R. V. quoted advertisements of matches in 1700 (ten a side) and 1705 (eleven a side).]

WILLIAM III.'s CHARGERS AT THE BATTLE OF THE BOYNE (10th S. ii. 321, 370, 415, 453; iii. 137).-Owing to the transposition of the date, it is stated at the last reference that the skull of the Duke of Schomberg was turned up in 1902. It was discovered by some workmen fifty years previously, and reburied in 1902. Vide The Cathedral Church of St. Patrick,' by J. H. Bernard, D.D. (London, Bell & Sons, 1903).

I may also point out that there is an illustration and a phrenological description of the skull in Ireland, its Scenery. Character, &c.,' by Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall, vol. ii. p. 441 (London, How & Parsons, 1841-3), where appears the following account of the finding of the skull :

"A very intelligent person, a verger of St. Patrick's Cathedral......states that when he was quite a boy the vault at the left of the altar, in the chancel, was opened by mistake, and that one of Mike Manus, took possession of the skull; and the persons connected with the Cathedral, named being a heraldic painter, he absolutely used it for ceased to be applied to so irreverent a purpose." At Manus's death it some time as a paint pot. As Hamlet remarked, "To what base uses we may return, Horatio!" HENRY GERALD HOPE. 119, Elms Road, Clapham, S. W.

PRISONERS' CLOTHES AS PERQUISITES (10th S. iii. 369,472).-Offenders had various claimants to their possessions. Looking through old papers a few days ago, I found the following, being the original document :

"30 June, 1600. Grant by Anthony Watson, Bishop of Chichester, to Edward Hext, Esqre., of felon's goods, viz., those of Nicolas Baker, of Somerton, Somersetshire, yeoman, who killed himself, for the benefit of the widow and children."

There was certainly one more grant of a similar kind among the papers, but this I did H. A. ST. J. M.

not copy.

"THERE SHALL NO TEMPESTS BLOW" (10th S iii. 449; iv. 12).--The poem cited, beginning, as MR. KENYON says, "Come to the sunset tree," is Mrs. Hemans's 'Evening Song of the Tyrolese Peasants,' and is the eleventh of the author's Additional Miscellaneous Poems." In a note appended to the lyric she quotes

thus from Capt. Sherer's 'Notes and Reflections during a Ramble in Germany': "The loved hour of repose is striking. Let us come to the sunset tree."

The poem beginning "For the strength of the hills we bless Thee" is Mrs. Hemans's 'Hymn of the Vaudois Mountaineers in Times of Persecution,' and is included in the 'Scenes and Hymns of Life,' which she dedicated to Wordsworth in 1834. THOMAS BAyne.


66 PELFRY USED BY JOHNSON (10th S. ii. 267).—The other day I noticed the query by DR. MURRAY under this head, which no one appears to have answered. Allow me to suggest that Pegge inadvertently wrote pelfry" for palfry, a word which occurs in Johnson's Diary' under date 17 August, 1782. DR. GATTY inserted a query respecting this at 8th S. vii. 227, and I quoted in reply at p. 257 the editorial suggestion at 3rd S. xi. 177 that what Johnson really wrote was "pastry," the long s being mistaken for 1, and the t for f. W. T. LYNN.

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"King John to the Sheriff of Nottingham. Kuow ye that we have given and granted to the brethren of the Military Order of the Temple the service of Eustace de Lowdham, clerk, to wit, the rent that he was wont to render us yearly for his house that he held of us, in the parish of St. Mary, under the gaol in Nottingham, and that house shall be their free hospice in that town. And therefore we order thee to cause them to have full seisin thereof without delay."

The gaol mentioned was the county gaol, situate on the crest of the town cliff, while the Marsh was, and is, a street skirting the base of the latter, hence the description 66 under the gaol." In all probability the house or hospice, like many another Nottingham tenement of the period, was merely a cave in the sand rock. However, we are not to understand that the Templars had an establishment in Nottingham, but merely that they were to have one house in the town, as in other towns, free from taxes, &c. This was one of their privileges.

I understand that when the order of Templars was dissolved in 1307-8 their possessions were largely granted to the Hospitallers. This seems to explain a note in

the accounts of the Nottingham chamberlains for 1499-1500, wherein entry is made of an item of "6d. paid to the Prior of St. John of Jerusalem in England for the free rent of a little cellar in the Marsh this year." At the Reformation the Hospitallers were the last important order dissolved; and as they resolutely refused to renounce allegiance to Rome, a special Act was obtained to make them, 32 Henry VIII. (1540-1). This Act had doubtless taken effect, and the whole property of the order become vested in the Crown, the town chamberlains include an item of 6d. before 1543-4, in which year the accounts of paid for a house in the Narrow Marsh, sometime "to William Monk, the king's bailiff, belonging to St. John's." A. STAPLETON. 244, Radford Road, Nottingham.

BLACK AND YELLOW THE DEVIL'S COLOURS (10th S. iv. 10).-Satan's colour, not only in rerum natura, but in actual art, is black, symbolizing darkness and evil, falsehood and error. He is so represented in the 'Book of Kells' in a temptation of our Lord (Westwood, 'Anglo-Saxon and Irish MSS.'). The illuminators of the Middle Ages represent even Christ Himself in black drapery when wrestling against the Spirit of Evil. In the Laurentian MS. of Rabula (A.D. 587) there is an extraordinary representation of the demoniacs of Gadara, just delivered from their tormenting spirits, who are fluttering away in the form of little black humanities of mischievous expression. They are also black in the only instance known to Father Martigny of a representation of the miracle of the healing of the demoniac. (See the Rev. Rich. St. John Tyrwhitt in Smith's 'Dict. of Christ. Antiq.) Reginald Scot, in his 'Discoverie of Witchcraft,' 1665, p. 85, was terrified in his childhood by the devil with a skin like a niger."

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But it is easy to comprehend how black and yellow were occasionally, if not traditionally, assigned to the devil, for in our own day yellow denotes inconstancy, jealousy, &c., and in France the doors of traitors were daubed with yellow, while in some countries the law ordained that Jews should be clothed in yellow, because they had betrayed Christ. Perhaps all this was because Judas is allotted a yellow pigment by way of distinction; and in Spain the vestments of the executioner treason of the guilty, the former its punishare red or yellow, the latter indicating the J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL.


COPE OF BRAMSHILL (10th S. iii. 87, 174).-— Cope of Hanwell, co. Oxford, as noted p. 174. See The English Baronetage,' London,

printed for Tho. Wotton, 1741, vol. i. p. 112. There is an account of the family, beginning with John Cope, Esq., "a very eminent person in the reigns of K. Rich. II. and Hen. IV." His great-grandson William, in or about 1505, purchased the manor of Hanwell, after selling the lordships and manors of Wormleighton and Fenny Compton to John Spencer, Esq. (ancestor of the Duke of Marlborough).

Sir Anthony Cope, first baronet, was the great-grandson of William. The English Baronetage' gives (p. 113) the inscription on the monument of William Cope and Jane his wife in the church of Banbury, and (p. 116) that of Sir Anthony in the church of Hanwell. Both are in Latin. The latter is very long; it contains more than twenty elegiac On p. 119 is given the Latin epitaph of Sir Anthony, fourth baronet, who was buried at Hanwell.


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Douce, the famous antiquary, Keeper of the MSS. in the British Museum. Thomas Kerrich, the only son of the afore-mentioned Samuel, also a noted antiquary and ecclesiastic, is responsible for a large portion of a collection the value and extent of which we are not as yet in a position to gauge. The families most closely concerned with the entire correspondence are those of Rogerson, Postlethwayt, Gooch, and Kerrich. The letters now given are addressed by Edmund Pyle, Archdeacon of York and Prebendary of Winchester, to the aforementioned Samuel Kerrich, and constitute but a fraction of the collection. Their chief value consists, probably, in the light they cast upon history and politics, but there is abundance of interest in domestic record. Much is heard concerning sickness. Cancer is direfully prevalent, gout is the bane of the ecclesiastic and the scholar, and the ravages of the smallpox are terrible. Owing to the Methuen Port Wine Treaty of 1703 the relative proportions of Portuguese and French wine imported into England were 95 per cent. of the former and 5 per cent. of the latter. Hence, says the editor, "gout became the hereditary appanage of the English gentleman." Among other subjects There is no mention of the purchase of treated are the injurious effects of the augmented Bramshill, but "Bramsell, near Hertford-window tax, the trouble caused by the Marriage Act of 26 George II., and the grumbling against the Bridge, in Hampshire," appears as the "seat" New Style. A picturesque incident is the slaying of the present (1741) baronet. The same book in a duel of Lord Leicester by George, Viscount (iv. 152) says that Jonathan, younger son of Townshend, a man thirty years his junior and Sir Anthony, had a son Jonathan, whose son accustomed to arms, a murder which Mr. HartsJonathan was created a baronet 1 March, horne compares with that of the Duke of Hamilton by Mohun and Macartney. Concerning the suicide 1714, Sir Jonathan Cope of Brewern (or of Lord Montford, who had an expensive and Brewerne), Oxfordshire. "Seats: At Brewern, paltry fellow for his son," Pyle says, "It is a pity near Banbury, and Hanwell in Oxfordshire, but he had done this twenty-five years ago, for he has made all the young nobility mad after ganibling." and Ranton-Abby, in Staffordshire." Much curious gossip is supplied, as the false report that "the Duke of Bedford had caught his duchess napping with a gallant & shot the man upon the spot." Pyle's avidity after preferment, and his general regard for the main chance, are abundantly He does not refrain on occasion from shown. coarse speech. Some occasional light upon the evil lives of the clergy is, indeed, shed. The Eagle Stone of Rogerson is a curious relic of superstition. An amusing story, almost supplying a plot for a.comedy, is told, p. 110, concerning Mrs. Clarges and her daughters Penelope and Suky. Another curious piece of scandal is the elopement of Lord Townshend's daughter with Capt. Orme, a NOTES ON BOOKS, &c. married man. Reflecting on our national manners, Memoirs of a Royal Chaplain, 1729-1763. Edited it is said then, as it has often since been repeated, by Albert Hartshorne. (Lane.) that we are mad and considered nationally not THIS work, which may be regarded as the first of a worth saving." The death of Dean Clerke is attripossible series, is of a kind to appeal with more buted to "an ague; caught by living in that vile than usual directness to our readers. It consists of damp close of Salisbury, which is a mere sink; and the correspondence of Edmund Pyle, D.D., Chap-going to a church, daily that is as wet as any vault; lain in Ordinary to George II., with Samuel Ker- and which has destroyed more, perhaps, than ever rich, D.D., vicar of Dersingham, &c., and casts a it saved. Whatever be the tastes of the reader, bright light upon existence in East Anglia during especially if they be antiquarian, he will find Georgian days. Not wholly confined to the district abundance to recreate and delight him. Portraits mentioned is the interest of the contents, and there of Kerrich, Pyle, Bishops Hoadly, Gooch, and are large portions which are of much more than Sherlock, the Duke of Newcastle, Pitt, George local value. From the preface we learn that the Townshend, and Lord Walpole add to the attraccorrespondence printed constitutes a portion of a tions of a captivating volume. collection of about seven thousand letters, which have been arranged by the owner in no fewer than twenty-eight folio volumes. One or two go back to 1633; the latest, which extend to 1828, comprise two volumes of letters from Francis

The fourth baronet of this creation, Sir Jonathan, second son of Jonathan, the eldest son of the first baronet, died without issue, and the title became extinct in 1821. See 'Synopsis of the Extinct Baronetage,' by William Courthope, 1835, p. 50.




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Scotland in the Time of Queen Mary. By P. Hume
Brown, LL.D. (Methuen & Co.)

THIS excellent and deeply interesting volume con-
sists of six lectures delivered by Dr. Hunie Brown

in his capacity of Professor of Ancient Scottish History and Palæography in the University of Edinburgh. No attempt is made in its pages to deal with the events which make Scottish history in medieval and succeeding days the most turbulent and picturesque in Europe, nor with the grim struggle of the Reformation. The aim of the writer is simply to show the condition, social, physical, and economic, of Scotland at or near the time of Mary Stewart-what, indeed, was the state of things out of which sprang the Scotland of today. Questions of religion and policy, adequately treated elsewhere, are thrust so completely into the background that, after the introductory portion, the name of John Knox is but once mentioned and that of Mary Stewart herself but twice. As a companion to the student, however, the value of the work can scarcely be overestimated, and the picture of life, settled or vagabond, is of singular interest. In dealing, more tardily than we could have wished, with a work possessing strong claims on attention, we cau but mention, as they rise, points of interest, and abandon the attempt to do justice to the entire scheme of the author. Chap. i. is concerned with the appearance of the country at a time when the journey of a native of St. Andrews into Galloway or the Highlands would be attended by as many risks as in modern days would accompany an exploration of the sources of the Congo, and when, consequently, locomotion was rarely adopted without urgent necessity. Materials are more abundant than might have been anticipated, and besides the records of such experienced travellers as Lithgow, Pont, and Fynes Moryson, and historians such as Hector Boece, John Major, and George Buchanan, we have information of varying trustworthiness "from neas Sylvius in the fifteenth century to Dr. Johnson in the eighteenth," including French visitors, who seem to have been more anxious to be courteous than sincere. Many comment upon the want of timber, the sneer of Sir Anthony Weldon in 1617, that Judas could not have found in Scotland a tree on which to hang himself, having been, if tradition may be trusted, transmitted in another form, a century and a half later, by Johnson. It is surprising, in view of the state of things now existing, to learn that in preReformation times the eel was the fish most commonly eaten in Scotland.

On her arrival in Fife in 1538 Mary of Lorraine told her subsequent husband, James V., that she never saw in France or elsewhere so many good faces as she saw that day in Scotland. Broadly speaking, the most fertile parts of the country under cultivation were put to a similar use in the time of Mary. A French physician notes about 1551 that provisions are as plentiful as anywhere else, and that nothing is scarce but money. Eneas Sylvius says that a Scottish palace is inferior in comfort and luxury to the house of a Nuremberg burgher. At the close of the fourteenth century Edinburgh did not contain more than 400 houses, and, according to Froissart, was less than Tournai or Valenciennes. It was healthy, and impressed strangers favourably; but the inhabitants were most sluttish, nasty, and slothful people," the visitor being constantly compelled to "hold his nose. It is curious to find the example of Glasgow anticipated in 1436, when it was enacted that drinking in taverns after nine o'clock should be punishable at law. In 1579 gambling and drinking on Sundays "in time of sermon were punished.

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Sturdy beggars seem to have been as common in Scotland as masterless men 99 in England. The beggars in the English ballad, which seems incorrectly quoted at p. 68, we always understood to be actors or the like, rather than mendicants. description (p. 89) of the scene at the town port is stirring, An application for leave to build a ship. in the kirkyard of the Trinity Friars (see p. 96) is very curious. Three pages later on we are introduced to a bishop, a remarkable specimen of the Church militant. Among the public amusements provided by the town officials seems to have been the annual frolic of Robin Hood and Little John on the first of May." We might proceed far with quotations of the kind, but must stop. We have dealt with matter conducive to entertainment; but there is equally much behind tending to instruction and edification. The book is, in fact, excellent in all respects.


County of Suffolk: its History as disclosed by Existing Records, &c. By W. A. Copinger, LL.D. Vols. II., III., and IV. (Sotheran & Co.) SINCE we first drew attention (10th S. ii. 218) to the splendid work begun by Dr. Copinger in his catalogue of all materials for the history of the county of Suffolk existing in our great public and private depositories, three further volumes have been added. Judging from the progress that has been made, the four volumes carrying the alphabet from A to Soxam, it seems probable that the whole, instead of extending, as we anticipated, over six volumes, will be comprised in five. The latest volume, which contains over 482 pages, is, however, the bulkiest of the lot. Nothing in the shape of eulogy or comment has to be added to what has previously been said. The task is one of the most important ever accomplished by what may bedescribed as local patriotism, and is carried out with unflinching industry and integrity. It is next to impossible to convey an idea of the nature of the entries. Students of history, genealogy, and topography, for whom the work is principally intended, will, however, need no instruction on the subject. Under place-names such as Eye, Ipswich, and the like, the most numerous entries are found. Next, perhaps, in order, sed longo intervallo, comenames of families, such as Cavendish, Gage, or Henley, and then those of individuals. These last can scarcely be regarded as numerous, except in thecase of holdings of land. The reference concerning "Gorleston, its history, N. & Q.,' xii. 286, 355, is technically correct. Trouble would, however, have been spared others besides ourselves by the insertion of 1st S. Nothing is further from our mind than to hint at shortcomings in so magnificent, public-spirited, and well-executed an undertaking. Under Cotton Manor we find the mention of Sir John Fastolf (sic). Crabbe the poet, miscalled by Byron "Nature's sternest painter, yet the best," is supplied with what is almost a bibliography_as well as a reference to his pedigree. His Inebri[e]ty,' a poem, was published at Ipswich in 1775. Romance seems near at hand when, under 'Outlaws in Suffolk,' we hear of a commission being appointed to inquire touching who assemble armed and lie in wait for John de Tudenham, late sheriff of that county, and his bailiffs, to kill and maim them. Occasionally we come upon a significant entry such as "Newton Lothingland (now destroyed by sea)." Thomas Nash, the dramatist, born at Lowestoft in 1564, is the subject of many entries, all

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