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lished that Teutonic and Aryan pet-names were formed, amongst other means, by using the first stem of the compound or full name. Hence we expect to find an A.-S. Beorht the origin of the name Bright. This name does occur in its Northumbrian form Bercht, Berct, Berecht, no fewer than fourteen times in the Liber Vitæ Dunelmensis.' It is Latinized as Berctus in Bede, 'H. E.,' iv. 26. There are many Middle-English examples of compound names wherein Beorht occurs in its correct M.E. form as Bryzt, &c. So that local names in Bright contain no evidence whatever of Celtic occupation.

MR. ADDY next finds traces of Welsh settlements in the local names Wales and Waleswood. There are many similar names, such as Walesby, Waleston, Walsham, Walsall (*Weales-heall), on the English maps.* There is a Wales-burna mentioned in 872 (Cartularium Saxonicum,' ii. 152, 19). There is also a Vals-gard and Vals-bol in Denmark; here it is plain that Val (=O.N. *Valr (pl. Valir), A.-S. Wealh) cannot refer to the Welsh. MR. ADDY is no doubt correct in deriving Wal from the A.S. wealh, gen. weales; but the deduction that he draws is wrong. This A.-S. wealh means a foreigner generally (specialized in England as a "Welshman"), and also a slave. Indeed, the corresponding fem. wielen is applied almost exclusively to slaves or handmaids. So far we see that it is far from certain that Wealh in these names means Welshman, for it is just as likely to mean "slave." But it does not mean either. MR. ADDY cites in support of his view the Hitchin field-name "Welshman's Croft." But we do not know the age of this name nor its original form, and it is extremely risky to found etymologies upon modern forms without consulting the old spellings. Here is an apposite instance of this danger. The Lincolnshire Walesby is situted in Walsh-croft wapentake. This looks "Welsh" enough! But a reference to Domesday shows that the wapentake was then known as Walescros; so we see that the Walsh has arisen from the dropping of the e of the gen., the coalescence of the s of the gen. and the c of the cros, and the subsequent palatalization of the sc. Hence the genesis of the Walsh is clear enough.

In any other science than etymology it is needless to insist upon the danger of arguing from particulars. The danger is just as great in etymology, though not so generally recognized. The following instances reveal this danger. If we find the

*In Walsham and Walsall the a has been labialized by the subsequent 7. In the other cases the e has prevented this labialization.

†There is also a Vals-fjord in Norway.

In this article, where I give the modern orthography of local names, it is to be understood that that orthography is confirmed by Domesday or some other early authority.

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nationality of the settlers of one village recorded, why should we not find other nationalities similarly recorded? Let us see whither MR. ADDY'S method of evolving history from local names will lead us. We will test our local names by some other national names besides Wealh. We are not surprised to find the Saxons (A.-S. Seaxe) recorded in Sax-by, Sax-ton, Sax-ham, but it rather astonishes us to find them in the purely Anglian districts. And we may expect to find the name of the Danes (A.-S. Dene) recorded, as we do in such names as Den-by, Dens-ton, Denaby, &c., for we are well aware that the Danes did settle in England. But what is the meaning of the gen. sing. in Dens-ton? In the light of our accepted history we hardly expect to find the Suevi, the Huns, the Franks, or the Vandals established upon English soil. Yet we find distinct traces of their names in our local nomenclature. The name of the Suevi occurs in Swaves-ey, Swafield, the two Swaff-hams, and in the Domesday Sueves-bi and Suave-torp, and in Swefes healh or heall, in 'Cart. Saxon.,' ii. 490, 15. These names come clearly enough from the A.-S. *Swa'f, pl. Swa'fas, or the corresponding O.N. *Sváfr.+ The name of the Huns is preserved in Hun-shelf, Hun-cote, Huns-bury, Hunscoat, Hun-worth, &c., and in Húnes-cnoll (Cart. Saxon.,' ii. 603, 33) and Hunnes-wiell (id., i. 559, 20). The name of the Franks is recorded in Frank-ley and in the two Frank-tons. The Vandals (A.-S. *Wendel, gen. *Wendles, pl. Wendlas) are commemorated in Uuendles-clif (Cart. Saxon.,' i. 341, 11, 34), Wandles-cumb§ (Cod. Dipl.,' vi. 120, 15), Wendle-bury, and in Windsor (Wendles-ore, Windles-ora; Cod. Dipl.,' iv. 165, 9; 178, 19).|| And we must conclude from Pyhtes-léa (Pytchley) of 'Cod. Dipl.,' iii. 439, 14, that even the Picts had a settlement in A.-S. times in Northamptonshire!

The results that we have arrived at are truly alarming. Very few historians will be found ready to accept conclusions that involve a Suevic, a Hunnish, a Frankish, and a Vandal participation in the English Conquest. All these names must stand or fall together. If we admit that the local names in Wales are proof of distinct Celtic settlements in English districts, then, also, must we be prepared to believe that the Sueves, Huns, Franks,

*Their name also occurs in the Danish Sax-trup (trup=thorpe).

This is preserved in the Danish Svave-sted. Here we have a Suevic village in Denmark!

Cf. also the Danish Franke-rup (=Frank-thorpe). The a of Wandles has arisen from the common confusion in late A.-S. MSS. of e and a. Hence Wandles Wendles.

These instances are from charters of dubious authenticity, but the form of the name agrees with the twelfth and thirteenth century Windlesora, &c. The etymology "winding-shore" is a wild guess. It is, however, adopted by Dr. Taylor in that seges errorum, ' Words and Places,'

and Vandals had similar villages inhabited solely find an actual instance, apart from the evidence of by men of their own tribe.* It is evident, there- local names, of the use of these pet forms. The fore, that we must reject MR. ADDY's line of argu- evidence being ample that the Anglo-Saxons used ment unless we are prepared to rewrite our early all the above stems in compounding full names, history. I hold that these names no more prove we are, I hold, entitled to assume that they also the existence of such national or tribal settle-used these stems alone as pet forms. For instance, ments than the name of the present King of Italy proves that he is a Hun.

we know that Wealh was used in full names; therefore we can at once assume a pet-name Wealh. The accuracy of our principles is at once established by the occurrence of this very name in the following instances: a.d. 696–713, Walh presbyter, 'Cart.

id., i. 131, 27; a.d. 757, Uales, gen., id., i. 262, 14; A.D. 777-9, Wales, gen., id., i. 313, 13; 325, 10; A.D. 800-900, Walch, 'Liber Vita Dunelm.,' 20, col. 3; A.D. 805-31, Wealh, 'Cart. Saxon.,' i. 445, 26. I have instances of the use of the pet forms Hún and Dene, and the existence of Swa'f is proved by the Swa'fes-healh or heall of 'Cart. Sax.,' ii. 490, 15; but so far I have not met with instances of the names Franc, Wendel, and Seax. But as these names are regular formations from authenticated name-stems, and as they are preserved and recorded in local names, there is not the slightest reason to doubt their having existed.

What, then, is the explanation of these names? My answer is that it is to be found in the AngloSaxon system of personal names, which is, in truth, the key to the etymology of a large pro-Saxon.,' i. 131, 27; A.D. 696-716, Walh presbyter, portion of our local names. Every one of the above names is derived from a personal name embodying a national name. The Teutonic tribes adopted tribal and national names—such as Angle, Goth, Frank, Saxon, Sueve, Vandal, Dane, Hun, &c.-as name-stems; that is, they were freely compounded with other stems to form personal names. Adopting the same principle, the Anglo-Saxóns similarly used Piht, a Pict. The name-stem Wealh was, no doubt, used by them long before they made acquaintance with the Welsh. Jordanes, c. xiv., records a fourth century Vala-rauans,t an ancestor of Theodoric the Great. The *Walhs of this name cannot, it is evident, refer to either the Welsh or the Italians, but relates to some other non-Teutonic race, whose acquaintance the Teutons had made at a much earlier date. These names compounded with national names were, of course, subject to the same laws as the other Teutonic names. Hence the first stem could be used as a pet or diminutive form. It is this practice that accounts for the appearance of these national names in our English local names. In other words, local names in Weales-, Swa'fes, Hunes-, Denes-, Wendles-, &c., are simply derived from men named Wealh, Swa'f, Hún, Dene, Wendel, &c.; or, to put it more accurately, from men whose full names began with these stems.

They Simi

To show the fallacy of MR. ADDY's arguments it is only necessary to consider that most of the Normantons are older than the Norman conquest, and hence cannot record Norman settlements. are derived from the name Nord-mann. larly the Nottinghamshire Saxon-dale does not record a Saxon settlement, but is derived from the personal name Seax-a, masc., or *Seax-e, fem., gen. masc. and fem. Seax-an.

The notion that Gestfield, and Sibbfield, record a Celtic occupation is surely one of the most absurd arguments that has been produced even by the "Celtic" etymologists. It is astonishing enough to hear of separate Welsh and English villages in A.-S. times; but the idea of separate settlements in the fields of one village, distinguished as the English, and the "foes' field "= Welsh, is one that very few people will be able to swallow. W. H. STEVENSON.

I have maintained upon several occasions that it is only necessary for us to know that a certain" friends' field stem was used in compounding personal names to enable us to assume, with reasonable certainty, that that stem was used alone as a pet form. I have been assailed for this by those who were not acquainted with the principles of the Teutonic name-system; but every day confirms me more and more in my opinion. It is not always possible to

This is, practically, the view adopted by Dr. Taylor

in 'Words and Places.'

This represents a Gothic Wala-hrabns, A.-S. *Weath-hrafn, O.H.G. Walah-hraban. The High German or Frankish form of this name is familiar to us in the Norman Waleran or the French Gualeran. The name Balcho-baudes in Ammianus Marcellinus, xxvii. 2, 6, is, according to Dietrich, from the stem Walho-z.

The impossibility of interpreting these personal names as having any ethnic origin is shown by the A.-S. names Wealh-hún and Piht-hun, where we have two natural names in each compound.

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'FAME'S MEMORIALL,' BY JOHN FORD. Ford's dull and pompous lament for Charles Blount, Baron Mountjoy, who was created Earl of Devonshire in 1603 by James I., has suffered a general, and perhaps merited neglect. I wish to call attention, however, to a few points connected with it, which may not be without interest either to the biographical or bibliographical student. The subject of the poem, it will be remembered, was for some years before his death a lover of Lady Rich, better known as Sir Philip Sidney's "Stella." This lady lived from the first very unhappily with her husband, and about Nov. 15, 1605, she obtained a divorce from him. On December 26 following

she was married to the Earl of Devonshire at Wanstead, in Essex, by William Laud, at that time his chaplain.

This event caused considerable scandal at Court, where before both parties had enjoyed great favour. The legality of the marriage was disputed, and in turn defended by the earl in a learned protest addressed to the king. James remained obdurate, and when the earl died, April 3, 1606, the heralds, it is said, refused to quarter his wife's arms on his tomb. Public opinion, however, was divided. Lamentations for the deceased appeared as usual, and among them was what seems to be Ford's first poetical effort. A MS. of 'Fame's Memoriall' is preserved in the Bodleian Library (Malone, 238). It is a beautifully written small quarto. When purchased, Malone says in a note, it had gilt edges, and is in all probability the actual copy presented to the widowed countess. A comparison of this MS. with the first edition, printed by Christopher Purset, 1606, and, I believe, all subsequent editions, reveals three stanzas more in the MS., 151 against 148, and different, apparently contradictory, dedications. I will notice the latter first. After a few lines common to both, the Epistle Dedicatory (which, by the way, is quaintly addressed to the "Rightlie right Honorable Ladie, the ladie Penelope Countesse of Deuonshire") in the MS. runs :

"Yet ere I committed it to the presse (for fame vndiuulged is an hidden minerall) being vnknowne vnto you, I might haue beene imputed as much impudent as fond if I had not first presented it to yo' milder view: Earnest to vnderstand whether your acceptation and liking may priuiledge the passe vnder your honorable conduct: wch if it may, I shall deeme my willing paines, (though hitherto confined to the Inns of Court a Studie different) highlie guerdoned; and myne vnfeathered Muse richlie graced wth y Plumes of soe worthie a protectresse, The honourer & Louer of your Noble perfections, John Ford."

The parallel passage in the first edition runs :"Let not therefore (worthie Countesse) my rasher presumption seem presumptuous folly, in the eyes of your discreeter iudegment, in that without your priuitie (being a meere straunger alltogether vnknowne to you) I haue thus aduentured to shelter my lines vnder the well-guided conduct of your Honorable name: grounding my boldnes upon this assurance that true ge'tility is euer acco'panyd (especially in your sex, more specially in your selfe) with her inseparable adiunct singular Humanity, principally towards those whom neither Mercenary hopes or seruile flattery haue induced to speake but with the Priuiledge of troth...... Thus (Madame) presuming on your acceptance I will think my willing paines," &c.

late husband, and this view is supported by the
fact that the three verses omitted from the printed
edition are more directly addressed to her and
more personal than any others in the work. The
second especially describes very forcibly the con-
trast between Lady Devonshire's position at Court
before and after her second marriage. The differ-
ences between MS. and printed text gain in
interest if we may conclude that they were desired
by her. The following are the omitted stanzas.
They occur after the verse beginning “O sad
disgrace" (v. 94), which, with the previous one,
is slightly altered from the original MS. :—
Lyue thou vntoucht foreuer aboue fame !
More happie yt thou canst not be more haplesse !
The wordes of malice are an vsual game,
Whose mouth is lawlesse, whose invention saplesse,
Their breast of hony tornes to poison paplesse
Still be thine eares to sufferance tun'd readie
In mynde resolu'd in resolution stedie.
What hee, amongst the proudest of contempt
Whiles as thy sunshine lasted, did not bend
Vnto thy presence? flattery redempt
Wth seruice on their seruice did attend?
All stryving to admire, protest, comend,
Wch now by imputation black as hell
They seeme to derrogate from dooing well.
Thy virtue caus'd thy honor to support thee
In noble contract of vndoubted merit,
His knowledge to his credence did report thee
A creature of a more then female sperit,
Concord of musick did thy soule inherit,
Courtiers but counterfeit thy Rarity
For thy perfections brookt no parity.
The next verse begins as in the printed editions,
"Even as a quire."
RACHAEL POOLE.

ALE-TASTERS.-I think the following is worthy of preservation in 'N. & Q.':—

"A correspondent of the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle gives the following particulars concerning the last of the ale-tasters :-The late Richard Taylor, of Bacup (the aletaster of Rossendale), may with propriety be described as 'the last of the ale tasters.' His proper calling was that of a spindlemaker, hence his nickname Spindle Dick'; and the curious will find allusions to him in the 'History of Rossendale.' He was a fellow of infinite humour, and performed his duties to his lord and the halmot jury as if to the manner born, as the following extract from one of his annual reports will testify:-The appointment which I hold is a very ancient one, dating (as you are aware) from the time of the good King Alfred, when the jury at the court leet appointed their head-boroughs, tithing men, bursholder, and ale-taster, which appointments were again regulated in the time of King Edward The two dedications, I have said, appear contra- III., and through neglect this important office to a beerdictory. But it seems most unlikely that Ford imbibing population ought not to be suffered to fall into should have abstained from presenting his lament beer is meat, drink, and washing; do away with the office disrepute or oblivion......To some Rossendale men, indeed, to the Countess of Devonshire after having it of ale-taster, an inferior quality of the beverage may be copied by a professional transcriber for the pur-sold, and the consequent waste of tissue would be awful pose. The explanation is probably that Lady Devonshire disliked to appear to sanction the publication of a poem which treated very frankly various matters concerning herself and her

to contemplate......In my district there are fifty-five licensed public-houses and sixty-five beer-houses. The and calculated to prevent the deterioration of tissue, and quality of beer retailed at these houses is generally good, I do not detect any signs of adulteration.' When dis

charging his high functions, Dick carried in his coat of the name was partly brought about by the fact pocket a pewter gill measure, of peculiar old-world shape, that Pliny speaks also of a Chalcedonian jasper with a turned ebony wood handle in the form of a cross that projected straight from the middle of the side. This(Nat. Hist.,' xxxvii. 37). But it is not likely that symbol of his office was secured by a leathern thong about the third stone in the foundation of the New Jeruhalf a yard in length, one end being round the handle, salem was the "chalcedonius" described by Pliny the other through a button-hole in his coat. As might (Nat. Hist.,' xxxvii. 18). The fourth stone was the be expected, he was occasionally summoned before the ouápaydos, translated "emerald" in our versions. Bench on the charge of being drunk and incapable; to The third is called xaλkηdúv in most of the MSS., this he alluded in his report:-'I have even been dragged before a subordinate court and fined five shillings and costs but there are other readings, externally indeed of whilst fulfilling the duties of my office. In a wide and no great authority, which make it very probable populous district the duties when conscientiously per- that the original reading was kapynov, the Greek formed were more than mortal stomach could bear un-word for Carthage, from which a species of the carharmed; in the words of the good ale-conner, 'deterioration of tissue' was certain to ensue. The last of the ale-bunculus or carbuncle was called "carchedonius," tasters died, a mart to duty, on October 10, 1876."

Eastbourne.

WALTER KIrkland.

the high priest), from its supposed resemblance to a live coal, and the Latin name is derived in a similar manner from "carbo" (Pliny, in loc. cit., a similitudine ignium appellati").

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propter opulentiam Carthaginis magnæ" (Pliny, 'Hist. Nat., xxxvii. 25). The carbuncle was called avopaέ by the Greek writers (that name occurs in the Septuagint, Ex. xxviii. 18, where the stone A CURE FOR WHOOPING COUGH.-The follow-composes one of the twelve on the breastplate of ing appeared in the Edinburgh Evening News of Saturday, May 14, 1887. Maryhill, the scene of the incident described, is a large and important suburb of Glasgow; indeed, it is practically an integral portion of the "second city." Perhaps readers will say whether anything of a similar character has recently come under their notice :"On Thursday a travelling candyman and rag-gatherer, with a cart drawn by an ass, drew up in front of a row of houses know as Pirrat's Row, a little off the highway at Maryhill, Glasgow. Two children living in this quarter are suffering from whooping cough, After a short conversation with the proprietor of the ass, the mothers of the two children took up a position one on each side of the animal. One woman then took one of the children and passed it below the ass's belly to the other woman, the child's face being towards the ground. The woman on the other side caught hold of the child, and, giving it a gentle somersault, handed it back to the other woman over the ass, the child's face being turned towards the sky. The process having been repeated three times, the child was taken away to the house, and then the second child was similarly treated. While this was going on two other children were brought to undergo the magical cure. In order that the operation may have its due effect the ass must not be forgotten, and at the close of the ceremony each mother must carry her child to the head of the animal, and allow it to eat something, such as bread or biscuits, out of the child's lap. This proceeding having been performed in turn by the four mothers, the prescribed course was concluded. When it began there were not many people present, but before it was finished quite a crowd of spectators had gathered. From inquiries made yesterday morning, and again last night, it seems the mothers are thoroughly satisfied that their children

are the better of the enchantment."

Helensburgh, N.B.

THOMAS BAYNE.

CHALCEDONY, CARBUNCLE.-It is well known that the precious stone called chalcedony in Rev. xxi. 19 is not the stone which now goes by that name, and is popularly called "white carnelian." The "chalcedonius" of Pliny was an inferior kind of smaragdus or emerald, found in the coppermines near Chalcedon. Mr. King thinks ('Precious Stones and Gems,' p. 158) that the transference

Attention was called to the probability of kapxndov being the true reading in Rev. xxi. 19 by a "London Physician" in a very interesting little work published by him a few years ago under the title 'The Precious Stones of the Bible.' It is evident that this was also the opinion of Mr. King, who seems to have fallen into the error of supposing that the translators of the Authorized Version took the same view. "Epiphanius," he says (Precious Stones and Gems,' p. 157), "and the Vulgate render xaλknowv, the third stone in the foundations of the New Jerusalem, by smaragdus, but the Authorized Version translates it buncle."" The Authorized Version, the Douay, and the Revised Version all call it "chalcedony," and the Vulgate has "chalcedonius," the fourth stone being the "smaragdus," from the Greek μápaydos, correctly translated in the English versions "emerald." W. T. LYNN.

car

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL AND COLLEGE MAGAZINES.-Such a bibliography is still a desideratum. The following is the result of some gleanings in this field, which the readers of N. & Q.' may be able to increase.

The Student; or, the Oxford and Cambridge Monthly Magazine. 2 vols. 8vo., Oxford, 17501751. This is the first college magazine I have come across. Lowndes gives "Tho. Warton, Smart, Bonnel Thorton, Geo. Colman, and Dr. Sam. Johnson" as the contributors. An annotated copy exists in the Dyce Collection.

The Microcosm: a Periodical Work by Gregory Griffin, of the College of Eton. Windsor, 1786.This magazine, to which the four principal writers were John Smith, Robert Smith, George Canning, and John Hookham Frere, ran through at least four editions, the fourth appearing in 1809.

lished that Teutonic and Aryan pet-names were formed, amongst other means, by using the first stem of the compound or full name. Hence we expect to find an A.-S. Beorht the origin of the name Bright. This name does occur in its Northumbrian form Bercht, Berct, Berecht, no fewer than fourteen times in the Liber Vitæ Dunel- | mensis.' It is Latinized as Berctus in_Bede, ‘H. E.,' iv. 26. There are many Middle-English examples of compound names wherein Beorht occurs in its correct M.E. form as Bryzt, &c. So that local names in Bright contain no evidence whatever of Celtic occupation.

nationality of the settlers of one village recorded, why should we not find other nationalities similarly recorded? Let us see whither MR. ADDY'S method of evolving history from local names will lead us. We will test our local names by some other national names besides Wealh. We are not surprised to find the Saxons (A.-S. Seaxe) recorded in Sax-by, Sax-ton, Sax-ham,* but it rather astonishes us to find them in the purely Anglian districts. And we may expect to find the name of the Danes (A.-S. Dene) recorded, as we do in such names as Den-by, Dens-ton, Denaby, &c., for we are well aware that the Danes did settle in EngMR. ADDY next finds traces of Welsh settle- land. But what is the meaning of the gen. sing. ments in the local names Wales and Waleswood. in Dens-ton? In the light of our accepted history There are many similar names, such as Walesby, we hardly expect to find the Suevi, the Huns, the Waleston, Walsham, Walsall (*Weales-heall), on Franks, or the Vandals established upon English the English maps.* There is a Wales-burna soil. Yet we find distinct traces of their names in mentioned in 872 (Cartularium Saxonicum,' ii. our local nomenclature. The name of the Suevi 152, 19). There is also a Vals-gard and Vals-bol occurs in Swaves-ey, Swafield, the two Swaff-hams, in Denmark; here it is plain that Val (=O.N. and in the Domesday Sueves-bi and Suave-torp, *Valr (pl. Valir), A.-S. Wealh) cannot refer to and in Swifes healh or heall, in 'Cart. Saxon.,' ii. the Welsh.t MR. ADDY is no doubt correct in 490, 15. These names come clearly enough from deriving Wal from the A.S. wealh, gen. weales; the A.-S. *Swa'f, pl. Swa'fas, or the correspondbut the deduction that he draws is wrong. This ing O.N. *Sváfr. The name of the Huns is preA.-S. wealh means a foreigner generally (specialized served in Hun-shelf, Hun-cote, Huns-bury, Hunsin England as a "Welshman"), and also a slave. coat, Hun-worth, &c., and in Húnes-cnoll (Cart. Indeed, the corresponding fem. wielen is applied Saxon.,' ii. 603, 33) and Húnnes-wiell (id., i. 559, almost exclusively to slaves or handmaids. So 20). The name of the Franks is recorded in far we see that it is far from certain that Wealh Frank-ley and in the two Frank-tons.‡ The in these names means Welshman, for it is just as Vandals (A.-S. *Wendel, gen. *Wendles, pl. likely to mean slave." But it does not mean Wendlas) are commemorated in Uuendles-clif either. MR. ADDY cites in support of his view (Cart. Saxon.,' i. 341, 11, 34), Wandles-cumb§ the Hitchin field-name "Welshman's Croft." But('Cod. Dipl.,' vi. 120, 15), Wendle-bury, and in we do not know the age of this name nor its original form, and it is extremely risky to found etymologies upon modern forms without consulting the old spellings. Here is an apposite instance of this danger. The Lincolnshire Walesby is situted in Walsh-croft wapentake. This looks "Welsh" enough! But a reference to Domesday shows that the wapentake was then known as Walescros; so we see that the Walsh has arisen from the dropping of the e of the gen., the coalescence of the s of the gen. and the c of the cros, and the subsequent palatalization of the sc. Hence the genesis of the Walsh is clear enough.

66

In any other science than etymology it is needless to insist upon the danger of arguing from particulars. The danger is just as great in etymology, though not so generally recognized. The following instances reveal this danger. If we find the

*In Walsham and Walsall the a has been labialized by the subsequent l. In the other cases the e has prevented this labialization.

There is also a Vals-fjord in Norway.

In this article, where I give the modern orthography of local names, it is to be understood that that orthography is confirmed by Domesday or some other early authority.

Windsor (Wendles-ore, Windles-ora; 'Cod. Dipl.,' iv. 165, 9; 178, 19).|| And we must conclude from Pyhtes-léa (Pytchley) of 'Cod. Dipl.,' iii. 439, 14, that even the Picts had a settlement in A.-S. times in Northamptonshire!

The results that we have arrived at are truly alarming. Very few historians will be found ready to accept conclusions that involve a Suevic, a Hunnish, a Frankish, and a Vandal participation in the English Conquest. All these names must stand or fall together. If we admit that the local names in Wales are proof of distinct Celtic settlements in English districts, then, also, must we be prepared to believe that the Sueves, Huns, Franks,

*Their name also occurs in the Danish Sax-trup (trup=thorpe).

This is preserved in the Danish Svave-sted. Here we have a Suevic village in Denmark !

Cf. also the Danish Franke-rup (Frank-thorpe). The a of Wandles has arisen from the common confusion in late A.-S. MSS. of e and a. Hence Wandles Wendles.

These instances are from charters of dubious authenticity, but the form of the name agrees with the twelfth and thirteenth century Windlesora, &c. The etymology "winding-shore " is a wild guess. It is, however, adopted by Dr. Taylor in that seges errorum, Words and Places.'

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